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Geraadpleegd op 30-11-2022. Geldend van 16-08-2012 t/m 11-02-2016
Overeenkomst inzake de bescherming van Afrikaans-Euraziatische trekkende watervogels
The Contracting Parties,
Recalling that the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979, encourages international cooperative action to conserve migratory species;
Recalling further that the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention,
held in Bonn in October 1985, instructed the Secretariat of the Convention to take
appropriate measures to develop an Agreement on Western Palearctic Anatidae;
Considering that migratory waterbirds constitute an important part of the global biological
diversity which, in keeping with the spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, and Agenda 21 should be conserved for the benefit of present and future generations;
Aware of the economic, social, cultural and recreational benefits accruing from the
taking of certain species of migratory waterbirds and of the environmental, ecological,
genetic, scientific, aesthetic, recreational, cultural, educational, social and economic
values of waterbirds in general;
Convinced that any taking of migratory waterbirds must be conducted on a sustainable
basis, taking into account the conservation status of the species concerned over their
entire range as well as their biological characteristics;
Conscious that migratory waterbirds are particularly vulnerable because they migrate
over long distances and are dependent on networks of wetlands that are decreasing
in extent and becoming degraded through non-sustainable human activities, as is expressed
in the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat,
Recognizing the need to take immediate action to stop the decline of migratory waterbird
species and their habitats in the geographic area of the African-Eurasian waterbird
Convinced that the conclusion of a multilateral Agreement and its implementation through
coordinated or concerted action will contribute significantly to the conservation
of migratory waterbirds and their habitats in the most efficient manner, and will
have ancillary benefits for many other species of animals and plants; and
Acknowledging that effective implementation of such an Agreement will require assistance
to be provided to some Range States for research, training and monitoring of migratory
waterbird species and their habitats, for the management of those habitats as well
as for the establishment or improvement of scientific and administrative institutions
for the implementation of this Agreement,
Have agreed as follows:
1 The geographic scope of this Agreement is the area of the migration systems of African-Eurasian
waterbirds, as defined in Annex 1 to this Agreement, hereafter referred to as the
2 For the purpose of this Agreement:
a) “Convention” means the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979;
b) “Convention Secretariat” means the body established under Article IX of the Convention;
c) “Waterbirds” means those species of birds that are ecologically dependent on wetlands
for at least part of their annual cycle, have a range which lies entirely or partly
within the Agreement Area and are listed in Annex 2 to this Agreement;
d) “Agreement secretariat” means the body established under Article VI, paragraph 7,
subparagraph b), of this Agreement;
e) “Parties” means, unless the context otherwise indicates, Parties to this Agreement;
f) “Parties present and voting” means the Parties present and casting an affirmative
or negative vote; those abstaining from voting shall not be counted amongst the Parties
present and voting.
In addition, the terms defined in Article I, subparagraphs 1(a) to (k), of the Convention shall have the same meaning, mutatis mutandis,in this Agreement.
3 This Agreement is an AGREEMENT within the meaning of Article IV, paragraph 3, of the Convention.
4 The annexes to this Agreement form an integral part thereof. Any reference to the
Agreement includes a reference to its annexes.
1 Parties shall take co-ordinated measures to maintain migratory waterbird species
in a favourable conservation status or to restore them to such a status. To this end,
they shall apply within the limits of their national jurisdiction the measures prescribed
in Article III, together with the specific actions determined in the Action Plan provided
for in Article IV, of this Agreement.
2 In implementing the measures prescribed in paragraph 1 above, Parties should take
into account the precautionary principle.
1 The Parties shall take measures to conserve migratory waterbirds, giving special
attention to endangered species as well as to those with an unfavourable conservation
2 To this end, the Parties shall:
a) accord the same strict protection for endangered migratory waterbird species in the
Agreement Area as is provided for under Article III, paragraphs 4 and 5, of the Convention;
b) ensure that any use of migratory waterbirds is based on an assessment of the best
available knowledge of their ecology and is sustainable for the species as well as
for the ecological systems that support them;
c) identify sites and habitats for migratory waterbirds occurring within their territory
and encourage the protection, management, rehabilitation and restoration of these
sites, in liaison with those bodies listed in Article IX, paragraphs (a) and (b) of
this Agreement, concerned with habitat conservation;
d) coordinate their efforts to ensure that a network of suitable habitats is maintained
or, where appropriate, re-established throughout the entire range of each migratory
waterbird species concerned, in particular where wetlands extend over the area of
more than one Party to this Agreement;
e) investigate problems that are posed or are likely to be posed by human activities
and endeavour to implement remedial measures, including habitat rehabilitation and
restoration, and compensatory measures for loss of habitat;
f) cooperate in emergency situations requiring international concerted action and in
identifying the species of migratory waterbirds which are the most vulnerable to these
situations as well as cooperate in developing appropriate emergency procedures to
provide increased protection to these species in such situations and in the preparation
of guidelines to assist individual Parties in tackling these situations;
g) prohibit the deliberate introduction of non-native waterbird species into the environment
and take all appropriate measures to prevent the unintentional release of such species
if this introduction or release would prejudice the conservation status of wild flora
and fauna; when non-native waterbird species have already been introduced, the Parties
shall take all appropriate measures to prevent these species from becoming a potential
threat to indigenous species;
h) initiate or support research into the biology and ecology of migratory waterbirds
including the harmonization of research and monitoring methods and, where appropriate,
the establishment of joint or cooperative research and monitoring programmes;
i) analyze their training requirements for, inter alia, migratory waterbird surveys, monitoring, ringing and wetland management to identify
priority topics and areas for training and cooperate in the development and provision
of appropriate training programmes;
j) develop and maintain programmes to raise awareness and understanding of migratory
waterbird conservation issues in general and of the particular objectives and provisions
of this Agreement;
k) exchange information and results from research, monitoring, conservation and education
l) cooperate with a view to assisting each other to implement this Agreement, particularly
in the areas of research and monitoring.
1 An Action Plan is appended as Annex 3 to this Agreement. It specifies actions which
the Parties shall undertake in relation to priority species and issues, under the
following headings, consistent with the general conservation measures specified in
Article III of this Agreement:
a) species conservation;
b) habitat conservation;
c) management of human activities;
d) research and monitoring;
e) education and information; and
2 The Action Plan shall be reviewed at each ordinary session of the Meeting of the
Parties, taking into account the Conservation Guidelines.
3 Any amendment to the Action Plan shall be adopted by the Meeting of the Parties,
taking into consideration the provisions of Article III of this Agreement.
4 The Conservation Guidelines shall be submitted to the Meeting of the Parties for
adoption at its first session, and shall be regularly reviewed.
1 Each Party shall:
a) designate the Authority or Authorities to implement this Agreement which shall, inter alia, monitor all activities that may have impact on the conservation status of those migratory
waterbird species of which the Party is a Range State;
b) designate a contact point for the other Parties, and communicate without delay its
name and address to the Agreement secretariat to be circulated forthwith to the other
c) prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties, beginning with the
second session, a report on its implementation of the Agreement with particular reference
to the conservation measures it has undertaken. The format of such reports shall be
determined by the first session of the Meeting of the Parties and reviewed as may
be necessary at any subsequent session of the Meeting of the Parties. Each report
shall be submitted to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and twenty
days before the ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties for which it has been
prepared, and copies shall be circulated forthwith to the other Parties by the Agreement
a) Each Party shall contribute to the budget of the Agreement in accordance with the
United Nations scale of assessment. The contributions shall be restricted to a maximum
of 25 per cent of the total budget for any Party that is a Range State. No regional
economic integration organization shall be required to contribute more than 2.5 per
cent of the administrative costs.
b) Decisions relating to the budget and any changes to the scale of assessment that may
be found necessary shall be adopted by the Meeting of the Parties by consensus.
3 The Meeting of the Parties may establish a conservation fund from voluntary contributions
of Parties or from any other source for the purpose of financing monitoring, research,
training and projects relating to the conservation, including protection and management,
of migratory waterbirds.
4 Parties are encouraged to provide training and technical and financial support to
other Parties on a multilateral or bilateral basis to assist them in implementing
the provisions of this Agreement.
1 The Meeting of the Parties shall be the decision-making body of this Agreement.
2 The Depositary shall, in consultation with the Convention Secretariat, convene a
session of the Meeting of the Parties not later than one year after the date of the
entry into force of this Agreement. Thereafter, the Agreement secretariat shall convene,
in consultation with the Convention Secretariat, ordinary sessions of the Meeting
of the Parties at intervals of not more than three years, unless the Meeting of the
Parties decides otherwise. Where it is possible to do so, such sessions should be
held in conjunction with the ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties to
3 On the written request of at least one third of the Parties, the Agreement secretariat
shall convene an extraordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties.
4 The United Nations, its Specialized Agencies, the International Atomic Energy Agency,
any State not a Party to the Agreement, and the secretariats of international conventions
concerned inter alia with the conservation, including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds
may be represented by observers in sessions of the Meeting of the Parties. Any agency
or body technically qualified in such conservation matters or in research on migratory
waterbirds may also be represented at sessions of the Meeting of the Parties by observers,
unless at least one third of the Parties present object.
5 Only Parties have the right to vote. Each Party shall have one vote, but regional
economic integration organizations which are Parties to this Agreement shall, in matters
within their competence, exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal
to the number of their Member States which are Parties to the Agreement. A regional
economic integration organization shall not exercise its right to vote if its Member
States exercise theirs, and vice versa.vice versa.
6 Unless provided otherwise in this Agreement, decisions of the Meeting of the Parties
shall be adopted by consensus or, if consensus cannot be achieved, by a two-thirds
majority of the Parties present and voting.
7 At its first session, the Meeting of the Parties shall:
a) adopt its rules of procedure by consensus;
b) establish an Agreement secretariat within the Convention Secretariat to perform the
secretariat functions listed in Article VIII of this Agreement;
c) establish the Technical Committee provided for in Article VII of this Agreement;
d) adopt a format for the reports to be prepared according to Article V, paragraph 1,
subparagraph c), of this Agreement; and
e) adopt criteria to define emergency situations which require urgent conservation measures,
and determine the modalities for assigning responsibility for action to be taken.
8 At each of its ordinary sessions, the Meeting of the Parties shall:
a) consider actual and potential changes in the conservation status of migratory waterbirds
and the habitats important for their survival, as well as the factors which may affect
b) review the progress made and any difficulty encountered in the implementation of this
c) adopt a budget and consider any matters relating to the financial arrangements for
d) deal with any matter relating to the Agreement secretariat and the membership of the
e) adopt a report for communication to the Parties to this Agreement and to the Conference
of the Parties of the Convention; and
f) determine the time and venue of the next session.
9 At any of its sessions, the Meeting of the Parties may:
a) make recommendations to the Parties as it deems necessary or appropriate;
b) adopt specific actions to improve the effectiveness of this Agreement and, as the
case may be, emergency measures as provided for in Article VII, paragraph 4, of this
c) consider and decide upon proposals to amend this Agreement;
d) amend the Action Plan in accordance with Article IV, paragraph 3, of this Agreement;
e) establish such subsidiary bodies as it deems necessary to assist in the implementation
of this Agreement, in particular for coordination with bodies established under other
international treaties, conventions and agreements with overlapping geographic and
taxonomic coverage; and
f) decide on any other matter relating to the implementation of this Agreement.
1 The Technical Committee shall comprise:
a) nine experts representing different regions of the Agreement Area, in accordance with
a balanced geographical distribution;
b) one representative from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Resources (IUCN), one from the International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau
(IWRB) and one from the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC);
c) one expert from each of the following fields: rural economics, game management, and
The procedure for the appointment of the experts, the term of their appointment and
the procedure for designation of the Chairman of the Technical Committee shall be
determined by the Meeting of the Parties. The Chairman may admit a maximum of four
observers from specialized international inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations.
2 Unless the Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise, meetings of the Technical Committee
shall be convened by the Agreement secretariat in conjunction with each ordinary session
of the Meeting of the Parties and at least once between ordinary sessions of the Meeting
of the Parties.
3 The Technical Committee shall:
a) provide scientific and technical advice and information to the Meeting of the Parties
and, through the Agreement secretariat, to Parties;
b) make recommendations to the Meeting of the Parties concerning the Action Plan, implementation
of the Agreement and further research to be carried out;
c) prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties a report on its activities,
which shall be submitted to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and
twenty days before the session of the Meeting of the Parties, and copies shall be
circulated forthwith by the Agreement secretariat to the Parties; and
d) carry out any other tasks referred to it by the Meeting of the Parties.
4 Where in the opinion of the Technical Committee there has arisen an emergency which
requires the adoption of immediate measures to avoid deterioration of the conservation
status of one or more migratory waterbird species, the Technical Committee may request
the Agreement secretariat to convene urgently a meeting of the Parties concerned.
These Parties shall meet as soon as possible thereafter to establish rapidly a mechanism
to give protection to the species identified as being subject to particularly adverse
threat. Where a recommendation has been adopted at such a meeting, the Parties concerned
shall inform each other and the Agreement secretariat of measures they have taken
to implement it, or of the reasons why the recommendation could not be implemented.
5 The Technical Committee may establish such working groups as may be necessary to
deal with specific tasks.
The functions of the Agreement secretariat shall be:
a) to arrange and service the sessions of the Meeting of the Parties as well as the meetings
of the Technical Committee;
b) to execute the decisions addressed to it by the Meeting of the Parties;
c) to promote and coordinate activities under the Agreement, including the Action Plan,
in accordance with decisions of the Meeting of the Parties;
d) to liaise with non-Party Range States and to facilitate coordination between the Parties
and with international and national organizations, the activities of which are directly
or indirectly relevant to the conservation, including protection and management, of
e) to gather and evaluate information which will further the objectives and implementation
of the Agreement and to arrange for appropriate dissemination of such information;
f) to invite the attention of the Meeting of the Parties to matters pertaining to the
objectives of this Agreement;
g) to circulate copies of the reports of the Authorities referred to in Article V, paragraph
1, subparagraph a), of this Agreement and of the Technical Committee, along with copies
of the reports it must provide pursuant to paragraph (h) of this Article, to each
Party not less than sixty days before the commencement of each ordinary session of
the Meeting of the Parties;
h) to prepare, on an annual basis and for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the
Parties, reports on the work of the secretariat and on the implementation of the Agreement;
i) to administer the budget for the Agreement and, if established, its conservation fund;
j) to provide information for the general public concerning the Agreement and its objectives;
k) to perform such other functions as may be entrusted to it under the Agreement or by
the Meeting of the Parties.
The Agreement secretariat shall consult:
a) on a regular basis, the Convention Secretariat and, where appropriate, the bodies
responsible for the secretariat functions under Agreements concluded pursuant to Article IV, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Convention which are relevant to migratory waterbirds, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 1971, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973, the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources,
1968, the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, 1979, and the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, with a view to the Meeting of the Parties cooperating with the Parties to
these conventions on all matters of common interest and, in particular, in the development
and implementation of the Action Plan;
b) the secretariats of other pertinent conventions and international instruments in respect
of matters of common interest; and
c) other organizations competent in the field of conservation, including protection and
management, of migratory waterbirds and their habitats, as well as in the fields of
research, education and awareness raising.
1 This Agreement may be amended at any ordinary or extraordinary session of the Meeting
of the Parties.
2 Proposals for amendment may be made by any Party.
3 The text of any proposed amendment and the reasons for it shall be communicated to
the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and fifty days before the opening
of the session. The Agreement secretariat shall transmit copies forthwith to the Parties.
Any comments on the text by the Parties shall be communicated to the Agreement secretariat
not less than sixty days before the opening of the session. The Secretariat shall,
as soon as possible after the last day for submission of comments, communicate to
the Parties all comments submitted by that day.
4 An amendment to the Agreement other than an amendment to its annexes shall be adopted
by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting and shall enter into force
for those Parties which have accepted it on the thirtieth day after the date on which
two thirds of the Parties to the Agreement at the date of the adoption of the amendment
have deposited their instruments of acceptance of the amendment with the Depositary.
For each Party which deposits an instrument of acceptance after the date on which
two thirds of the Parties have deposited their instruments of acceptance, the amendment
shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which it deposits its
instrument of acceptance.
5 Any additional annexes and any amendment to an annex shall be adopted by a two-thirds
majority of the Parties present and voting and shall enter into force for all Parties
on the ninetieth day after the date of its adoption by the Meeting of the Parties,
except for Parties which have entered a reservation in accordance with paragraph 6
of this Article.
6 During the period of ninety days provided for in paragraph 5 of this Article, any
Party may by written notification to the Depositary enter a reservation with respect
to an additional annex or an amendment to an annex. Such reservation may be withdrawn
at any time by written notification to the Depositary, and thereupon the additional
annex or the amendment shall enter into force for that Party on the thirtieth day
after the date of withdrawal of the reservation.
1 The provisions of this Agreement do not affect the rights and obligations of any
Party deriving from existing international treaties, conventions or agreements.
2 The provisions of this Agreement shall in no way affect the right of any Party to
maintain or adopt stricter measures for the conservation of migratory waterbirds and
1 Any dispute which may arise between two or more Parties with respect to the interpretation
or application of the provisions of this Agreement shall be subject to negotiation
between the Parties involved in the dispute.
2 If the dispute cannot be resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article,
the Parties may, by mutual consent, submit the dispute to arbitration, in particular
that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague, and the Parties submitting
the dispute shall be bound by the arbitral decision.
1 This Agreement shall be open for signature by any Range State, whether or not areas
under its jurisdiction lie within the Agreement Area, or regional economic integration
organization, at least one member of which is a Range State, either by:
a) signature without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval;
b) signature with reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval, followed
by ratification, acceptance or approval.
2 This Agreement shall remain open for signature at The Hague until the date of its
entry into force.
3 This Agreement shall be open for accession by any Range State or regional economic
integration organization mentioned in paragraph 1 above on and after the date of entry
into force of the Agreement.
4 Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited
with the Depositary.
1 This Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the third month after at
least fourteen Range States or regional economic integration organizations, comprising
at least seven from Africa and seven from Eurasia, have signed without reservation
in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval, or have deposited their instruments
of ratification, acceptance or approval in accordance with Article XIII of this Agreement.
2 For any Range State or regional economic integration organization which has:
a) signed without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance, or approval;
b) ratified, accepted, or approved; or
c) acceded to
this Agreement after the date on which the number of Range States and regional economic
integration organizations necessary to enable entry into force have signed it without
reservation or have ratified, accepted or approved it, this Agreement shall enter
into force on the first day of the third month following the signature without reservation,
or deposit, by that State or organization, of its instrument of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession.
The provisions of this Agreement shall not be subject to general reservations. However,
a specific reservation may be entered by any State or regional economic integration
organization on signature without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance
or approval or, as the case may be, on depositing its instrument of ratification,
acceptance, approval or accession in respect of any species covered by the Agreement
or any specific provision of the Action Plan. Such a reservation may be withdrawn
at any time by the State or regional economic integration organization which had entered
it, by notification in writing to the Depositary; such a State or organization shall
not be bound by the provisions which are the object of the reservation until thirty
days after the date on which the reservation has been withdrawn.
Any Party may denounce this Agreement by written notification to the Depositary at
any time. The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the date on which
the Depositary has received the notification.
1 The original of this Agreement, in the Arabic, English, French and Russian languages,
each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Government of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands which shall be the Depositary. The Depositary shall transmit
certified copies of these versions to all States and regional economic integration
organizations referred to in Article XIII, paragraph 1, of this Agreement, and to
the Agreement secretariat after it has been established.
2 As soon as this Agreement enters into force, a certified copy thereof shall be transmitted
by the Depositary to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication
in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
3 The Depositary shall inform all States and regional economic integration organizations
that have signed or acceded to the Agreement, and the Agreement secretariat, of:
a) any signature;
b) any deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
c) the date of entry into force of this Agreement and of any additional annex as well
as of any amendment to the Agreement or to its annexes;
d) any reservation with respect to an additional annex or to an amendment to an annex;
e) any notification of withdrawal of a reservation; and
f) any notification of denunciation of the Agreement.
The Depositary shall transmit to all States and regional economic integration organizations
that have signed or acceded to this Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat, the
text of any reservation, of any additional annex and of any amendment to the Agreement
or to its annexes.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed
DONE at The Hague, this fifteenth day of August 1996.
The boundary of the Agreement area is defined as follows: from the North Pole south
along the 130°W line of longitude to 75°N; thence east and southeast through Viscount
Melville Sound, Prince Regent Inlet, the Gulf of Boothia, Foxe Basin, Foxe Channel
and Hudson Strait to a point in the northwest Atlantic at 60°N, 60°W; thence southeast
through the northwest Atlantic to a point at 50°N, 30°W; thence south along the 30°W
line of longitude to 10°N; thence southeast to the Equator at 20°W; thence south along
the 20°W line of longitude to 40°S; thence east along the 40°S line of latitude to
60°E; thence north along the 60°E line of longitude to 35°N; thence east-northeast
on a great circle to a point in the western Altai at 49°N, 87°27`E; thence northeast
on a great circle to the coast of the Arctic Ocean at 130°E; thence north along the
130°E line of longitude to the North Pole. The outline of the Agreement Area is illustrated
on the following map.
Great Northern Diver
Great Crested Grebe
Great White Pelican
Sula (Morus) bassana
Sula (Morus) capensis
Western Reef Egret
Mascarene Reef Egret
Greater White-fronted Goose
Lesser White-fronted Goose
South African Shelduck
Black Crowned Crane
Grey Crowned Crane
African Black Oystercatcher
Eurasian Golden Plover
Pacific Golden Plover
Common Ringed Plover
Little Ringed Plover
Great Black-backed Gull
Lesser Black-backed Gull
Great Black-headed Gull
Common Black-headed Gull
Lesser Crested Tern
Great Crested Tern
1.1 The Action Plan is applicable to the populations of migratory waterbirds listed in
Table 1 to this Annex (hereafter referred to as “Table 1”).
1.2 Table 1 forms an integral part of this Annex. Any reference to this Action Plan includes
a reference to Table 1.
2.1.1 Parties with populations listed in Column A of Table 1 shall provide protection to
those populations listed in accordance with Article III, paragraph 2(a), of this Agreement.
Such Parties shall in particular and subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below:
a) prohibit the taking of birds and eggs of those populations occurring in their territory;
b) prohibit deliberate disturbance in so far as such disturbance would be significant
for the conservation of the population concerned; and
c) prohibit the possession or utilisation of, and trade in, birds or eggs of those populations
which have been taken in contravention of the prohibitions laid down pursuant to subparagraph
(a) above, as well as the possession or utilisation of, and trade in, any readily
recognizable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.
By way of exception for those populations listed in Categories 2 and 3 in Column A
and which are marked by an asterisk, and those populations listed in Category 4 in
Column A, hunting may continue on a sustainable use basis3. This sustainable use shall be conducted within the framework of an international
species action plan, through which Parties will endeavour to implement the principles
of adaptive harvest management.4 Such use shall, as a minimum, be subject to the same legal measures as the taking
of birds from populations listed in Column B of Table 1, as required in paragraph
2.1.2 Parties with populations listed in Table 1 shall regulate the taking of birds and
eggs of all populations listed in Column B of Table 1. The object of such legal measures
shall be to maintain or contribute to the restoration of those populations to a favourable
conservation status and to ensure, on the basis of the best available knowledge of
population dynamics, that any taking or other use is sustainable. Such legal measures,
subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below, shall in particular:
a) prohibit the taking of birds belonging to the populations concerned during their various
stages of reproduction and rearing and during their return to their breeding grounds
if the taking has an unfavourable impact on the conservation status of the population
b) regulate the modes of taking, and in particular prohibit the use of all indiscriminate
means of taking and the use of all means capable of causing mass destructions, as
well as local disappearance of, or serious disturbance to, populations of a species,
– live birds which are blind or mutilated used as decoys,
– tape recorders and other electronic devices,
– electrocuting devices,
– artificial light sources,
– mirrors and other dazzling devices,
– devices for illuminating targets,
– sighting devices for night shooting comprising an electronic image magnifier or image
– poisoned or anaesthetic baits,
– semi-automatic or automatic weapons with a magazine capable of holding more than two
rounds of ammunition,
– hunting from aircraft, motor vehicles, or boats driven at a speed exceeding 5km p/h
(18km p/h on the open sea).
Parties may grant exemptions from the prohibitions laid down in paragraph 2.1.2 (b)
to accommodate use for livelihood purposes, where sustainable;
c) establish limits on taking, where appropriate, and provide adequate controls to ensure
that these limits are observed; and
d) prohibit the possession or utilisation of, and trade in, birds and eggs of the populations
which have been taken in contravention of any prohibition laid down pursuant to the
provisions of this paragraph, as well as the possession or utilization of, and trade
in, any readily recognizable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.
2.1.3 Parties may grant exemptions to the prohibitions laid down in paragraphs 2.1.1 and
2.1.2, irrespective of the provisions of Article III, paragraph 5, of the Convention,
where there is no other satisfactory solution, for the following purposes:
a) to prevent serious damage to crops, water and fisheries;
b) in the interests of air safety, public health and public safety, or for other imperative
reasons of overriding public interest, including those of a social or economic nature
and beneficial consequences of primary importance to the environment;
c) for the purpose of research and education, of re-establishment and for the breeding
necessary for these purposes;
d) to permit under strictly supervised conditions, on a selective basis and to a limited
extent, the taking and keeping or other judicious use of certain birds in small numbers;
e) for the purpose of enhancing the propagation or survival of the populations concerned.
Such exemptions shall be precise as to content and limited in space and time and shall
not operate to the detriment of the populations listed in Table 1. Parties shall,
as soon as possible, inform the Agreement secretariat of any exemptions granted pursuant
to this provision.
Single Species Action Plans
2.2.1 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing and implementing international single
species action plans for populations listed in Category 1 of Column A of Table 1 as
a priority and for those populations listed with an asterisk in Column A of Table
1. The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development, harmonization and implementation
of such plans.
2.2.2 Parties shall prepare and implement national single species action plans for the populations
listed in Column A of Table 1 with a view to improving their overall conservation
status. This action plan shall include special provisions for those populations marked
with an asterisk. When appropriate, the problem of accidental killing of birds by
hunters as a result of incorrect identification of the species should be considered.
Parties shall, in close cooperation with each other whenever possible and relevant,
develop and implement emergency measures for populations listed in Table 1, when exceptionally
unfavourable or endangering conditions occur anywhere in the Agreement Area.
Parties shall exercise the greatest care when re-establishing populations listed in
Table 1 into parts of their traditional range where they no longer exist. They shall
endeavour to develop and follow a detailed re-establishment plan based on appropriate
scientific studies. Re-establishment plans should constitute an integral part of national
and, where appropriate, international single species action plans. A re-establishment
plan should include assessment of the impact on the environment and shall be made
widely available. Parties shall inform the Agreement secretariat, in advance, of all
re-establishment programme for populations listed in Table 1.
2.5.1 Parties shall prohibit the introduction into the environment of non-native species
of animals and plants which may be detrimental to the populations listed in Table
2.5.2 Parties shall require the taking of appropriate precautions to avoid the accidental
escape of captive animals belonging to non-native species, which may be detrimental
to the populations listed in Table 1.
2.5.3 Parties shall take measures to the extent feasible and appropriate, including taking,
to ensure that when non-native species or hybrids thereof have already been introduced
into their territory, those species or their hybrids do not pose a potential hazard
to the populations listed in Table 1.
3.1.1 Parties, in liaison where appropriate with competent international organizations,
shall undertake and publish national inventories of the habitats within their territory
which are important to the populations listed in Table 1.
3.1.2 Parties shall endeavour, as a matter of priority, to identify all sites of international
or national importance for populations listed in Table 1.
Conservation of Areas
3.2.1 Parties shall endeavour to continue establishing protected areas to conserve habitats
important for the populations listed in Table 1, and to develop and implement management
plans for these areas.
3.2.2 Parties shall endeavour to give special protection to those wetlands which meet internationally
accepted criteria of international importance.
3.2.3 Parties shall endeavour to make wise and sustainable use of all of the wetlands in
their territory. In particular they shall endeavour to avoid degradation and loss
of habitats that support populations listed in Table 1 through the introduction of
appropriate regulations or standards and control measures. In particular, they shall
a) ensure, where practicable, that adequate statutory controls are in place, relating
to the use of agricultural chemicals, pest control procedures and the disposal of
waste water, which are in accordance with international norms, for the purpose of
minimizing their adverse impacts on the populations listed in Table 1; and
b) prepare and distribute information materials, in the appropriate languages, describing
such regulations, standards and control measures in force and their benefits to people
3.2.4 Parties shall endeavour to develop strategies, according to an ecosystem approach,
for the conservation of the habitats of all populations listed in Table 1, including
the habitats of those populations that are dispersed.
Rehabilitation and Restoration
Parties shall endeavour to rehabilitate or restore, where feasible and appropriate,
areas which were previously important for the populations listed in Table 1, including
areas that suffer degradation as a result of the impacts of factors such as climate
change, hydrological change, agriculture, spread of aquatic invasive non-native species,
natural succession, uncontrolled fires, unsustainable use, eutrophication and pollution.
4.1.1 Parties shall cooperate to ensure that their hunting legislation implements the principle
of sustainable use as envisaged in this Action Plan, taking into account the full
geographical range of the waterbird populations concerned and their life history characteristics.
4.1.2 The Agreement secretariat shall be kept informed by the Parties of their legislation
relating to the hunting of populations listed in Table 1.
4.1.3 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing a reliable and harmonised system
for the collection of harvest data in order to assess the annual harvest of populations
listed in Table 1. They shall provide the Agreement secretariat with estimates of
the total annual take for each population, when available.
4.1.4 Parties shall endeavour to phase out the use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands
as soon as possible in accordance with self-imposed and published timetables.
4.1.5 Parties shall develop and implement measures to reduce, and as far as possible eliminate,
the use of poisoned baits.
4.1.6 Parties shall develop and implement measures to reduce, and as far as possible eliminate,
4.1.7 Where appropriate, Parties shall encourage hunters, at local, national and international
levels, to form clubs or organisations to coordinate their activities and to help
4.1.8 Parties shall, where appropriate, promote the requirement of a proficiency test for
hunters, including among other things, bird identification.
4.2.1 Parties shall encourage, where appropriate but not in the case of core zones of protected
areas, the elaboration of cooperative programmes between all concerned to develop
sensitive and appropriate eco-tourism at wetlands holding concentrations of populations
listed in Table 1.
4.2.2 Parties, in cooperation with competent international organisations, shall endeavour
to evaluate the costs, benefits and other consequences that can result from eco-tourism
at selected wetlands with concentrations of populations listed in Table 1. They shall
communicate the results of any such evaluations to the Agreement secretariat.
Other Human Activities
4.3.1 Parties shall assess the impact of proposed projects which are likely to lead to conflicts
between populations listed in Table 1 that are in the areas referred to in paragraph
3.2 and human interests, and shall make the results of the assessment publicly available.
4.3.2 Parties shall endeavour to gather information on the damage, in particular to crops
and to fisheries, caused by populations listed in Table 1, and report the results
to the Agreement secretariat.
4.3.3 Parties shall cooperate with a view to identifying appropriate techniques to minimize
damage, or to mitigate the effects of damage, in particular to crops and to fisheries,
caused by populations listed in Table 1, drawing on the experience gained elsewhere
in the world.
4.3.4 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing single species management plans
for populations which cause significant damage, in particular to crops and to fisheries.
The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development and harmonization of such
4.3.5 Parties shall, as far as possible, promote high environmental standards in the planning
and construction of structures to minimize their impact on populations listed in Table
1. They should consider steps to minimize the impact of structures already in existence
where it becomes evident that they constitute a negative impact for the populations
4.3.6 In cases where human disturbance threatens the conservation status of waterbird populations
listed in Table 1, Parties should endeavour to take measures to limit the level of
threat. Special attention should be given to problem of human disturbance at breeding
colonies of colonially-nesting waterbirds, especially when they are situated in the
areas which are popular for outdoor recreation. Appropriate measures might include,
inter alia, the establishment of disturbance-free zones in protected areas where public access
is not permitted.
4.3.7 Parties are urged to take appropriate actions nationally or through the framework
of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) and relevant international
organisations to minimise the impact of fisheries5 on migratory waterbirds, and where possible cooperate within these forums, in order
to decrease the mortality in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction; appropriate
measures shall especially address incidental killing and bycatch in fishing gear including
the use of gill nets, longlines and trawling.
4.3.8 Parties are also urged to take appropriate actions nationally or through the framework
of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) and relevant international
organisations to minimise the impact of fisheries on migratory waterbirds resulting
in particular from unsustainable fishing that causes depletion of food resources for
4.3.9 Parties shall establish and effectively enforce adequate statutory pollution controls
in accordance with international norms and legal agreements, particularly as related
to oil spills, discharge and dumping of solid wastes, for the purpose of minimizing
their impacts on the populations listed in Table 1.
4.3.10 Parties shall establish appropriate measures, ideally to eliminate or otherwise to
mitigate the threat from non-native terrestrial predators to breeding migratory waterbirds
on islands and islets. Measures should refer to contingency planning to prevent invasion,
emergency responses to remove introduced predators, and restoration programmes for
islands where predator populations are already established.
4.3.11 Parties are urged to establish appropriate measures to tackle threats to migratory
waterbirds from aquaculture, including environmental assessment for developments that
threaten wetlands of importance for waterbirds, especially when dealing with new or
enlargement of existing installations, and involving issues such as pollution (e.g.
from residues of pharmaceutical treatments used in aquaculture or eutrophication),
habitat loss, entanglement risks, and introduction of non-native and potentially invasive
4.3.12 Parties, the Agreement secretariat and the Technical Committee will, as appropriate,
work together to provide further documentation on the nature and scale of the effects
of lead fishing weights on waterbirds and to consider that documentation, noting that
lead in general poses a threat to the environment with harmful effects on waterbirds.
Parties will, as appropriate, seek alternatives to lead fishing weights, taking into
consideration the impact on waterbirds and water quality.
5.1 Parties shall endeavour to carry out survey work in poorly known areas, which may
hold important concentrations of the populations listed in Table 1. The results of
such surveys shall be disseminated widely.
5.2 Parties shall endeavour to monitor the populations listed in Table 1. The results
of such monitoring shall be published or sent to appropriate international organizations,
to enable reviews of population status and trends.
5.3 Parties shall cooperate to improve the measurement of bird population trends as a
criterion for describing the status of such populations.
5.4 Parties shall cooperate with a view to determining the migration routes of all populations
listed in Table 1, using available knowledge of breeding and non-breeding season distributions
and census results, and by participating in coordinated ringing programmes.
5.5 Parties shall endeavour to initiate and support joint research projects into the ecology
and population dynamics of populations listed in Table 1 and their habitats, in order
to determine their specific requirements as well as the techniques which are the most
appropriate for their conservation and management.
5.6 Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies on the effects of wetland loss and degradation
and disturbance on the carrying capacity of wetlands used by the populations listed
in Table 1 and on the migration patterns of such populations.
5.7 Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies on the impact of hunting and trade on
the populations listed in Table 1 and on the importance of these forms of utilization
to the local and national economy.
5.8 Parties shall endeavour to cooperate with relevant international organisations and
to support research and monitoring projects.
6.1 Parties shall, where necessary, arrange for training programmes to ensure that personnel
responsible for the implementation of this Action Plan have an adequate knowledge
to implement it effectively.
6.2 Parties shall cooperate with each other and the Agreement secretariat with a view
to developing training programmes and exchanging resource materials.
6.3 Parties shall endeavour to develop programmes, information materials and mechanisms
to improve the level of awareness of the general public with regard to the objectives,
provisions and contents of this Action Plan. In this regard, particular attention
shall be given to those people living in and around important wetlands, to users of
these wetlands (hunters, fishermen, tourists, etc.) and to local authorities and other
6.4 Parties shall endeavour to undertake specific public awareness campaigns for the conservation
of the populations listed in Table 1.
7.1 When implementing this Action Plan, Parties shall, when appropriate, give priority
to those populations listed in Column A of Table 1.
7.2 Where, in the case of populations listed in Table 1, more than one population of the
same species occurs on the territory of a Party, that Party shall apply conservation
measures appropriate to the population or populations that have the poorest conservation
7.3 The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and with the
assistance of experts from Range States, shall coordinate the development of conservation
guidelines in accordance with Article IV, paragraph 4, of this Agreement to assist
the Parties in the implementation of this Action Plan. The Agreement secretariat shall
ensure, where possible, coherence with guidelines approved under other international
instruments. These conservation guidelines shall aim at introducing the principle
of sustainable use. They shall cover, inter alia:
a) single species action plans;
b) emergency measures;
c) preparation of site inventories and habitat management methods;
d) hunting practices;
e) trade in waterbirds;
g) reducing crop damage; and
h) a waterbird monitoring protocol.
7.4 The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and the Parties,
shall prepare a series of international reviews necessary for the implementation of
this Action Plan, including:
a) reports on the status and trends of populations;
b) gaps in information from surveys;
c) the networks of sites used by each population, including reviews of the protection
status of each site as well as of the management measures taken in each case;
d) pertinent hunting and trade legislation in each country relating to the species listed
in Annex 2 to this Agreement;
e) the stage of preparation and implementation of single species action plans;
f) re-establishment projects; and
g) the status of introduced non-native waterbird species and hybrids thereof.
7.5 The Agreement secretariat shall endeavour to ensure that the reviews mentioned in
paragraph 7.4 are updated at the following intervals:
(a) every session of the Meeting of the Parties; (b) – every second session of the
Meeting of the Parties; (c) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties;
(d) – every third session of the Meeting of the Parties; (e) – every second session
of the Meeting of the Parties; (f) – every third session of the Meeting of the Parties;
(g) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties.
7.6 The Technical Committee shall assess the guidelines and reviews prepared under paragraphs
7.3 and 7.4, and shall formulate draft recommendations and resolutions relating to
their development, content and implementation for consideration at sessions of the
Meeting of the Parties.
7.7 The Agreement secretariat shall regularly undertake a review of potential mechanisms
for providing additional resources (funds and technical assistance) for the implementation
of this Action Plan, and shall make a report to each ordinary session of the Meeting
of the Parties.
Key to classification
The following key to Table 1 is a basis for implementation of the Action Plan:
a) Species, which are included in Appendix I to the Convention on the Conservation of
Migratory species of Wild Animals;
b) Species, which are listed as threatened on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,
as reported in the most recent summary by BirdLife International; or
c) Populations, which number less than around 10,000 individuals.
Category 2: Populations numbering between around 10,000 and around 25,000 individuals.
Category 3: Populations numbering between around 25,000 and around 100,000 individuals
and considered to be at risk as a result of:
a) Concentration onto a small number of sites at any stage of their annual cycle;
b) Dependence on a habitat type, which is under severe threat;
c) Showing significant long-term decline; or
d) Showing large fluctuations in population size or trend.
Category 4: Species, which are listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List of Threatened
species, as reported in the most recent summary by BirdLife International, but do
not fulfil the conditions in respect of Category 1, 2 or 3, as described above, and
which are pertinent for international action.
For species listed in Categories 2, 3 and 4 above, see paragraph 2.1.1 of the Action
Plan contained in Annex 3 to the Agreement.
Category 1: Populations numbering between around 25,000 and around 100,000 individuals
and which do not fulfil the conditions in respect of Column A, as described above.
Category 2: Populations numbering more than around 100,000 individuals and considered
to be in need of special attention as a result of:
Category 1: Populations numbering more than around 100,000 individuals which could
significantly benefit from international cooperation and which do not fulfil the conditions
in respect of either Column A or Column B, above.
Review of Table 1
The Table shall be:
a) Reviewed regularly by the Technical Committee in accordance with article VII, paragraph
3(b), of the Agreement; and
b) Amended as necessary by the Meeting of the Parties, in accordance with article VI,
paragraph 9(d) of the Agreement, in light of the conclusions of such reviews.
Definition of geographical terms used in range descriptions
Note that waterbird ranges respect biological, not political, boundaries and that
precise alignment of biological and political entities is extremely unusual. The range
descriptions used have no political significance and are for general guidance only,
and for concise, mapped summaries of waterbird ranges, practitioners should consult
the Critical Site Network Tool internet portal:
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.
Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, the Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra
Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan,
Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania.
Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan.
Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia,
Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial
Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe.
All African states south of the Sahara.
Sub-Saharan Africa excluding Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.
As defined in Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (Cramp & Simmons 1977).
Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
North-west Europe with Portugal and Spain.
The northern part of the Russian Federation west of the Urals.
North-west Europe and North-east Europe, as defined above.
Belarus, the Russian Federation west of the Urals, Ukraine.
Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Poland, the Russian Federation around the Gulf of Finland and Kaliningrad, Slovakia,
Mediterranean France, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Portugal, San Marino, Spain.
Albania, Armenia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,
Republic of Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, The Former Yugoslav Republic
of Macedonia and Turkey.
South-west Europe and South-east Europe, as defined above.
Faroes, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, the north-west coast of the Russian Federation,
Svalbard, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Atlantic seaboard of Europe and North Africa from northern Norway to Morocco.
The Russian Federation east of the Urals to the Yenisey River and south to the Kazakhstan
The Russian Federation from the Yenisey River to the eastern boundary of the Taimyr
Peninsula and south to the Altai Mountains.
Algeria, France, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Tunisia.
Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Lebanon,
Libya, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, the Syrian Arab Republic, The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Turkey.
Armenia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation,
Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, South-west Russia, Turkmenistan,
Bahrain, Iraq, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon,
Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, eastern Turkey, Turkmenistan,
the United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen.
the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea west to the Gulf of Aden.
Western parts of the Russian Federation east of the Urals and the Caspian countries.
Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.
Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles.
Key to abbreviations and symbols
() Population status unknown. Conservation status estimated.
* By way of exception for those populations listed in Categories 2 and 3 in Column
A and which are marked by an asterisk, hunting may continue to be conducted on a sustainable
use basis. This sustainable use shall be conducted within the framework of special
provisions of an international species action plan, which shall seek to implement
the principles of adaptive harvest management (see paragraph 2.1.2 of Annex 3 to the
1. The population data used to compile Table 1 as far as possible correspond to the number
of individuals in the potential breeding stock in the Agreement area. The status is
based on the best available published population estimates.
2. Suffixes (bre) or (win) in population listings are solely aids to population identification.
They do not indicate seasonal restrictions to actions in respect of these populations
under the Agreement and Action Plan.
3. The brief descriptions used to identify the populations are based on the descriptions
used in the most recently published edition of Waterbird Population Estimates.
4. Slash signs (/) are used to separate breeding areas from wintering areas.
5. Where a species’ population is listed in Table 1 with multiple categorisation, the
obligations of the Action Plan relate to the strictest category listed.
– Southern Africa
– North-west Europe (win)
– Caspian, Black Sea & East Mediterranean (win)
Gavia arctica arctica
– Northern Europe & Western Siberia/Europe
Gavia arctica suschkini
– Central Siberia/Caspian
– Europe (win)
– Northern Europe (win)
Tachybaptus ruficollis ruficollis
– Europe & North-west Africa
Podiceps cristatus cristatus
– North-west & Western Europe
– Black Sea & Mediterranean (win)
– Caspian & South-west Asia (win)
Podiceps cristatus infuscatus
– Eastern Africa (Ethiopia to N Zambia)
Podiceps grisegena grisegena
– Caspian (win)
Podiceps auritus auritus
– North-west Europe (large-billed)
– North-east Europe (small-billed)
– Caspian & South Asia (win)
Podiceps nigricollis nigricollis
– Europe/South & West Europe & North Africa
– Western Asia/South-west & South Asia
Podiceps nigricollis gurneyi
Phaethon aetherus aetherus
– South Atlantic
Phaethon aetherus indicus
– Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Red Sea
Phaethon rubricauda rubricauda
– Indian Ocean
Phaethon lepturus lepturus
- W Indian Ocean
– West Africa
– Eastern Africa
– Europe & Western Asia (bre)
– Tropical Africa & SW Arabia
1a 1b 1c
– South-west Asia & South Asia (win)
Sula dactylatra melanops
– W Indian Ocean
– Coastal South-west Africa
– Black Sea & Mediterranean
– South-west Asia
Phalacrocorax carbo carbo
– North-west Europe
Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis
– Northern & Central Europe
– West & South-west Asia
Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus
– Coastal West Africa
– Central & Eastern Africa
– Coastal Southern Africa
– Arabian Coast
– Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Arabian Sea
Fregata minor aldabrensis
– W Indian Ocean
Fregata ariel iredalei
– Sub-Saharan Africa
– South-central Africa
Egretta garzetta garzetta
– Western Europe, NW Africa
– Central & E Europe, Black Sea, E Mediterranean
– Western Asia/SW Asia, NE & Eastern Africa
Egretta gularis gularis
Egretta gularis schistacea
– North-east Africa & Red Sea
– South-west Asia & South Asia
– Coastal Eastern Africa
Ardea cinerea cinerea
– Northern & Western Europe
– Central & Eastern Europe
– West & South-west Asia (bre)
Ardea purpurea purpurea
– Tropical Africa
– West Europe & West Mediterranean/West Africa
– East Europe, Black Sea & Mediterranean/Sub-Saharan Africa
Casmerodius albus albus
– W, C & SE Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean
– Western Asia/South-west Asia
Casmerodius albus melanorhynchos
– Sub-Saharan Africa & Madagascar
Mesophoyx intermedia brachyrhyncha
Bubulcus ibis ibis
– South-west Europe
– North-west Africa
– East Mediterranean & South-west Asia
Ardeola ralloides ralloides
– SW Europe, NW Africa (bre)
– C & E Europe/Black Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)
– West & South-west Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa
Ardeola ralloides paludivaga
– Madagascar & Aldabra/Central & Eastern Africa
– Tropical Eastern & Southern Africa
Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax
– W Europe, NW Africa (bre)
– Western Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa
Ixobrychus minutus minutus
– W Europe, NW Africa/ Sub-Saharan Africa
– C & E Europe, Black Sea & E Mediterranean/Sub-Saharan Africa
Ixobrychus minutus payesii
Botaurus stellaris stellaris
W Europe, NW Africa (bre)
C & E Europe, Black Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)
– South-west Asia (win)
Botaurus stellaris capensis
– Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Madagascar)
Anastomus lamelligerus lamelligerus
– South-west Europe/West Africa
– Central & Eastern Europe/Sub-Saharan Africa
– Sub-Saharan Africa & SW Arabia
Ciconia episcopus microscelis
Ciconia ciconia ciconia
–W Europe & North-west Africa/Sub-Saharan Africa
– Central Tropical Africa
Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus
– Sub-Saharan Africa (bre)
– Black Sea & Mediterranean/West Africa
– South-west Asia/Eastern Africa
Threskiornis aethiopicus aethiopicus
– Iraq & Iran
Platalea leucorodia leucorodia
– West Europe/West Mediterranean & West Africa
– Cent. & SE Europe/Mediterranean & Tropical Africa
Platalea leucorodia archeri
– Red Sea & Somalia
Platalea leucorodia balsaci
– Coastal West Africa (Mauritania)
Platalea leucorodia major
– Southern Africa (to Madagascar)
– West Mediterranean
– East Mediterranean
– South-west & South Asia
– West Africa (Senegal to Chad)
– Eastern & Southern Africa
Thalassornis leuconotus leuconotus
– West Mediterranean (Spain & Morocco)
– Algeria & Tunisia
– East Mediterranean, Turkey & South-west Asia
– North-west Mainland & Central Europe
– Black Sea
– West & Central Asia/Caspian
– Iceland/UK & Ireland
– North-west Mainland Europe
– N Europe & W Siberia/Black Sea & E Mediterranean
– West & Central Siberia/Caspian
Cygnus columbianus bewickii
– Western Siberia & NE Europe/North-west Europe
– Northern Siberia/Caspian
– East Greenland & Iceland/UK
– Svalbard/North-west Europe
Anser fabalis fabalis
– North-east Europe/North-west Europe
– West & Central Siberia/Turkmenistan to W China
Anser fabalis rossicus
– West & Central Siberia/NE & SW Europe
Anser albifrons albifrons
– NW Siberia & NE Europe/North-west Europe
– Western Siberia/Central Europe
– Western Siberia/Black Sea & Turkey
– Northern Siberia/Caspian & Iraq
Anser albifrons flavirostris
– Greenland/Ireland & UK
– NE Europe & W Siberia/Black Sea & Caspian
1a 1b 2
Anser anser anser
– NW Europe/South-west Europe
– Central Europe/North Africa
Anser anser rubrirostris
– Black Sea & Turkey
– Western Siberia/Caspian & Iraq
– East Greenland/Scotland & Ireland
– Svalbard/South-west Scotland
– Russia/Germany & Netherlands
Branta bernicla bernicla
– Western Siberia/Western Europe
Branta bernicla hrota
– Svalbard/Denmark & UK
– Canada & Greenland/Ireland
– Northern Siberia/Black Sea & Caspian
1a 1b 3a 3c
– East Mediterranean & Black Sea/North-east Africa
– Western Asia & Caspian/Iran & Iraq
– Western Asia/Caspian & Middle East
Plectropterus gambensis gambensis
– Eastern Africa (Sudan to Zambia)
Plectropterus gambensis niger
Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos
– Southern & Eastern Africa
– Eastern Africa (Rift Valley)
– Lake Chad basin2
– Southern Africa (N to Angola & Zambia)
Anas strepera strepera
– North-east Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean
– Western Siberia/SW Asia & NE Africa
– Western Siberia & NE Europe/NW Europe
– W Siberia & NE Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean
Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos
– Northern Europe/West Mediterranean
– Eastern Europe/Black Sea & East Mediterranean
– Western Siberia/South-west Asia
Anas undulata undulata
– North-west & Central Europe (win)
– W Siberia, NE & E Europe/S Europe & West Africa
– W Siberia/SW Asia, NE & Eastern Africa
– Western Siberia/SW Asia & Eastern Africa