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Geraadpleegd op 29-05-2022. Geldend van 03-02-1955 t/m heden
Verdrag van Genève betreffende de bescherming van burgers in oorlogstijd
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic
Conference held at Geneva from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of establishing
a Convention for the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, have agreed as
The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present
Convention in all circumstances.
In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peacetime, the present
Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict
which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state
of war is not recognized by one of them.
The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the
territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed
Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention,
the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations.
They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if
the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.
In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occuring in the territory
of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound
to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:
(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces
who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be
treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion
or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria.
To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in
any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:
(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel
treatment and torture;
(b) taking of hostages;
(c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment;
(d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment
pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees
which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.
(2) The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.
An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross,
may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.
The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means
of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of the present Convention.
The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the
Parties to the conflict.
Persons protected by the Convention are those who, at a given moment and in any manner
whatsoever, find themselves, in case of a conflict or occupation, in the hands of
a Party to the conflict or Occupying Power of which they are not nationals.
Nationals of a State which is not bound by the Convention are not protected by it.
Nationals of a neutral State who find themselves in the territory of a belligerent
State, and nationals of a co-belligerent State, shall not be regarded as protected
persons while the State of which they are nationals has normal diplomatic representation
in the State in whose hands they are.
The provisions of Part II are, however, wider in application, as defined in Article
Persons protected by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in
Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, or by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked
Members of Armed Forces at Sea of August 12, 1949, or by the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949, shall not be considered as protected persons within the meaning
of the present Convention.
Where, in the territory of a Party to the conflict, the latter is satisfied that an
individual protected person is definitely suspected of or engaged in activities hostile
to the security of the State, such individual person shall not be entitled to claim
such rights and privileges under the present Convention as would, if exercised in
the favour of such individual person, be prejudicial to the security of such State.
Where in occupied territory an individual protected person is detained as a spy or
saboteur, or as a person under definite suspicion of activity hostile to the security
of the Occupying Power, such person shall, in those cases where absolute military
security so requires, be regarded as having forfeited rights of communication under
the present Convention.
In each case, such persons shall nevertheless be treated with humanity, and in case
of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed
by the present Convention. They shall also be granted the full rights and privileges
of a protected person under the present Convention at the earliest date consistent
with the security of the State or Occupying Power, as the case may be.
The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned
in Article 2.
In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention
shall cease on the general close of military operations.
In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present Convention shall
cease one year after the general close of military operations; however, the Occupying
Power shall be bound, for the duration of the occupation, to the extent that such
Power exercises the functions of government in such territory, by the provisions of
the following Articles of the present Convention: 1 to 12, 27, 29 to 34, 47, 49, 51,
52, 53, 59, 61 to 77, 143.
Protected persons whose release, repatriation or re-establishment may take place after
such dates shall meanwhile continue to benefit by the present Convention.
In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 11, 14, 15, 17, 36,
108, 109, 132, 133 and 149, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special
agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate
provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of protected
persons, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers
Protected persons shall continue to have the benefit of such agreements as long as
the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary
are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable
measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the
Protected persons may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights
secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred
to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.
The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny
of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safeguard the interests of the Parties
to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their
diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals
of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the
Power with which they are to carry out their duties.
The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible the task
of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.
The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed
their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account
of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their
The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian
activities which the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial
humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict
concerned, undertake for the protection of civilian persons and for their relief.
The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an organization which
offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting
Powers by virtue of the present Convention.
When persons protected by the present Convention do not benefit or cease to benefit,
no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization
provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral
State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present
Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.
If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or
shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services
of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross,
to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present
Any neutral Power, or any organization invited by the Power concerned or offering
itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility
towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention
depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position
to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.
No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between
Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with
the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where
the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.
Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Protecting Power, such mention
applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.
The provisions of this Article shall extend and be adapted to cases of nationals of
a neutral State who are in occupied territory or who find themselves in the territory
of a belligerent State in which the State of which they are nationals has not normal
In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly
in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application
or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers
shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.
For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one
Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of
their representatives, and in particular of the authorities responsible for protected
persons, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict
shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The
Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict,
a person belonging to a neutral Power or delegated by the International Committee
of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.
The provisions of Part II cover the whole of the populations of the countries in conflict,
without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, nationality, religion
or political opinion, and are intended to alleviate the sufferings caused by war.
In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after the outbreak of hostilities,
the Parties thereto, may establish in their own territory and, if the need arises,
in occupied areas, hospital and safety zones and localities so organized as to protect
from the effects of war, wounded, sick and aged persons, children under fifteen, expectant
mothers and mothers of children under seven.
Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the Parties concerned may
conclude agreements on mutual recognition of the zones and localities they have created.
They may for this purpose implement the provisions of the Draft Agreement annexed
to the present Convention, with such amendments as they may consider necessary.
The Protecting Powers and the International Committee of the Red Cross are invited
to lend their good offices in order to facilitate the institution and recognition
of these hospital and safety zones and localities.
Any Party to the conflict may, either direct or through a neutral State or some humanitarian
organization, propose to the adverse Party to establish, in the regions where fighting
is taking place, neutralized zones intended to shelter from the effects of war the
following persons, without distinction:
(a) wounded and sick combatants or non-combatants;
(b) civilian persons who take no part in hostilities, and who, while they reside in the
zones, perform no work of a military character.
When the Parties concerned have agreed upon the geographical position, administration,
food supply and supervision of the proposed neutralized zone, a written agreement
shall be concluded and signed by the representatives of the Parties to the conflict.
The agreement shall fix the beginning and the duration of the neutralization of the
The wounded and sick, as well as the infirm, and expectant mothers, shall be the object
of particular protection and respect.
As far as military considerations allow, each Party to the conflict shall facilitate
the steps taken to search for the killed and wounded, to assist the shipwrecked and
other persons exposed to grave danger, and to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment.
The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal
from besieged or encircled areas, of wounded, sick, infirm, and aged persons, children
and maternity cases, and for the passage of ministers of all religions, medical personnel
and medical equipment on their way to such areas.
Civilian hospitals organized to give care to the wounded and sick, the infirm and
maternity cases, may in no circumstances be the object of attack, but shall at all
times be respected and protected by the Parties to the conflict.
States which are Parties to a conflict shall provide all civilian hospitals with certificates
showing that they are civilian hospitals and that the buildings which they occupy
are not used for any purpose which would deprive these hospitals of protection in
accordance with Article 19.
Civilian hospitals shall be marked by means of the emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded
and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, but only if so authorized by the State.
The Parties to the conflict shall, in so far as military considerations permit, take
the necessary steps to make the distinctive emblems indicating civilian hospitals
clearly visible to the enemy land, air and naval forces in order to obviate the possibility
of any hostile action.
In view of the dangers to which hospitals may be exposed by being close to military
objectives, it is recommended that such hospitals be situated as far as possible from
The protection to which civilian hospitals are entitled shall not cease unless they
are used to commit, outside their humanitarian duties, acts harmful to the enemy.
Protection may, however, cease only after due warning has been given, naming, in all
appropriate cases, a reasonable time limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.
The fact that sick or wounded members of the armed forces are nursed in these hospitals,
or the presence of small arms and ammunition taken from such combatants and not yet
handed to the proper service, shall not be considered to be acts harmful to the enemy.
Persons regularly and solely engaged in the operation and administration of civilian
hospitals, including the personnel engaged in the search for, removal and transporting
of and caring for wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, shall
be respected and protected.
In occupied territory and in zones of military operations, the above personnel shall
be recognizable by means of an identity card certifying their status, bearing the
photograph of the holder and embossed with the stamp of the responsible authority,
and also by means of a stamped, water-resistant armlet which they shall wear on the
left arm while carrying out their duties. This armlet shall be issued by the State
and shall bear the emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded
and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.
Other personnel who are engaged in the operation and administration of civilian hospitals
shall be entitled to respect and protection and to wear the armlet, as provided in
and under the conditions prescribed in this Article, while they are employed on such
duties. The identity card shall state the duties on which they are employed.
The management of each hospital shall at all times hold at the disposal of the competent
national or occupying authorities an up-to-date list of such personnel.
Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land or specially provided vessels on sea,
conveying wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, shall be respected
and protected in the same manner as the hospitals provided for in Article 18, and
shall be marked, with the consent of the State, by the display of the distinctive
emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded
and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.
Aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded and sick civilians, the infirm
and maternity cases, or for the transport of medical personnel and equipment, shall
not be attacked, but shall be respected while flying at heights, times and on routes
specifically agreed upon between all the Parties to the conflict concerned.
They may be marked with the distinctive emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded
and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.
Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are prohibited.
Such aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the event of a landing thus imposed,
the aircraft with its occupants may continue its flight after examination, if any.
Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of all consignments of medical
and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious worship intended only for
civilians of another High Contracting Party, even if the latter is its adversary.
It shall likewise permit the free passage of all consignments of essential foodstuffs,
clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, expectant mothers and maternity
The obligation of a High Contracting Party to allow the free passage of the consignments
indicated in the preceding paragraph is subject to the condition that this Party is
satisfied that there are no serious reasons for fearing:
(a) that the consignments may be diverted from their destination,
(b) that the control may not be effective, or
(c) that a definite advantage may accrue to the military efforts or economy of the enemy
through the substitution of the above-mentioned consignments for goods which would
otherwise be provided or produced by the enemy or through the release of such material,
services or facilities as would otherwise be required for the production of such goods.
The Power which allows the passage of the consignments indicated in the first paragraph
of this Article may make such permission conditional on the distribution to the persons
benefited thereby being made under the local supervision of the Protecting Powers.
Such consignments shall be forwarded as rapidly as possibly, and the Power which permits
their free passage shall have the right to prescribe the technical arrangements under
which such passage is allowed.
The Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures to ensure that children
under fifteen, who are orphaned or are separated from their families as a result of
the war, are not left to their own resources, and that their maintenance, the excercise
of their religion and their education are facilitated in all circumstances. Their
education shall, as far as possible, be entrusted to persons of a similar cultural
The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate the reception of such children in a neutral
country for the duration of the conflict with the consent of the Protecting Power,
if any, and under due safeguards for the observance of the principles stated in the
They shall, furthermore, endeavour to arrange for all children under twelve to be
identified by the wearing of identity discs, or by some other means.
All persons in the territory of a Party to the conflict, or in a territory occupied
by it, shall be enabled to give news of a strictly personal nature to members of their
families, wherever they may be, and to receive news from them. This correspondence
shall be forwarded speedily and without undue delay.
If, as a result of circumstances, it becomes difficult or impossible to exchange family
correspondence by the ordinary post, the Parties to the conflict concerned shall apply
to a neutral intermediary, such as the Central Agency provided for in Article 140,
and shall decide in consultation with it how to ensure the fulfilment of their obligations
under the best possible conditions, in particular with the cooperation of the National
Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies.
If the Parties to the conflict deem it necessary to restrict family correspondence,
such restrictions shall be confined to the compulsory use at standard forms containing
twenty-five freely chosen words, and to the limitation of the number of these forms
despatched to one each month.
Each Party to the conflict shall facilitate enquiries made by members of families
dispersed owing to the war, with the object of renewing contact with one another and
of meeting, if possible. It shall encourage, in particular, the work of organizations
engaged on this task provided they are acceptable to it and conform to its security
Protected persons are entitled, in all circumstances, to respect for their persons,
their honour, their family rights, their religious convictions and practices, and
their manners and customs. They shall at all times be humanely treated, and shall
be protected especially against all acts of violence or threats thereof and against
insults and public curiosity.
Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their honour, in particular
against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault.
Without prejudice to the provisions relating to their state of health, age and sex,
all protected persons shall be treated with the same consideration by the Party to
the conflict in whose power they are, without any adverse distinction based, in particular,
on race, religion or political opinion.
However, the Parties to the conflict may take such measures of control and security
in regard to protected persons as may be necessary as a result of the war.
The presence of a protected person may not be used to render certain points or areas
immune from military operations.
The Party to the conflict in whose hands protected persons may be, is responsible
for the treatment accorded to them by its agents, irrespective of any individual responsibility
which may be incurred.
Protected persons shall have every facility for making application to the Protecting
Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the National Red Cross (Red
Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Society of the country where they may be, as well as to
any organization that might assist them.
These several organizations shall be granted all facilities for that purpose by the
authorities, within the bounds set by military or security considerations.
Apart from the visits of the delegates of the Protecting Powers and of the International
Committee of the Red Cross, provided for by Article 143, the Detaining or Occupying
Powers shall facilitate as much as possible visits to protected persons by the representatives
of other organizations whose object is to give spiritual aid or material relief to
No physical or moral coercion shall be exercised against protected persons, in particular
to obtain information from them or from third parties.
The High Contracting Parties specifically agree that each of them is prohibited from
taking any measure of such a character as to cause the physical suffering or extermination
of protected persons in their hands. This prohibition applies not only to murder,
torture, corporal punishment, mutilation and medical or scientific experiments not
necessitated by the medical treatment of a protected person, but also to any other
measures of brutality whether applied by civilian or military agents.
No protected person may be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed.
Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are
Pillage is prohibited.
Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.
The taking of hostages is prohibited.
All protected persons who may desire to leave the territory at the outset of, or during
a conflict, shall be entitled to do so, unless their departure is contrary to the
national interests of the State. The applications of such persons to leave shall be
decided in accordance with regularly established procedures and the decision shall
be taken as rapidly as possible. These persons permitted to leave may provide themselves
with the necessary funds for their journey and take with them a reasonable amount
of their effects and articles of personal use.
If any such person is refused permission to leave the territory, he shall be entitled
to have such refusal reconsidered as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative
board designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose.
Upon request, representatives of the Protecting Power shall, unless reasons of security
prevent it, or the persons concerned object, be furnished with the reasons for refusal
of any request for permission to leave the territory and be given, as expeditiously
as possible, the names of all persons who have been denied permission to leave.
Departures permitted under the foregoing Article shall be carried out in satisfactory
conditions as regards safety, hygiene, sanitation and food. All costs in connection
therewith, from the point of exit in the territory of the Detaining Power, shall be
borne by the country of destination, or, in the case of accommodation in a neutral
country, by the Power whose nationals are benefited. The practical details of such
movements may, if necessary, be settled by special agreements between the Powers concerned.
The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be concluded between
Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and repatriation of their nationals
in enemy hands.
Protected persons who are confined pending proceedings or serving a sentence involving
loss of liberty, shall during their confinement be humanely treated.
As soon as they are released, they may ask to leave the territory in conformity with
the foregoing Articles.
With the exception of special measures authorized by the present Convention, in particular
by Articles 27 and 41 thereof, the situation of protected persons shall continue to
be regulated, in principle, by the provisions concerning aliens in time of peace.
In any case, the following rights shall be granted to them:
(1) They shall be enabled to receive the individual or collective relief that may be sent
(2) They shall, if their state of health so requires, receive medical attention and hospital
treatment to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.
(3) They shall be allowed to practise their religion and to receive spiritual assistance
from ministers of their faith.
(4) If they reside in an area particularly exposed to the dangers of war, they shall be
authorized to move from that area to the same extent as the nationals of the State
(5) Children under fifteen years, pregnant women and mothers of children under seven years
shall benefit by any preferential treatment to the same extent as the nationals of
the State concerned.
Protected persons who, as a result of the war, have lost their gainful employment,
shall be granted the opportunity to find paid employment. That opportunity shall,
subject to security considerations and to the provisions of Article 40, be equal to
that enjoyed by the nationals of the Power in whose territory they are.
Where a Party to the conflict applies to a protected person methods of control which
result in his being unable to support himself, and especially if such a person is
prevented for reasons of security from finding paid employment on reasonable conditions,
the said Party shall ensure his support and that of his dependents.
Protected persons may in any case receive allowances from their home country, the
Protecting Power, or the relief societies referred to in Article 30.
Protected persons may be compelled to work only to the same extent as nationals of
the Party to the conflict in whose territory they are.
If protected persons are of enemy nationality, they may only be compelled to do work
which is normally necessary to ensure the feeding, sheltering, clothing, transport
and health of human beings and which is not directly related to the conduct of military
In the cases mentioned in the two preceding paragraphs, protected persons compelled
to work shall have the benefit of the same working conditions and of the same safeguards
as national workers, in particular as regards wages, hours of labour, clothing and
equipment, previous training and compensation for occupational accidents and diseases.
If the above provisions are infringed, protected persons shall be allowed to exercise
their right of complaint in accordance with Article 30.
Should the Power in whose hands protected persons may be consider the measures of
control mentioned in the present Convention to be inadequate, it may not have recourse
to any other measure of control more severe than that of assigned residence or internment,
in accordance with the provisions of Articles 42 and 43.
In applying the provisions of Article 39, second paragraph, to the cases of persons
required to leave their usual places of residence by virtue of a decision placing
them in assigned residence elsewhere, the Detaining Power shall be guided as closely
as possible by the standards of welfare set forth in Part III, Section IV of this
The interment or placing in assigned residence of protected persons may be ordered
only if the security of the Detaining Power makes it absolutely necessary.
If any person, acting through the representatives of the Protecting Power, voluntarily
demands internment, and if his situation renders this step necessary, he shall be
interned by the Power in whose hands he may be.
Any protected person who has been interned or placed in assigned residence shall be
entitled to have such action reconsidered as soon as possibly by an appropriate court
or administrative board designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose. If the
internment or placing in assigned residence is maintained, the court or administrative
board shall periodically, and at least twice yearly, give consideration to his or
her case with a view to the favourable amendment of the initial decision, if circumstances
Unless the protected persons concerned object, the Detaining Power shall, as rapidly
as possible, give the Protecting Power the names of any protected persons who have
been interned or subjected to assigned residence, or who have been released from internment
or assigned residence. The decisions of the courts or boards mentioned in the first
paragraph of the present Article shall also, subject to the same conditions, be notified
as rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power.
In applying the measures of control mentioned in the present Convention, the Detaining
Power shall not treat as enemy aliens exclusively on the basis of their nationality
de jure of an enemy State, refugees who do not, in fact, enjoy the protection of any government.
Protected persons shall not be transferred to a Power which is not a party to the
This provision shall in no way constitute an obstacle to the repatriation of protected
persons, or to their return to their country of residence after the cessation of hostilities.
Protected persons may be transferred by the Detaining Power only to a Power which
is a party to the present Convention and after the Detaining Power has satisfied itself
of the willingess and ability of such transferee Power to apply the present Convention.
If protected persons are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for
the application of the present Convention rests on the Power accepting them, while
they are in its custody. Nevertheless, if that Power fails to carry out the provisions
of the present Convention in any important respect, the Power by which the protected
persons were transferred shall, upon being so notified by the Protecting Power, take
effective measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the protected
persons. Such request must be complied with.
In no circumstances shall a protected person be transferred to a country where he
or she may have reason to fear persecution for his or her political opinions or religious
The provisions of this Article do not constitute an obstacle to the extradition, in
pursuance of extradition treaties concluded before the outbreak of hostilities, of
protected persons accused of offences against ordinary criminal law.
Is so far as they have not been previously withdrawn, restrictive measures taken regarding
protected persons shall be cancelled as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.
Restrictive measures affecting their property shall be cancelled, in accordance with
the law of the Detaining Power, as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.
Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case
or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change
introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions
or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities
of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the
latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory.
Protected persons who are not nationals of the Power whose territory is occupied,
may avail themselves of the right to leave the territory subject to the provisions
of Article 35, and decisions thereon shall be taken according to the procedure which
the Occupying Power shall establish in accordance with the said Article.
Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons
from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any
other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.
Nevertheless, the Occupying Power may undertake total or partial evacuation of a given
area if the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand. Such
evacuations may not involve the displacement of protected persons outside the bounds
of the occupied territory except when for material reasons it is impossible to avoid
such displacement. Persons thus evacuated shall be transferred back to their homes
as soon as hostilities in the area in question have ceased.
The Occupying Power undertaking such transfers or evacuations shall ensure, to the
greatest practicable extent, that proper accommodation is provided to receive the
protected persons, that the removals are effected in satisfactory conditions of hygiene,
health, safety and nutrition, and that members of the same family are not separated.
The Protecting Power shall be informed of any transfers and evacuations as soon as
they have taken place.
The Occupying Power shall not detain protected persons in an area particularly exposed
to the dangers of war unless the security of the population or imperative military
reasons so demand.
The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population
into the territory it occupies.
The Occupying Power shall, with the cooperation of the national and local authorities,
facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education
The Occupying Power shall take all necessary steps to facilitate the identification
of children and the registration of their parentage. It may not, in any case, change
their personal status, nor enlist them in formations or organizations subordinate
Should the local institutions be inadequate for the purpose, the Occupying Power shall
make arrangements for the maintenance and education, if possible by persons of their
own nationality, language and religion, of children who are orphaned or separated
from their parents as a result of the war and who cannot be adequately cared for by
a near relative or friend.
A special section of the Bureau set up in accordance with Article 136 shall be responsible
for taking all necessary steps to identify children whose identity is in doubt. Particulars
of their parents or other near relatives should always be recorded if available.
The Occupying Power shall not hinder the application of any preferential measures
in regard to food, medical care and protection against the effects of war, which may
have been adopted prior to the occupation in favour of children under fifteen years,
expectant mothers, and mothers of children under seven years.
The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to serve in its armed or auxiliary
forces. No pressure or propaganda which aims at securing voluntary enlistment is permitted.
The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to work unless they are over
eighteen years of age, and then only on work which is necessary either for the needs
of the army of occupation, or for the public utility services, or for the feeding,
sheltering, clothing, transportation or health of the population of the occupied country.
Protected persons may not be compelled to undertake any work which would involve them
in the obligation of taking part in military operations.
The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to employ forcible means to ensure
the security of the installations where they are performing compulsory labour.
The work shall be carried out only in the occupied territory where the persons whose
services have been requisitioned are. Every such person shall, so far as possible,
be kept in his usual place of employment. Workers shall be paid a fair wage and the
work shall be proportionate to their physical and intellectual capacities. The legislation
in force in the occupied country concerning working conditions, and safeguards as
regards, in particular, such matters as wages, hours of work, equipment, preliminary
training and compensation for occupational accidents and diseases, shall be applicable
to the protected persons assigned to the work referred to in this Article.
In no case shall requisition of labour lead to a mobilisation of workers in an organization
of a military or semi-military character.
No contract, agreement or regulation shall impair the right of any worker, whether
voluntary or not and wherever he may be, to apply to the representatives of the Protecting
Power in order to request the said Power's intervention.
All measures aiming at creating unemployment or at restricting the opportunities offered
to workers in an occupied territory, in order to induce them to work for the Occupying
Power, are prohibited.
Any destruction by the Occupying Power of real or personal property belonging individually
or collectively to private persons, or to the State, or to other public authorities,
or to social or cooperative organizations, is prohibited, except where, such destruction
is rendered absolutely necessary by military operations.
The Occupying Power may not alter the status of public officials or judges in the
occupied territories, or in any way apply sanctions to or take any measures of coercion
or discrimination against them, should they abstain from fulfilling their functions
for reasons of conscience.
This prohibition does not prejudice the application of the second paragraph of Article
51. It does not affect the right of the Occupying Power to remove public officials
from their posts.
To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty
of ensuring the food and medical supplies of the population; it should, in particular,
bring in the necessary foodstuffs, medical stores and other articles if the resources
of the occupied territory are inadequate.
The Occupying Power may not requisition foodstuffs, articles or medical supplies available
in the occupied territory, except for use by the occupation forces and administration
personnel, and then only if the requirements of the civilian population have been
taken into account. Subject to the provisions of other international Conventions,
the Occupying Power shall make arrangements to ensure that fair value is paid for
any requisitioned goods. The Protecting Power shall, at any time, be at liberty to
verify the state of the food and medical supplies in occupied territories, except
where temporary restrictions are made necessary by imperative military requirements.
To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty
of ensuring and maintaining, with the cooperation of national and local authorities,
the medical and hospital establishments and services, public health and hygiene in
the occupied territory, with particular reference to the adoption and application
of the prophylactic and preventive measures necessary to combat the spread of contagious
diseases and epidemics. Medical personnel of all categories shall be allowed to carry
out their duties.
If new hospitals are set up in occupied territory and if the competent organs of the
occupied State are not operating there, the occupying authorities shall, if necessary,
grant them the recognition provided for in Article 18. In similar circumstances, the
occupying authorities shall also grant recognition to hospital personnel and transport
vehicles under the provisions of Articles 20 and 21.
In adopting measures of health and hygiene and in their implementation, the Occupying
Power shall take into consideration the moral and ethical susceptibilities of the
population of the occupied territory.
The Occupying Power may requisition civilian hospitals only temporarily and only in
cases of urgent necessity for the care of military wounded and sick, and then on condition
that suitable arrangements are made in due time for the care and treatment of the
patients and for the needs of the civilian population for hospital accommodation.
The material and stores of civilian hospitals cannot be requisitioned so long as they
are necessary for the needs of the civilian population.
The Occupying Power shall permit ministers of religion to give spiritual assistance
to the members of their religious communities.
The Occupying Power shall also accept consignments of books and articles required
for religious needs and shall facilitate their distribution in occupied territory.
If the whole or part of the population of an occupied territory is inadequately supplied,
the Occupying Power shall agree to relief schemes on behalf of the said population,
and shall facilitate them by all the means at its disposal.
Such schemes, which may be undertaken either by States or by impartial humanitarian
organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, shall consist,
in particular, of the provision of consignments of foodstuffs, medical supplies and
All Contracting Parties shall permit the free passage of these consignments and shall
guarantee their protection.
A Power granting free passage to consignments on their way to territory occupied by
an adverse Party to the conflict shall, however, have the right to search the consignments,
to regulate their passage according to prescribed times and routes, and to be reasonably
satisfied through the Protecting Power that these consignments are to be used for
the relief of the needy population and are not to be used for the benefit of the Occupying
Relief consignments shall in no way relieve the Occupying Power of any of its responsibilities
under Articles 55, 56 and 59. The Occupying Power shall in no way whatsoever divert
relief consignments from the purpose for which they are intended, except in cases
of urgent necessity, in the interests of the population of the occupied territory
and with the consent of the Protecting Power.
The distribution of the relief consignments referred to in the foregoing Articles
shall be carried out with the cooperation and under the supervision of the Protecting
Power. This duty may also be delegated, by agreement between the Occupying Power and
the Protecting Power, to a neutral Power, to the International Committee of the Red
Cross or to any other impartial humanitarian body.
Such consignments shall be exempt in occupied territory from all charges, taxes or
customs duties unless these are necessary in the interests of the economy of the territory.
The Occupying Power shall facilitate the rapid distribution of these consignments.
All Contracting Parties shall endeavour to permit the transit and transport, free
of charge, of such relief consignments on their way to occupied territories.
Subject to imperative reasons of security, protected persons in occupied territories
shall be permitted to receive the individual relief consignments sent to them.
Subject to temporary and exceptional measures imposed for urgent reasons of security
by the Occupying Power:
(a) recognized National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies shall be
able to pursue their activities in accordance with Red Cross principles, as defined
by the International Red Cross Conferences. Other relief societies shall be permitted
to continue their humanitarian activities under similar conditions;
(b) the Occupying Power may not require any changes in the personnel or structure of these
societies, which would prejudice the aforesaid activities.
The same principles shall apply to the activities and personnel of special organizations
of a non-military character, which already exist or which may be established, for
the purpose of ensuring the living conditions of the civilian population by the maintenance
of the essential public utility services, by the distribution of relief and by the
organization of rescues.
The penal laws of the occupied territory shall remain in force, with the exception
that they may be repealed or suspended by the Occupying Power in cases where they
constitute a threat to its security or an obstacle to the application of the present
Convention. Subject to the latter consideration and to the necessity for ensuring
the effective administration of justice, the tribunals of the occupied territory shall
continue to function in respect of all offences covered by the said laws.
The Occupying Power may, however, subject the population of the occupied territory
to provisions which are essential to enable the Occupying Power to fulfil its obligations
under the present Convention, to maintain the orderly government of the territory,
and to ensure the security of the Occupying Power, of the members and property of
the occupying forces or administration, and likewise of the establishments and lines
of communication used by them.
The penal provisions enacted by the Occupying Power shall not come into force before
they have been published and brought to the knowledge of the inhabitants in their
own language. The effect of these penal provisions shall not be retroactive.
In case of a breach of the penal provisions promulgated by it by virtue of the second
paragraph of Article 64, the Occupying Power may hand over the accused to its properly
constituted, non-political military courts, on condition that the said courts sit
in the occupied country. Courts of appeal shall preferably sit in the occupied country.
The courts shall apply only those provisions of law which were applicable prior to
the offence, and which are in accordance with general principles of law, in particular
the principle that the penalty shall be proportionate to the offence. They shall take
into consideration the fact that the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power.
Protected persons who commit an offence which is solely intended to harm the Occupying
Power, but which does not constitute an attempt on the life or limb of members of
the occupying forces or administration, nor a grave collective danger, nor seriously
damage the property of the occupying forces or administration or the installations
used by them, shall be liable to internment or simple imprisonment, provided the duration
of such internment or imprisonment is proportionate to the offence committed. Furthermore,
internment or imprisonment shall, for such offences, be the only measure adopted for
depriving protected persons of liberty. The courts provided for under Article 66 of
the present Convention may at their discretion convert a sentence of imprisonment
to one of internment for the same period.
The penal provisions promulgated by the Occupying Power in accordance with Articles
64 and 65 may impose the death penalty on a protected person only in cases where the
person is guilty of espionage, of serious acts of sabotage against the military installations
of the Occupying Power or of intentional offences which have caused the death of one
or more persons, provided that such offences were punishable by death under the law
of the occupied territory in force before the occupation began.
The death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person unless the attention
of the court has been particularly called to the fact that since the accused is not
a national of the Occupying Power, he is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance.
In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person who
was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.
In all cases, the duration of the period during which a protected person accused of
an offence is under arrest awaiting trial or punishment shall be deducted from any
period of imprisonment awarded.
Protected persons shall not be arrested, prosecuted or convicted by the Occupying
Power for acts committed or for opinions expressed before the occupation, or during
a temporary interruption thereof, with the exception of breaches of the laws and customs
Nationals of the occupying Power who, before the outbreak of hostilities, have sought
refuge in the territory of the occupied State, shall not be arrested, prosecuted,
convicted or deported from the occupied territory, except for offences committed after
the outbreak of hostilities, or for offences under common law committed before the
outbreak of hostilities which, according to the law of the occupied State, would have
justified extradition in time of peace.
No sentence shall be pronounced by the competent courts of the Occupying Power except
after a regular trial.
Accused persons who are prosecuted by the Occupying Power shall be promptly informed,
in writing, in a language which they understand, of the particulars of the charges
preferred against them, and shall be brought to trial as rapidly as possible. The
Protecting Power shall be informed of all proceedings instituted by the Occupying
Power against protected persons in respect of charges involving the death penalty
or imprisonment for two years or more; it shall be enabled, at any time, to obtain
information regarding the state of such proceedings. Furthermore, the Protecting Power
shall be entitled, on request, to be furnished with all particulars of these and of
any other proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons.
The notification to the Protecting Power, as provided for in the second paragraph
above, shall be sent immediately, and shall in any case reach the Protecting Power
three weeks before the date of the first hearing. Unless, at the opening of the trial,
evidence is submitted that the provisions of this Article are fully complied with,
the trial shall not proceed. The notification shall include the following particulars:
(a) description of the accused;
(b) place of residence or detention;
(c) specification of the charge or charges (with mention of the penal provisions under
which it is brought);
(d) designation of the court which will hear the case;
(e) place and date of the first hearing.
Accused persons shall have the right to present evidence necessary to their defence
and may, in particular, call witnesses. They shall have the right to be assisted by
a qualified advocate or counsel of their own choice, who shall be able to visit them
freely and shall enjoy the necessary facilities for preparing the defence.
Failing a choice by the accused, the Protecting Power may provide him with an advocate
or counsel. When an accused person has to meet a serious charge and the Protecting
Power is not functioning, the Occupying Power, subject to the consent of the accused,
shall provide an advocate or counsel.
Accused persons shall, unless they freely waive such assistance, be aided by an interpreter,
both during preliminary investigation and during the hearing in court. They shall
have the right at any time to object to the interpreter and to ask for his replacement.
A convicted person shall have the right of appeal provided for by the laws applied
by the court. He shall be fully informed of his right to appeal or petition and of
the time limit within which he may do so.
The penal procedure provided in the present Section shall apply, as far as it is applicable,
to appeals. Where the laws applied by the Court make no provision for appeals, the
convicted person shall have the right to petition against the finding and sentence
to the competent authority of the Occupying Power.
Representatives of the Protecting Power shall have the right to attend the trial of
any protected person, unless the hearing has, as an exceptional measure, to be held
in camera in the interests of the security of the Occupying Power, which shall then notify
the Protecting Power. A notification in respect of the date and place of trial shall
be sent to the Protecting Power.
Any judgment involving a sentence of death, or imprisonment for two years or more,
shall be communicated, with the relevant grounds, as rapidly as possible to the Protecting
Power. The notification shall contain a reference to the notification made under Article
71, and, in the case of sentences of imprisonment, the name of the place where the
sentence is to be served. A record of judgments other than those referred to above
shall he kept by the court and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the
Protecting Power. Any period allowed for appeal in the case of sentences involving
the death penalty, or imprisonment of two years or more, shall not run until notification
of judgment has been received by the Protecting Power.
In no case shall persons condemned to death be deprived of the right of petition for
pardon or reprieve.
No death sentence shall be carried out before the expiration of a period of at least
six months from the date of receipt by the Protecting Power of the notification of
the final judgment confirming such death sentence, or of an order denying pardon or
The six months period of suspension of the death sentence herein prescribed may be
reduced in individual cases in circumstances of grave emergency involving an organized
threat to the security of the Occupying Power or its forces, provided always that
the Protecting Power is notified of such reduction and is given reasonable time and
opportunity to make representations to the competent occupying authorities in respect
of such death sentences.
Protected persons accused of offences shall be detained in the occupied country, and
if convicted they shall serve their sentences therein. They shall, if possible, be
separated from other detainees and shall enjoy conditions of food and hygiene which
will be sufficient to keep them in good health, and which will be at least equal to
those obtaining in prisons in the occupied country.
They shall receive the medical attention required by their state of health.
They shall also have the right to receive any spiritual assistance which they may
Women shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the direct supervision
Proper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due to minors.
Protected persons who are detained shall have the right to be visited by delegates
of the Protecting Power and of the International Committee of the Red Cross, in accordance
with the provisions of Article 143.
Such persons shall have the right to receive at least one relief parcel monthly.
Protected persons who have been accused of offences or convicted by the courts in
occupied territory, shall be handed over at the close of occupation, with the relevant
records, to the authorities of the liberated territory.
If the Occupying Power considers it necessary, for imperative reasons of security,
to take safety measures concerning protected persons, it may, at the most, subject
them to assigned residence or to internment.
Decisions regarding such assigned residence or internment shall be made according
to a regular procedure to be prescribed by the Occupying Power in accordance with
the provisions of the present Convention. This procedure shall include the right of
appeal for the parties concerned. Appeals shall be decided with the least possible
delay. In the event of the decision being upheld, it shall be subject to periodical
review, if possible every six months, by a competent body set up by the said Power.
Protected persons made subject to assigned residence and thus required to leave their
homes shall enjoy the full benefit of Article 39 of the present Convention.
The Parties to the conflict shall not intern protected persons, except in accordance
with the provisions of Articles 41, 42, 43, 68 and 78.
Internees shall retain their full civil capacity and shall exercise such attendant
rights as may be compatible with their status.
Parties to the conflict who intern protected persons shall be bound to provide free
of charge for their maintenance, and to grant them also the medical attention required
by their state of health.
No deduction from the allowances, salaries or credits due to the internees shall be
made for the repayment of these costs.
The Detaining Power shall provide for the support of those dependent on the internees,
if such dependents are without adequate means of support or are unable to earn a living.
The Detaining Power shall, as far as possible, accommodate the internees according
to their nationality, language and customs. Internees who are nationals of the same
country shall not be separated merely because they have different languages.
Throughout the duration of their internment, members of the same family, and in particular
parents and children, shall be lodged together in the same place of internment, except
when separation of a temporary nature is necessitated for reasons of employment or
health or for the purposes of enforcement of the provisions of Chapter IX of the present
Section. Internees may request that their children who are left at liberty without
parental care shall be interned with them.
Wherever possible, interned members of the same family shall be housed in the same
premises and given separate accommodation from other internees, together with faculties
for leading a proper family life.
The Detaining Power shall not set up places of internment in areas particularly exposed
to the dangers of war.
The Detaining Power shall give the enemy Powers, through the intermediary of the Protecting
Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical location of places of internment.
Whenever military considerations permit, internment camps shall be indicated by the
letters IC, placed so as to be clearly visible in the daytime from the air. The Powers
concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. No place other than
an internment camp shall be marked as such.
Internees shall be accommodated and administered separately from prisoners of war
and from persons deprived of liberty for any other reason.
The Detaining Power is bound to take all necessary and possible measures to ensure
that protected persons shall, from the outset of their internment, be accommodated
in buildings or quarters which afford every possible safeguard as regards hygiene
and health, and provide efficient protection against the rigours of the climate and
the effects of the war. In no case shall permanent places of internment be situated
in unhealthy areas, or in districts the climate of which is injurious to the internees.
In all cases where the district, in which a protected person is temporarily interned,
is in an unhealthy area or has a climate which is harmful to his health, he shall
be removed to a more suitable place of internment as rapidly as circumstances permit.
The premises shall be fully protected from dampness, adequately heated and lighted,
in particular between dusk and lights out. The sleeping quarters shall be sufficiently
spacious and well ventilated, and the internees shall have suitable bedding and sufficient
blankets, account being taken of the climate, and the age, sex, and state of health
of the internees.
Internees shall have for their use, day and night, sanitary conveniences which conform
to the rules of hygiene and are constantly maintained in a state of cleanliness. They
shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their daily personal toilet and
for washing their personal laundry; installations and facilities necessary for this
purpose shall be granted to them. Showers or baths shall also be available. The necessary
time shall be set aside for washing and for cleaning.
Whenever it is necessary, as an exceptional and temporary measure, to accommodate
women internees who are not members of a family unit in the same place of internment
as men, the provision of separate sleeping quarters and sanitary conveniences for
the use of such women internees shall be obligatory.
The Detaining Power shall place at the disposal of interned persons, of whatever denomination,
premises suitable for the holding of their religious services.
Canteens shall be installed in every place of internment, except where other suitable
facilities are available. Their purpose shall be to enable internees to make purchases,
at prices not higher than local market prices, of foodstuffs and articles of everyday
use, including soap and tobacco, such as would increase their personal well-being
Profits made by canteens shall be credited to a welfare fund to be set up for each
place of internment, and administered for the benefit of the internees attached to
such place of internment. The Internes Committee provided for in Article 102 shall
have the right to check the management of the canteen and of the said fund.
When a place of internment is closed down, the balance of the welfare fund shall be
transferred to the welfare fund of a place of internment for internees of the same
nationality, or, if such a place does not exist, to a central welfare fund which shall
be administered for the benefit of all internees remaining in the custody of the Detaining
Power. In case of a general release, the said profits shall be kept by the Detaining
Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned.
In all places of internment exposed to air raids and other hazards of war, shelters
adequate in number and structure to ensure the necessary protection shall be installed.
In case of alarms, the internees shall be free to enter such shelters as quickly as
possible, excepting those who remain for the protection of their quarters against
the aforesaid hazards. Any protective measures taken in favour of the population shall
also apply to them.
Al due precautions must be taken in places of internment against the danger of fire.
Daily food rations for internees shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety
to keep internees in a good state of health and prevent the development of nutritional
deficiencies. Account shall also be taken of the customary diet of the internees.
Internees shall also be given the means by which they can prepare for themselves any
additional food in their possession.
Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to internees. The use of tobacco shall
Internees who work shall receive additional rations in proportion to the kind of labour
which they perform.
Expectant and nursing mothers, and children under fifteen years of age, shall be given
additional food, in proportion to their physiological needs.
When taken into custody, internees shall be given all facilities to provide themselves
with the necessary clothing, footwear and change of underwear, and later on, to procure
further supplies if required. Should any internees not have sufficient clothing, account
being taken of the climate, and be unable to procure any, it shall be provided free
of charge to them by the Detaining Power.
The clothing supplied by the Detaining Power to internees and the outward markings
placed on their own clothes shall not be ignominious nor expose them to ridicule.
Workers shall receive suitable working outfits, including protective clothing, whenever
the nature of their work so requires.
Every place of internment shall have an adequate infirmary, under the direction of
a qualified doctor, where internees may have the attention they require, as well as
an appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall be set aside for cases of contagious or
Maternity cases and internees suffering from serious diseases, or whose condition
requires special treatment, a surgical operation or hospital care, must be admitted
to any institution where adequate treatment can be given and shall receive care not
inferior to that provided for the general population.
Internees shall, for preference, have the attention of medical personnel of their
own nationality. Internees may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the
medical authorities for examination. The medical authorities of the Detaining Power
shall, upon request, issue to every internee who has undergone treatment an official
certificate showing the nature of his illness or injury, are the duration and nature
of the treatment given. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the
Central Agency provided for in Article 140.
Treatment, including the provision of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance
of internees in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances
and spectacles, shall be free of charge to the internee.
Medical inspections of internees shall be made at least once a month. Their purpose
shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness
of internees, and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria,
and venereal diseases. Such inspections shall include, in particular, the checking
of weight of each internee and, at least once a year, radioscopic examination.
Internees shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties,
including attendance at the services of their faith, on condition that they comply
with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the detaining authorities.
Ministers of religion who are interned shall be allowed to minister freely to the
members of their community. For this purpose, the Detaining Power shall ensure their
equitable allocation amongst the various places of internment in which there are internees
speaking the same language and belonging to the same religion. Should such ministers
be too few in number, the Detaining Power shall provide them with the necessary facilities,
including means of transport, for moving from one place to another, and they shall
be authorized to visit any internees who are in hospital. Ministers of religion shall
be at liberty to correspond on matters concerning their ministry with the religious
authorities in the country of detention and, as far as possible, with the international
religious organizations of their faith. Such correspondence shall not be considered
as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article 107. It shall, however, be subject
to the provisions of Article 112.
When internees do not have at their disposal the assistance of ministers of their
faith, or should these latter be too few in number, the local religious authorities
of the same faith may appoint, in agreement with the Detaining Power, a minister of
the internees' faith or, if such a course is feasible from a denominational point
of view, a minister of similar religion or a qualified layman. The latter shall enjoy
the facilities granted to the ministry he has assumed. Persons so appointed shall
comply with all regulations laid down by the Detaining Power in the interests of discipline
The Detaining Power shall encourage intellectual, educational and recreational pursuits,
sports and games amongst internees, whilst leaving them free to take part in them
or not. It shall take all practicable measures to ensure the exercise thereof, in
particular by providing suitable premises.
All possible facilities shall be granted to internees to continue their studies or
to take up new subjects. The education of children and young people shall be ensured;
they shall be allowed to attend schools either within the place of internment or outside.
Internees shall be given opportunities for physical exercise, sports and outdoor games.
For this purpose, sufficient open spaces shall be set aside in all places of internment.
Special playgrounds shall be reserved for children and young people.
The Detaining Power shall not employ internees as workers, unless they so desire.
Employment which, if undertaken under compulsion by a protected person not in internment,
would involve a breach of Articles 40 or 51 of the present Convention, and employment
on work which is of a degrading or humiliating character are in any case prohibited.
After a working period of six weeks, internees shall be free to give up work at any
moment, subject to eight days' notice. These provisions constitute no obstacle to
the right of the Detaining Power to employ interned doctors, dentists and other medical
personnel in their professional capacity on behalf of their fellow internees, or to
employ internees for administrative and maintenance work in places of internment and
to detail such persons for work in the kitchens or for other domestic tasks, or to
require such persons to undertake duties connected with the protection of internees
against aerial bombardment or other war risks. No internee may, however, be required
to perform tasks for which he is, in the opinion of a medical officer, physically
The Detaining Power shall take entire responsibility for all working conditions, for
medical attention, for the payment of wages, and for ensuring that all employed internees
receive compensation for occupational accidents and diseases. The standards prescribed
for the said working conditions and for compensation shall be in accordance with the
national laws and regulations, and with the existing practice; they shall in no case
be inferior to those obtaining for work of the same nature in the same district. Wages
for work done shall be determined on an equitable basis by special agreements between
the internees, the Detaining Power, and, if the case arises, employers other than
the Detaining Power, due regard being paid to the obligation of the Detaining Power
to provide for free maintenance of internees and for the medical attention which their
state of health may require. Internees permanently detailed for categories of work
mentioned in the third paragraph of this Article, shall be paid fair wages by the
Detaining Power. The working conditions and the scale of compensation for occupational
accidents and diseases to internees thus detailed, shall not be inferior to those
applicable to work of the same nature in the same district.
All labour detachments shall remain part of and dependent upon a place of internment.
The competent authorities of the Detaining Power and the commandant of a place of
internment shall be responsible for the observance in a labour detachment of the provisions
of the present Convention. The commandant shall keep an up-to-date list of the labour
detachments subordinate to him and shall communicate it to the delegates of the Protecting
Power, of the International Committee of the Red Cross and of other humanitarian organizations
who may visit the places of internment.
Internees shall be permitted to retain articles of personal use. Monies, cheques,
bonds, etc., and valuables in their possession may not be taken from them except in
accordance with established procedure. Detailed receipts shall be given therefor.
The amounts shall be paid into the account of every internee as provided for in Article
98. Such amounts may not be converted into any other currency unless legislation in
force in the territory in which the owner is interned so requires or the internee
gives his consent.
Articles which have above all a personal or sentimental value may not be taken away.
A woman internee shall not be searched except by a woman.
On release or repatriation, internees shall be given all articles, monies or other
valuables taken from them during internment and shall receive in currency the balance
of any credit to their accounts kept in accordance with Article 98, with the exception
of any articles or amounts withheld by the Detaining Power by virtue of its legislation
in force. If the property of an internee is so withheld, the owner shall receive a
Family or identity documents in the possession of internees may not be taken away
without a receipt being given. At no time shall internees be left without identity
documents. If they have none, they shall be issued with special documents drawn up
by the detaining authorities, which will serve as their identity papers until the
end of their internment.
Internees may keep on their persons a certain amount of money, in cash or in the shape
of purchase coupons, to enable them to make purchases.
All internees shall receive regular allowances, sufficient to enable them to purchase
goods and articles, such as tobacco, toilet requisites, etc. Such allowances may take
the form of credits or purchase coupons.
Furthermore, internees may receive allowances from the Power to which they owe allegiance,
the Protecting Powers, the organizations which may assist them, or their families,
as well as the income on their property in accordance with the law of the Detaining
Power. The amount of allowances granted by the Power to which they owe allegiance
shall be the same for each category of internees (infirm, sick, pregnant women, etc.),
but may not be allocated by that Power or distributed by the Detaining Power on the
basis of discriminations between internees which are prohibited by Article 27 of the
The Detaining Power shall open a regular account for every internee, to which shall
be credited the allowances named in the present Article, the wages earned and the
remittances received, together with such sums taken from him as may be available under
the legislation in force in the territory in which he is interned. Internees shall
be granted all facilities consistent with the legislation in force in such territory
to make remittances to their families and to other dependants. They may draw from
their accounts the amounts necessary for their personal expenses, within the limits
fixed by the Detaining Power. They shall at all times be afforded reasonable facilities
for consulting and obtaining copies of their accounts. A statement of accounts shall
be furnished to the Protecting Power on request, and shall accompany the internee
in case of transfer.
Every place of internment shall be put under the authority of a responsible officer,
chosen from the regular military forces or the regular civil administration of the
Detaining Power. The officer in charge of the place of internment must have in his
possession a copy of the present Convention in the official language, or one of the
official languages, of his country and shall be responsible for its application. The
staff in control of internets shall be instructed in the provisions of the present
Convention and of the administrative measures adopted to ensure its application.
The text of the present Convention and the texts of special agreements concluded under
the said Convention shall be posted inside the place of internment, in a language
which the internees understand, or shall be in the possession of the Internee Committee.
Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind shall be communicated
to the internees and posted inside the places of internment, in a language which they
Every order and command addressed to internees individually, must likewise, be given
in a language which they understand.
The disciplinary regime in places of internment shall be consistent with humanitarian
principles, and shall in no circumstances include regulations imposing on internees
any physical exertion dangerous to their health or involving physical or moral victimization.
Identification by tattooing or imprinting signs or markings on the body, is prohibited.
In particular, prolonged standing and roll-calls, punishment drill, military drill
and manoeuvres, or the reduction of food rations, are prohibited.
Internees shall have the right to present to the authorities in whose power they are,
any petition with regard to the conditions of internment to which they are subjected.
They shall also have the right to apply without restriction through the Internee Committee
or, if they consider it necessary, direct to the representatives of the Protecting
Power, in order to indicate to them any points on which they may have complaints to
make with regard to the conditions of internment.
Such petitions and complaints shall be transmitted forthwith and without alteration,
and even if the latter are recognized to be unfounded, they may not occasion any punishment.
Periodic reports on the situation in places of internment and as to the needs of the
internees, may be sent by the Internee Committees to the representatives of the Protecting
In every place of internment, the internees shall freely elect by secret ballot every
six months, the members of a Committee empowered to represent them before the Detaining
and the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and any other
organization which may assist them. The members of the Committee shall be eligible
Internees so elected shall enter upon their duties after their election has been approved
by the detaining authorities. The reasons for any refusals or dismissals shall be
communicated to the Protecting Powers concerned.
The Internee Committees shall further the physical, spiritual and intellectual well-being
of the internees.
In case the internees decide, in particular, to organize a system of mutual assistance
amongst themselves, this organization would be within the competence of the Committees
in addition to the special duties entrusted to them under other provisions of the
Members of Internee Committees shall not be required to perform any other work, if
the accomplishment of their duties is rendered more difficult thereby.
Members of Internee Committees may appoint from amongst the internees such assistants
as they may require. All material facilities shall be granted to them, particularly
a certain freedom of movement necessary for the accomplishment of their duties (visits
to labour detachments, receipt of supplies, etc.).
All facilities shall likewise be accorded to members of Internee Committees for communication
by post and telegraph with the detaining authorities, the Protecting Powers, the International
Committee of the Red Cross and their delegates, and with the organizations which give
assistance to internees. Committee members in labour detachments shall enjoy similar
facilities for communication with their Internee Committee in the principal place
of internment. Such communications shall not be limited, nor considered as forming
a part of the quota mentioned in Article 107.
Members of Internee Committees who are transferred shall be allowed a reasonable time
to acquaint their successors with current affairs.
Immediately upon interning protected persons, the Detaining Powers shall inform them,
the Power to which they owe allegiance and their Protecting Power of the measures
taken for executing the provisions of the present Chapter. The Detaining Powers shall
likewise inform the Parties concerned of any subsequent modifications of such measures.
As soon as he is interned, or at the latest not more than one week after his arrival
in a place of internment, and likewise in cases of sickness or transfer to another
place of internment or to a hospital, every internee shall be enabled to send direct
to his family, on the one hand, and to the Central Agency provided for by Article
140, on the other, an internment card similar, if possible, to the model annexed to
the present Convention, informing his relatives of his detention, address and state
of health. The said cards shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible and may not be
delayed in any way.
Internees shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards. If the Detaining
Power deems it necessary to limit the number of letters and cards sent by each internee,
the said number shall not be less than two letters and four cards monthly; these shall
be drawn up so as to conform as closely as possible to the models annexed to the present
Convention. If limitations must be placed on the correspondence addressed to internees,
they may be ordered only by the Power to which such internees owe allegiance, possibly
at the request of the Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must be conveyed with
reasonable despatch; they may not be delayed or retained for disciplinary reasons.
Internees who have been a long time without news, or who find it impossible to receive
news from their relatives, or to give them news by the ordinary postal route, as well
as those who are at a considerable distance from their homes, shall be allowed to
send telegrams, the charges being paid by them in the currency at their disposal.
They shall likewise benefit by this provision in cases which are recognized to be
As a rule, internees' mail shall be written in their own language. The Parties to
the conflict may authorize correspondence in other languages.
Internees shall be allowed to receive, by post or by any other means, individual parcels
or collective shipments containing in particular foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies,
as well as books and objects of a devotional, educational or recreational character
which may meet their needs. Such shipments shall in no way free the Detaining Power
from the obligations imposed upon it by virtue of the present Convention.
Should military necessity require the quantity of such shipments to be limited, due
notice thereof shall be given to the Protecting Power and to the International Committee
of the Red Cross, or to any other organization giving assistance to the internees
and responsible for the forwarding of such shipments.
The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective shipments shall,
if necessary, be the subject of special agreements between the Powers concerned, which
may in no case delay the receipt by the internees of relief supplies. Parcels of clothing
and foodstuffs may not include books. Medical relief supplies shall, as a rule, be
sent in collective parcels.
In the absence of special agreements between Parties to the conflict regarding the
conditions for the receipt and distribution of collective relief shipments, the regulations
concerning collective relief which are annexed to the present Convention shall be
The special agreements provided for above shall in no case restrict the right of Internee
Comittees to take possession of collective relief shipments intended for internees,
to undertake their distribution and to. dispose of them in the interests of the recipients.
Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of the Protecting
Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, or any other organization giving
assistance to internees and responsible for the forwarding of collective shipments,
to supervise their distribution to the recipients.
All relief shipments for internees shall be exempt from import, customs and other
All matter sent by mail, including relief parcels sent by parcel post and remittances
of money, addressed from other countries to internees or despatched by them through
the post office, either direct or through the Information Bureaux provided for in
Article 136 and the Central Information Agency provided for in Article 140, shall
be exempt from all postal dues both in the countries of origin and destination and
in intermediate countries. To this end, in particular, the exemption provided by the
Universal Postal Convention of 1947 and by the agreements of the World Postal Union
in favour of civilians of enemy nationality detained in camps or civilian prisons,
shall be extended to the other interned persons protected by the present Convention.
The countries not signatory to the above-mentioned agreements shall be bound to grant
freedom from charges in the same circumstances.
The cost of transporting relief shipments which are intended for internees and which,
by reason of their weight or any other cause, cannot be sent through the post office,
shall be borne by the Detaining Power in all the territories under its control. Other
Powers which are Parties to the present Convention shall bear the cost of transport
in their respective territories.
Costs connected with the transport of such shipments, which are not covered by the
above paragraphs, shall be charged to the senders.
The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to reduce, so far as possible, the charges
for telegrams sent by internees, or addressed to them.
Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from fulfilling their obligation
to ensure the conveyance of the mail and relief shipments provided for in Article
106, 107, 108 and 113, the Protecting Powers concerned, the International Committee
of the Red Cross or any other organization duly approved by the Parties to the conflict
may undertake the conveyance of such shipments by suitable means (rail, motor vehicles,
vessels or aircraft, etc.). For this purpose, the High Contracting Parties shall endeavour
to supply them with such transport, and to allow its circulation, especially by granting
the necessary safe-conducts.
Such transport may also be used to convey:
(a) correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the Central Information Agency
referred to in Article 140 and the National Bureaux referred to in Article 136;
(b) correspondence and reports relating to internees which the Protecting Powers, the
International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization assisting the internees
exchange either with their own delegates or with the Parties to the conflict.
These provisions in no way detract from the right of any Party to the conflict to
arrange other means of transport if it should so prefer, nor preclude the granting
of safe-conducts, under mutually agreed conditions, to such means of transport.
The costs occasioned by the use of such means of transport shall be borne, in proportion
to the importance of the shipments, by the Parties to the conflict whose nationals
are benefited thereby.
The censoring of correspondence addressed to internees or despatched by them shall
be done as quickly as possible.
The examination of consignments intended for internees shall not be carried out under
conditions that will expose the goods contained in them to deterioration. It shall
be done in the presence of the addressee, or of a fellow-internee duly delegated by
him. The delivery to internees of individual or collective consignments shall not
be delayed under the pretext of difficulties of censorship.
Any prohibition of correspondence ordered by the Parties to the conflict either for
military or political reasons, shall be only temporary and its duration shall be as
short as possible.
The Detaining Powers shall provide all reasonable facilities for the transmission,
through the Protecting Power or the Central Agency provided for in Article 140, or
as otherwise required, of wills, powers of attorney, letters of authority, or any
other documents intended for internees or despatched by them.
In all cases the Detaining Powers shall facilitate the execution and authentication
in due legal form of such documents on behalf of internees, in particular by allowing
them to consult a lawyer.
The Detaining Power shall afford internees all facilities to enable them to manage
their property, provided this is not incompatible with the conditions of internment
and the law which is applicable. For this purpose, the said Power may give them permission
to leave the place of internment in urgent cases and if circumstances allow.
In all cases where an internee is a party to proceedings in any court, the Detaining
Power shall, if he so requests, cause the court to be informed of his detention and
shall, within legal limits, ensure that all necessary steps are taken to prevent him
from being in any way prejudiced, by reason of his internment, as regards the preparation
and conduct of his case or as regards the execution of any judgment of the court.
Every internee shall be allowed to receive visitors, especially near relatives, at
regular intervals and as frequently as possible.
As far as is possible, internees shall be permitted to visit their homes in urgent
cases, particularly in cases of death or serious illness of relatives.
Subject to the provisions of the present Chapter, the laws in force in the territory
in which they are detained will continue to apply to internees who commit offences
If general laws, regulations or orders declare acts committed by internees to be punishable,
whereas the same acts are not punishable when committed by persons who are not internees,
such acts shall entail disciplinary punishments only.
No internee may be punished more than once for the same act, or on the same count.
The courts or authorities shall in passing sentence take as far as possible into account
the fact that the defendant is not a national of the Detaining Power. They shall be
free to reduce the penalty prescribed for the offence with which the internee is charged
and shall not be obliged, to this end, to apply the minimum sentence prescribed.
Imprisonment in premises without daylight and, in general, all forms of cruelty without
exception are forbidden.
Internees who have served disciplinary or judicial sentences shall not be treated
differently from other internees.
The duration of preventive detention undergone by an internee shall be deducted from
any disciplinary or judicial penalty involving confinement to which he may be sentenced.
Internee Committees shall be informed of all judicial proceedings instituted against
internees whom they represent, and of their result.
The disciplinary punishments applicable to internees shall be the following:
(1) A fine which shall not exceed 50 per cent of the wages which the internee would otherwise
receive under the provisions of Article 95 during a period of not more than thirty
(2) Discontinuance of privileges granted over and above the treatment provided for by
the present Convention.
(3) Fatigue duties, not exceeding two hours daily, in connection with the maintenance
of the place of internment.
In no case shall disciplinary penalties be inhuman, brutal or dangerous for the health
of internees. Account shall be taken of the internee's age, sex and state of health.
The duration of any single punishment shall in no case exceed a maximum of thirty
consecutive days, even if the internee is answerable for several breaches of discipline
when his case is dealt with, whether such breaches are connected or not.
Internees who are recaptured after having escaped or when attempting to escape, shall
be liable only to disciplinary punishment in respect of this act, even if it is a
Article 118, paragraph 3, notwithstanding, internees punished as a result of escape
or attempt to escape, may be subjected to special surveillance, on condition that
such surveillance does not affect the state of their health, that it is exercised
in a place of internment and that it does not entail the abolition of any of the safeguards
granted by the present Convention.
Internees who aid and abet an escape or attempt to escape, shall be liable on this
count to disciplinary punishment only.
Escape, or attempt to escape, even if it is a repeated offence, shall not be deemed
an aggravating circumstance in cases where an internee is prosecuted for offences
committed during his escape.
The Parties to the conflict shall ensure that the competent authorities exercise leniency
in deciding whether punishment inflicted for an offence shall be of a disciplinary
or judicial nature, especially in respect of acts committed in connection with an
escape, whether succesful or not.
Acts which constitute offences against discipline shall be investigated immediately.
This rule shall be applied, in particular, in cases of escape or attempt to escape.
Recaptured internees shall be handed over to the competent authorities as soon as
In case of offences against discipline, confinement awaiting trial shall be reduced
to an absolute minimum for all internees, and shall not exceed fourteen days. Its
duration shall in any case be deducted from any sentence of confinement.
The provisions of Articles 124 and 125 shall apply to internees who are in confinement
awaiting trial for offences against discipline.
Without prejudice to the competence of courts and higher authorities, disciplinary
punishment may be ordered only by the commandant of the place of internment, or by
a responsible officer or official who replaces him, or to whom he has delegated his
Before any disciplinary punishment is awarded, the accused internee shall be given
precise information regarding the offences of which he is accused, and given an opportunity
of explaining his conduct and of defending himself. He shall be permitted, in particular,
to call witnesses and to have recourse, if necessary, to the services of a qualified
interpreter. The decision shall be announced in the presence of the accused and of
a member of the Internee Committee.
The period elapsing between the time of award of a disciplinary punishment and its
execution shall not exceed one month.
When an internee is awarded a further disciplinary punishment, a period of at least
three days shall elapse between the execution of any two of the punishments, if the
duration of one of these is ten days or more.
A record of disciplinary punishments shall be maintained by the commandant of the
place of internment and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting
Internees shall not in any case be transferred to penitentiary establishments (prisons,
penitentiaries, convict prisons, etc.) to undergo disciplinary punishment therein.
The premises in which disciplinary punishments are undergone shall conform to sanitary
requirements; they shall in particular be provided with adequate bedding. Internees
undergoing punishment shall be enabled to keep themselves in a state of cleanliness.
Women internees undergoing disciplinary punishment shall be confined in separate quarters
from male internees and shall be under the immediate supervision of women.
Internees awarded disciplinary punishment shall be allowed to exercise and to stay
in the open air at least two hours daily.
They shall be allowed, if they so request, to be present at the daily medical inspections.
They shall receive the attention which their state of health requires and, if necessary,
shall be removed to the infirmary of the place of internment or to a hospital.
They shall have permission to read and write, likewise to send and receive letters.
Parcels and remittances of money, however, may be withheld from them until the completion
of their punishment; such consignments shall meanwhile be entrusted to the Internee
Committee, who will hand over to the infirmary the perishable goods contained in the
No internee given a disciplinary punishment may be deprived of the benefit of the
provisions of Articles 107 and 143 of the present Convention.
The provisions of Articles 71 to 76 inclusive shall apply, by analogy, to proceedings
against internees who are in the national territory of the Detaining Power.
The transfer of internees shall always be effected humanely. As a general rule, it
shall be carried out by rail or other means of transport, and under conditions at
least equal to those obtaining for the forces of the Detaining Power in their changes
of station. If, as an exceptional measure, such removals have to be effected on foot,
they may not take place unless the internees are in a fit state of health, and may
not in any case expose them to excessive fatigue.
The Detaining Power shall supply internees during transfer with drinking water and
food sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to maintain them in good health,
and also with the necessary clothing, adequate shelter and the necessary medical attention.
The Detaining Power shall take all suitable precautions to ensure their safety during
transfer, and shall establish before their departure a complete list of all internees
Sick, wounded or infirm internees and maternity cases shall not be transferred if
the journey would be seriously detrimental to them, unless their safety imperatively
If the combat zone draws close to a place of internment, the internees in the said
place shall not be transferred unless their removal can be carried out in adequate
conditions of safety, or unless they are exposed to greater risks by remaining on
the spot than by being transferred.
When making decisions regarding the transfer of internees, the Detaining Power shall
take their interests into account and, in particular, shall not do anything to increase
the difficulties of repatriating them or returning them to their own homes.
In the event of transfer, internees shall be officially advised of their departure
and of their new postal address. Such notification shall be given in time for them
to pack their luggage and inform their next of kin.
They shall be allowed to take with them their personal effects, and the correspondence
and parcels which have arrived for them. The weight of such baggage may be limited
if the conditions of transfer so require, but in no case to less than twenty-five
kilograms per internee.
Mail and parcels addressed to their former place of internment shall be forwarded
to them without delay.
The commandant of the place of internment shall take, in agreement with the Internee
Committee, any measures needed to ensure the transport of the internees' community
property and of the luggage the internees are unable to take with them in consequence
of restrictions imposed by virtue of the second paragraph.
The wills of internees shall be received for safe-keeping by the responsible authorities;
and in the event of the death of an internee his will shall be transmitted without
delay to a person whom he has previously designated.
Deaths of internees shall be certified in every case by a doctor, and a death certificate
shall be made out, showing the causes of death and the conditions under which it occurred.
An official record of the death, duly registered, shall be drawn up in accordance
with the procedure relating thereto in force in the territory where the place of internment
is situated, and a duly certified copy of such record shall be transmitted without
delay to the Protecting Power as well as to the Central Agency referred to in Article
The detaining authorities shall ensure that internees who die while interned are honourably
buried, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged,
and that their graves are respected, properly maintained, and marked in such a way
that they can always be recognized.
Deceased internees shall be buried in individual graves unless unavoidable circumstances
require the use of collective graves. Bodies may be cremated only for imperative reasons
of hygiene, on account of the religion of the deceased or in accordance with his expressed
wish to this effect. In case of cremation, the fact shall be stated and the reasons
given in the death certificate of the deceased. The ashes shall be retained for safe-keeping
by the detaining authorities and shall be transferred as soon as possible to the next
of kin on their request.
As soon as circumstances permit, and not later than the close of hostilities, the
Detaining Power shall forward lists of graves of deceased internees to the Powers
on whom deceased internees depended, through the Information Bureaux provided for
in Article 136. Such lists shall include all particulars necessary for the identification
of the deceased internees, as well as the exact location of their graves.
Every death or serious injury of an internee, caused or suspected to have been caused
by a sentry, another internee or any other person, as well as any death the cause
of which is unknown, shall be immediately followed by an official enquiry by the Detaining
A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to the Protecting Power.
The evidence of any witnesses shall be taken, and a report including such evidence
shall be prepared and forwarded to the said Protecting Power.
If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more persons, the Detaining Power shall
take all necessary steps to ensure the prosecution of the person or persons responsible.
Each interned person shall be released by the Detaining Power as soon as the reasons
which necessitated his internment no longer exist.
The Parties to the conflict shall, moreover, endeavour during the course of hostilities,
to conclude agreements for the release, the repatriation, the return to places of
residence or the accommodation in a neutral country of certain classes of internees,
in particular children, pregnant women and mothers with infants and young children,
wounded and sick, and internees who have been detained for a long time.
Internment shall cease as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.
Internees in the territory of a Party to the conflict against whom penal proceedings
are pending for offences not exclusively subject to disciplinary penalties, may be
detained until the close of such proceedings and, if circumstances require, until
the completion of the penalty. The same shall apply to internees who have been previously
sentenced to a punishment depriving them of liberty.
By agreement between the Detaining Power and the Powers concerned, committees may
be set up after the close of hostilities, or of the occupation of territories, to
search for dispersed internees.
The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour, upon the close of hostilities or occupation,
to ensure the return of all internees to their last place of residence, or to facilitate
The Detaining Power shall bear the expense of returning released internees to the
places where they were residing when interned, or, if it took them into custody while
they were in transit or on the high seas, the cost of completing their journey or
of their return to their point of departure.
Where a Detaining Power refuses permission to reside in its territory to a released
internee who previously had his permanent domicile therein, such Detaining Power shall
pay the cost of the said internee's repatriation. If, however, the internee elects
to return to his country on his own responsibility or in obedience to the Government
of the Power to which he owes allegiance, the Detaining Power need not pay the expenses
of his journey beyond the point of his departure from its territory. The Detaining
Power need not pay the costs of repatriation of an internee who was interned at his
If internees are transferred in accordance with Article 45, the transferring and receiving
Powers shall agree on the portion of the above costs to be borne by each.
The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be concluded between
Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and repatriation of their nationals
in enemy hands.
Upon the outbreak of a conflit and in all cases of occupation, each of the Parties
to the conflict shall establish an official Information Bureau responsible for receiving
and transmitting information in respect of the protected persons who are in its power.
Each of the Parties to the conflict shall, within the shortest possible period, give
its Bureau information of any measure taken by it concerning any protected persons
who are kept in custody for more than two weeks, who are subjected to assigned residence
or who are interned. It shall, furthermore, require its various departments concerned
with such matters to provide the aforesaid Bureau promptly with information concerning
all changes pertaining to these protected persons, as, for example, transfers, releases,
repatriations, escapes, admittances to hospitals, births and deaths.
Each national Bureau shall immediately forward information concerning protected persons
by the most rapid means to the Powers of whom the aforesaid persons are nationals,
or to Powers in whose territory they resided, through the intermediary of the Protecting
Powers and likewise through the Central Agency provided for in Article 140. The Bureaux
shall also reply to all enquiries which may be received regarding protected persons.
Information Bureaux shall transmit information concerning a protected person unless
its transmission might be detrimental to the person concerned or to his or her relatives.
Even in such a case, the information may not be withheld from the Central Agency which,
upon being notified of the circumstances, will take the necessary precautions indicated
in Article 140.
All communications in writing made by any Bureau shall be authenticated by a signature
or a seal.
The information received by the national Bureau and transmitted by it shall be of
such a character as to make it possible to identify the protected person exactly and
to advise his next of kin quickly. The information in respect of each person shall
include at least his surname, first names, place and date of birth, nationality, last
residence and distinguishing characteristics, the first name of the father and the
maiden name of the mother, the date, place and nature of the action taken with regard
to the individual, the address at which correspondence may be sent to him and the
name and address of the person to be informed.
Likewise, information regarding the state of health of internees who are seriously
ill or seriously wounded shall be supplied regularly and if possible every week.
Each national Information Bureau shall, furthermore, be responsible for collecting
all personal valuables left by protected persons mentioned in Article 136, in particular
those who have been repatriated or released, or who have escaped or died; it shall
forward the said valuables to those concerned, either direct, or, if necessary, through
the Central Agency. Such articles shall be sent by the Bureau in sealed packets which
shall be accompanied by statements giving clear and full identity particulars of the
person to whom the articles belonged, and by a complete list of the contents of the
parcel. Detailed records shall be maintained of the receipt and despatch of all such
A Central Information Agency for protected persons, in particular for internees, shall
be created in a neutral country. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall,
if it deems necessary, propose to the Powers concerned the organization of such an
Agency, which may be the same as that provided for in Article 123 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949.
The function of the Agency shall be to collect all information of the type set forth
in Article 136 which it may obtain through official or private channels and to transmit
it as rapidly as possible to the countries of origin or of residence of the persons
concerned, except in cases where such transmissions might be detrimental to the persons
whom the said information concerns, or to their relatives. It shall receive from the
Parties to the conflict all reasonable facilities for effecting such transmissions.
The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals benefit by the
services of the Central Agency, are requested to give the said Agency the financial
aid it may require.
The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as restricting the humanitarian
activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and of the relief societies
described in Article 142.
The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information Agency shall enjoy free
postage for all mail, likewise the exemptions provided for in Article 110, and further,
so far as possible, exemption from telegraphic charges or, at least, greatly reduced
Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider essential to ensure
their security or to meet any other reasonable need, the representatives of religious
organizations, relief societies, or any other organizations assisting the protected
persons, shall receive from these Powers, for themselves or their duly accredited
agents, all facilities for visiting the protected persons, for distributing relief
supplies and material from any source, intended for educational, recreational or religious
purposes, or for assisting them in organizing their leisure time within the places
of internment. Such societies or organizations may be constituted in the territory
of the Detaining Power, or in any other country, or they may have an international
The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and organizations whose delegates
are allowed to carry out their activities in its territory and under its supervision,
on condition, however, that such limitation shall not hinder the supply of effective
and adequate relief to all protected persons.
The special position of the International Committee of the Red Cross in this field
shall be recognized and respected at all times.
Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission to go
to all places where protected persons are, particularly to places of internment, detention
They shall have access to ail premises occupied by protected persons and shall be
able to interview the latter without witnesses, personally or through an interpreter.
Such visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military necessity,
and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure. Their duration and frequency
shall not be restricted.
Such representatives and delegates shall have full liberty to select the places they
wish to visit. The Detaining or Occupying Power, the Protecting Power and when occasion
arises the Power of origin of the persons to be visited, may agree that compatriots
of the internees shall be permitted to participate in the visits.
The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross shall also enjoy the
above prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates shall be submitted to the approval
of the Power governing the territories where they will carry out their duties.
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate
the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries
and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and,
if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to
the entire population.
Any civilian, military, police or other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities
in respect of protected persons, must possess the text of the Convention and be specially
instructed as to its provisions.
The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal
Council and, during hostilities, through the Protecting Powers, the official translations
of the present Convention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt
to ensure the application thereof.
The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide
effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any
of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in the following Article.
Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged
to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed, such grave breaches, and shall
bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may
also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation,
hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided
such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case.
Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all
acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches
defined in the following Article.
In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial
and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 105 and those following of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment
of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949.
Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any
of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the present
Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments,
wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, unlawful deportation
or transfer or unlawful confinement of a protected person, compelling a protected
person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power, or wilfully depriving a protected
person of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed in the present Convention,
taking of hostages and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified
by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.
No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting
Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in
respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.
At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted, in a manner
to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of
If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties
should agree on the choice of an umpire who will decide upon the procedure to be followed.
Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an
end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.
The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally
The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention
to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.
The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until
February 12, 1950, in the name of the Powers represented at the Conference which opened
at Geneva on April 21, 1949.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications
shall be deposited at Berne.
A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified
copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the
Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments
of ratification have been deposited.
Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after
the deposit of the instrument of ratification.
In the relations between the Powers who are bound by the Hague Conventions respecting
the Laws and Customs of War on Land, whether that of July 29, 1899, or that of October
18, 1907, and who are parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall
be supplementary to Sections II and III of the Regulations annexed to the above mentioned
Conventions of the Hague.
From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name
the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.
Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take
effect six months after the date on which they are received.
The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the Powers in whose
name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications
deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the
beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate
by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the
Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the present Convention.
The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which
shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.
The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been
made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has
been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not
take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with
the release, repatriation and re-establishment of the persons protected by the present
Convention have been terminated.
The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall
in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound
to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the
usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates
of the public consience.
The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat
of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat
of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received
by it with respect to the present Convention.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers,
have signed the present Convention.
DONE at Geneva this twelfth day of August, 1949, in the English and French languages.
The original shall be deposited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss
Federal Council shall transmit certified copies thereof to each of the signatory and
Hospital and safety zones shall be strictly reserved for the persons mentioned in
Article 23 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded
and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, and in Article 14 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection
of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949, and for the personnel entrusted
with the organization and administration of these zones and localities and with the
care of the persons therein assembled.
Nevertheless, persons whose permanent residence is within such zones shall have the
right to stay there.
No persons residing, in whatever capacity, in a hospital and safety zone shall perform
any work, either within or without the zone, directly connected with military operations
or the production of war material.
The Power establishing a hospital and safety zone shall take all necessary measures
to prohibit access to all persons who have no right of residence or entry therein.
Hospital and safety zones shall fulfil the following conditions:
(a) They shall comprise only a small part of the territory governed by the Power which
has established them.
(b) They shall be thinly populated in relation to the possibilities of accommodation.
(c) They shall be far removed and free from all military objectives, or large industrial
or administrative establishments.
(d) They shall not be situated in areas which, according to every probability, may become
important for the conduct of the war.
Hospital and safety zones shall be subject to the following obligations:
(a) The lines of communication and means of transport which they possess shall not be
used for the transport of military personnel or material, even in transit.
(b) They shall in no case be defended by military means.
Hospital and safety zones shall be marked by means of oblique red bands on a white
ground, placed on the buildings and outer precincts.
Zones reserved exclusively for the wounded and sick may be marked by means of the
Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) emblem on a white ground.
They may be similarly marked at night by means of appropriate illumination.
The Powers shall communicate to all the High Contracting Parties in peacetime or on
the outbreak of hostilities, a list of the hospital and safety zones in the territories
governed by them. They shall also give notice of any new zones set up during hostilities.
As soon as the adverse Party has received the above-mentioned notification, the zones
all be regularly established.
If, however, the adverse Party considers that the conditions of the present agreement
have not been fulfilled, it may refuse to recognize the zone by giving immediate notice
thereof to the Party responsible for the said zone, or may make its recognition of
such zone dependent upon the institution of the control provided for in Article 8.
Any Power having recognized one or several hospital and safety zones instituted by
the adverse Party shall be entitled to demand control by one or more Special Commissions,
for the purpose of ascertaining if the zones fulfil the conditions and obligations
stipulated in the present agreement.
For this purpose, members of the Special Commissions shall at all times have free
access to the various zones and may even reside there permanently. They shall be given
all facilities for their duties of inspection.
Should the Special Commissions note any facts which they consider contrary to the
stipulations of the present agreement, they shall at once draw the attention of the
Power governing the said zone to these facts, and shall fix a time limit of five days
within which the matter should be rectified. They shall duly notify the Power who
has recognized the zone.
If, when the time limit has expired, the Power governing the zone has not complied
with the warning, the adverse Party may declare that it is no longer bound by the
present agreement in respect of the said zone.
Any Power setting up one or more hospital and safety zones, and the adverse Parties
to whom their existence has been notified, shall nominate or have nominated by the
Protecting Powers or by other neutral Powers, persons eligible to be members of the
Special Commissions mentioned in Articles 8 and 9.
In no circumstances may hospital and safety zones be the object of attack. They shall
be protected and respected at all times by the Parties to the conflict.
In the case of occupation of a territory, the hospital and safety zones therein shall
continue to be respected and utilized as such.
Their purpose may, however, be modified by the Occupying Power, on condition that
all measures are taken to ensure the safety of the persons accommodated.
The present agreement shall also apply to localities which the Powers may utilize
for the same purpose as hospital and safety zones.
The Internee Committees shall be allowed to distribute collective relief shipments
for which they are responsible, to all internees who are dependent for administration
on the said Committee's place of internment, including those internees who are in
hospitals, or in prisons or other penitentiary establishments.
The distribution of collective relief shipments shall be effected in accordance with
the instructions of the donors and with a plan drawn up by the Internee Committees.
The issue of medical stores shall, however, be made for preference in agreement with
the senior medical officers, and the latter may, in hospitals and infirmaries, waive
the said instructions, if the needs of their patients so demand. Within the limits
thus defined, the distribution shall always be carried out equitably.
Members of Internee Committees shall be allowed to go to the railway stations or other
points of arrival of relief supplies near their places of internment so as to enable
them to verify the quantity as well as the quality of the goods received and to make
out detailed reports thereon for the donors.
Internee Committees shall be given the facilities necessary for verifying whether
the distribution of collective relief in all subdivisions and annexes of their places
of internment has been carried out in accordance with their instructions.
Internee Committees shall be allowed to complete, and to cause to be completed by
members of the Internee Committees in labour detachments or by the senior medical
officers of infirmaries and hospitals, forms or questionnaires intended for the donors,
relating to collective relief supplies (distribution, requirements, quantities, etc.).
Such forms and questionnaires, duly completed, shall be forwarded to the donors without
In order to secure the regular distribution of collective relief supplies to the internees
in their place of internment, and to meet any needs that may arise through the arrival
of fresh parties of internees, the Internee Committees shall be allowed to create
and maintain sufficient reserve stocks of collective relief. For this purpose, they
shall have suitable warehouses at their disposal; each warehouse shall be provided
with two locks, the Internee Committee holding the keys of one lock, and the commandant
of the place of internment the keys of the other.
The High Contracting Parties, and the Detaining Powers in particular, shall, so far
as in any way possible and subject to the regulations governing the food supply of
the population, authorize purchases of goods to be made in their territories for the
distribution of collective relief to the internees. They shall likewise facilitate
the transfer of funds and other financial measures of a technical or administrative
nature taken for the purpose of making such purchases.
The foregoing provisions shall not constitute an obstacle to the right of internees
to receive collective relief before their arrival in a place of internment or in the
course of their transfer, nor to the possibility of representatives of the Protecting
Power, or of the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other humanitarian
organization giving assistance to internees and responsible for forwarding such supplies,
ensuring the distribution thereof to the recipients by any other means they may deem
I. INTERNMENT CARD
(Size of letter – 29 X 15 cm.)
III. CORRESPONDENCE CARD
De ondergetekenden, Gevolmachtigden van de Regeringen, vertegenwoordigd op de Diplomatieke
Conferentie welke te Genève van 21 April tot 12 Augustus 1949 is bijeengekomen voor
het opstellen van een Verdrag voor de bescherming van burgers in oorlogstijd, zijn
het volgende overgekomen:
De Hoge Verdragsluitende Partijen verbinden zich dit Verdrag onder alle omstandigheden
te eerbiedigen en te doen eerbiedigen.
Onverminderd de bepalingen welke reeds in tijd van vrede in werking moeten treden,
is dit Verdrag van toepassing ingeval een oorlog is verklaard of bij ieder ander gewapend
conflict dat ontstaat tussen twee of meer der Hoge Verdragsluitende Partijen, zelfs
indien de oorlogstoestand door één der Partijen niet wordt erkend.
Het Verdrag is eveneens van toepassing in alle gevallen van gehele of gedeeltelijke
bezetting van het grondgebied van een Hoge Verdragsluitende Partij, zelfs indien deze
bezetting geen gewapende tegenstand ontmoet.
Indien één der in conflict zijnde Mogendheden geen partij is bij dit Verdrag, blijven
de Mogendheden die wel partij zijn, niettemin in haar onderlinge betrekkingen hierdoor
gebonden. Bovendien zullen zij door het Verdrag gebonden zijn ten opzichte van bedoelde
Mogendheid, indien deze de bepalingen daarvan aanvaardt en toepast.
In geval van een gewapend conflict op het grondgebied van één der Hoge Verdragsluitende
Partijen, hetwelk geen internationaal karakter draagt, is ieder der Partijen bij het
conflict gehouden ten minste de volgende bepalingen toe te passen:
1. Personen die niet rechtstreeks aan de vijandelijkheden deelnemen, met inbegrip van
personeel van strijdkrachten dat de wapens heeft nedergelegd, en zij die buiten gevecht
zijn gesteld door ziekte, verwonding, gevangenschap of enige andere oorzaak, moeten
onder alle omstandigheden menslievend worden behandeld, zonder enig voor hen nadelig
onderscheid, gegrond op ras, huidkleur, godsdienst of geloof, geslacht, geboorte of
maatschappelijke welstand of enig ander soortgelijk criterium.
Te dien einde zijn en blijven te allen tijde en overal ten aanzien van bovengenoemde
a. aanslag op het leven en lichamelijke geweldpleging, in het bijzonder het doden op
welke wijze ook, verminking, wrede behandeling en marteling;
b. het nemen van gijzelaars;
c. aanranding van de persoonlijke waardigheid, in het bijzonder vernederende en onterende
d. het uitspreken en tenuitvoerleggen van vonnissen zonder voorafgaande berechting door
een op regelmatige wijze samengesteld gerecht dat alle gerechtelijke waarborgen biedt,
door de beschaafde volken als onmisbaar erkend.
2. De gewonden en zieken moeten worden verzameld en verzorgd.
Een onpartijdige humanitaire organisatie, zoals het Internationale Comité van het
Rode Kruis, kan haar diensten aan de Partijen bij het conflict aanbieden.
De Partijen bij het conflict zullen er verder naar streven door middel van bijzondere
overeenkomsten de andere of een deel der andere bepalingen van dit Verdrag van kracht
te doen worden.
De toepassing van bovenstaande bepalingen zal niet van invloed zijn op de juridische
status van de Partijen bij het conflict.
Dit Verdrag beschermt personen die, op welk tijdstip en op welke wijze ook, in geval
van een conflict of bezetting, zich in de macht bevinden van een Partij bij het conflict
of van een bezettende Mogendheid, van welke zij geen onderdanen zijn.
Onderdanen van een Staat die niet gebonden is door het Verdrag, worden hierdoor niet
beschermd. Onderdanen van een onzijdige Staat, die zich bevinden op het grondgebied
van een oorlogvoerende Staat, en onderdanen van een mede-oorlogvoerende Staat worden
niet als beschermde personen beschouwd zolang de Staat van welke zij onderdanen zijn,
een normale diplomatieke vertegenwoordiging heeft bij de Staat in wiens macht zij
Echter bestrijken de bepalingen van Titel II, wat haar toepassing betreft, een ruimer
terrein, zoals omschreven in artikel 13.
Personen, beschermd door het Verdrag van Genève voor de verbetering van het lot der gewonden en zieken, zich bevindende
bij de strijdkrachten te velde, van 12 Augustus 1949, of door het Verdrag van Genève voor de verbetering van het lot der gewonden, zieken en schipbreukelingen
van de strijdkrachten ter zee, van 12 Augustus 1949, of door het Verdrag van Genève betreffende de behandeling van krijgsgevangenen, van 12 Augustus 1949, worden niet beschouwd als beschermde personen in de zin van
Indien, op het grondgebied van een Partij bij het conflict, deze Partij ernstige redenen
heeft om een bepaald door dit Verdrag beschermd persoon te verdenken van handelingen,
schadelijk voor de veiligheid van de Staat, of indien vaststaat, dat hij zodanige
handelingen pleegt, zal deze persoon geen aanspraak kunnen maken op de rechten en
voorrechten krachtens dit Verdrag, welke, indien hij deze zou genieten, nadeel zouden
kunnen berokkenen aan de veiligheid van de Staat.
Indien, in bezet gebied, een bepaald beschermd persoon in bewaring wordt gesteld als
spion of saboteur, dan wel omdat hij onder gegronde verdenking staat van een voor
de veiligheid van de bezettende Mogendheid schadelijke handeling, zal die persoon,
in de gevallen waarin de militaire veiligheid zulks gebiedend vereist, worden geacht
het recht zich met anderen in verbinding te stellen, als bedoeld in dit Verdrag, te
In elk dezer gevallen moeten de in de voorgaande leden bedoelde personen niettemin
menslievend worden behandeld en, bij vervolging, mag hun het recht op een rechtvaardige
en regelmatige berechting, als voorgeschreven in dit Verdrag, niet worden onthouden.
Zij moeten voorts de volledige rechten en voorrechten van een beschermd persoon, in
de zin van dit Verdrag, herkrijgen zodra zulks verenigbaar is met de veiligheid van
de Staat of van de bezettende Mogendheid, al naar het geval ligt.
Dit Verdrag vindt toepassing van het begin af van ieder conflict of iedere bezetting,
als bedoeld in artikel 2.
Op het grondgebied van de Partijen bij het conflict houdt de toepassing van dit Verdrag
op bij de algemene beëindiging van de militaire operaties.
In bezet gebied houdt de toepassing van dit Verdrag op één jaar na de algemene beëindiging
van de militaire operaties; niettemin is de bezettende Mogendheid voor de duur van
de bezetting - voor zover die Mogendheid de regeringsbevoegdheden in het betrokken
gebied uitoefent - gebonden door de bepalingen van de volgende artikelen van dit Verdrag:
1 tot 12, 27, 29 tot 34, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 59, 61 tot 77, en 143.
Beschermde personen wier invrijheidstelling, repatriëring of nieuwe vestiging plaats
vinden na die termijnen, blijven in afwachting daarvan de voordelen van dit Verdrag
Onverminderd de overeenkomsten, uitdrukkelijk voorzien in de artikelen 11, 14, 15,
17, 36, 108, 109, 132, 133 en 149, kunnen de Hoge Verdragsluitende Partijen andere
bijzondere overeenkomsten sluiten betreffende alle aangelegenheden waarvoor zij afzonderlijke
regelingen menselijk achten. Geen bijzondere overeenkomst mag de positie van beschermde
personen, zoals in dit Verdrag geregeld, ongunstig beïnvloeden, noch de rechten welke
dit hun toekent, beperken.
Beschermde personen zullen de voordelen van zodanige overeenkomsten blijven genieten
zolang het Verdrag op hen van toepassing is, tenzij uitdrukkelijk het tegendeel is
bepaald in bovenbedoelde of nadien gesloten overeenkomsten, dan wel gunstiger maatregelen
door één der Partijen bij het conflict ten aanzien van hen zijn genomen.
Beschermde personen mogen onder geen enkele omstandigheid geheel of gedeeltelijk afstand
doen van de rechten welke dit Verdrag en eventueel de bijzondere overeenkomsten, bedoeld
in het voorgaand artikel, hun waarborgen.
Dit Verdrag zal worden toegepast met de medewerking en onder het toezicht van de beschermende
Mogendheden die belast zijn met het behartigen van de belangen van de Partijen bij
het conflict. Te dien einde kunnen de beschermende Mogendheden, naast haar diplomatiek
of consulair personeel, gedelegeerden benoemen uit haar eigen onderdanen of uit die
van andere onzijdige Mogendheden. De benoeming van deze gedelegeerden moet worden
onderworpen aan de goedkeuring van de Mogendheid bij welke zij hun taak zullen vervullen.
De Partijen bij het conflict zullen zo veel mogelijk de taak van de vertegenwoordigers
of gedelegeerden van de beschermende Mogendheden vergemakkelijken.
De vertegenwoordigers of gedelegeerden van de beschermende Mogendheden mogen in geen
geval de grenzen van de hun krachtens dit Verdrag opgedragen taak overschrijden; zij
moeten in het bijzonder rekening houden met de gebiedende eisen van veiligheid van
de Staat bij welke zij hun taak vervullen.
De bepalingen van dit Verdrag vormen geen belemmering voor de menslievende werkzaamheden
welke, met toestemming van de betrokken Partijen bij het conflict, het Internationale
Comité van het Rode Kruis of enige andere onpartijdige humanitaire organisatie op
zich neemt voor de bescherming van burgers en voor aan hen te verlenen hulp.
De Hoge Verdragsluitende Partijen kunnen te allen tijde overeenkomen de taak welke
krachtens dit Verdrag op de beschermende Mogendheden rust, toe te vertrouwen aan een
organisatie die alle waarborgen van onpartijdigheid en doeltreffendheid biedt.
Indien beschermde personen, om welke reden ook, niet of niet meer de voordelen genieten
van de werkzaamheden van een beschermende Mogendheid of van een organisatie, aangewezen
overeenkomstig het eerste lid, moet de gevangenhoudende Mogendheid een onzijdige Staat
of een organisatie, als bovenbedoeld, verzoeken de taak op zich te nemen, welke krachtens
dit Verdrag rust op door de Partijen bij het conflict aangewezen beschermende Mogendheden.
Indien op deze wijze niet in de bescherming kan worden voorzien, moet de gevangenhoudende
Mogendheid een humanitaire organisatie, zoals het Internationale Comité van het Rode
Kruis, verzoeken de menslievende taak, anders krachtens dit Verdrag door beschermende
Mogendheden uitgeoefend, op zich te nemen, dan wel, behoudens de bepalingen van dit
artikel, het aanbod van de diensten door een zodanige organisatie aanvaarden.
Iedere onzijdige Mogendheid of iedere organisatie die door de belanghebbende Mogendheid
wordt aangezocht dan wel zich met het bovenbedoeld oogmerk aanbiedt, moet zich bij
haar optreden bewust blijven van haar verantwoordelijkheid ten opzichte van de Partij
bij het conflict, tot welke de door dit Verdrag beschermde personen behoren, en moet
voldoende waarborgen bieden, dat zij in staat is de betreffende taak op zich te nemen
en deze op onpartijdige wijze uit te voeren.
Van de voorgaande bepalingen mag niet worden afgeweken bij bijzondere overeenkomst
tussen Mogendheden van welke zich één ten gevolge van het verloop der krijgsverrichtingen,
zelfs tijdelijk, ten opzichte van de andere Mogendheid of haar bondgenoten in haar
vrijheid van onderhandelen beperkt ziet, in het bijzonder ingeval het grondgebied
van eerstbedoelde Mogendheid, of een belangrijk gedeelte daarvan, is bezet.
Waar in dit Verdrag wordt gesproken van een beschermende Mogendheid, wordt daaronder
begrepen een vervangende organisatie in de zin van dit artikel.
De bepalingen van dit artikel hebben bovendien betrekking op en worden overeenkomstig
toegepast in alle gevallen waarin onderdanen van een onzijdige Staat zich in een bezet
gebied of op het grondgebied van een oorlogvoerende Staat bevinden, terwijl de Staat
van welke zij onderdanen zijn, bij deze geen normale diplomatieke vertegenwoordiging
In alle gevallen waarin zij zulks in het belang van de beschermde personen raadzaam
achten, in het bijzonder bij meningsverschil tussen de Partijen bij het conflict over
de toepassing of uitlegging van de bepalingen van dit Verdrag, zullen de beschermende
Mogendheden haar goede diensten verlenen tot oplossing van het geschil.
Te dien einde kan ieder der beschermende Mogendheden, op uitnodiging van één Partij
of op eigen initiatief, aan de Partijen bij het conflict een bijeenkomst voorstellen
van haar vertegenwoordigers, in het bijzonder van de autoriteiten die verantwoordelijk
zijn voor beschermde personen, eventueel op passend gekozen onzijdig gebied. De Partijen
bij het conflict zijn gehouden gevolg te geven aan de voorstellen welke haar tot dit
doel worden gedaan. De beschermende Mogendheden kunnen, zo nodig, de Partijen bij
het conflict voorstellen de benoeming van een bepaald persoon, behorend tot een onzijdige
Mogendheid of afgevaardigd door het Internationale Comité van het Rode Kruis, die
zal worden uitgenodigd aan een zodanige bijeenkomst deel te nemen, goed te keuren.
De bepalingen van deze Titel zijn van toepassing op het geheel der bevolkingen van
de bij een conflict betrokken landen, zonder enig voor haar nadelig onderscheid, in
het bijzonder gegrond op ras, nationaliteit, godsdienst of politieke overtuiging,
en hebben ten doel het door de oorlog veroorzaakt lijden te verzachten.
In tijd van vrede kunnen de Hoge Verdragsluitende Partijen en, na het uitbreken der
vijandelijkheden, de Partijen bij het conflict, op haar eigen grondgebied en, zo nodig,
in bezet gebied, hospitalisatieen veiligheidsgebieden en -plaatsen instellen, zodanig
ingericht, dat zij aan gewonden, zieken, gebrekkigen, ouden van dagen, kinderen beneden
vijftien jaar, zwangere vrouwen en moeders van kinderen beneden zeven jaar bescherming
bieden tegen het oorlogsgeweld.
Bij het uitbreken van een conflict en tijdens de vijandelijkheden kunnen de betrokken
Partijen overeenkomsten sluiten tot erkenning van de gebieden en plaatsen welke zij
hebben ingesteld. Zij kunnen te dien einde de bepalingen, opgenomen in de ontwerp-overeenkomst
welke als bijlage aan dit Verdrag is gehecht, in werking doen treden, eventueel met
de wijzigingen welke zij nodig mochten achten.
De beschermende Mogendheden en het Internationale Comité van het Rode Kruis worden
uitgenodigd hun goede diensten te verlenen om de instelling en erkenning van deze
hospitalisatie- en veiligheidsgebieden en -plaatsen te vergemakkelijken.
Iedere Partij bij het conflict kan, hetzij rechtstreeks, hetzij door tussenkomst van
een onzijdige Staat of van een humanitaire organisatie, aan de tegenpartij voorstellen
om in streken waar gevechten plaats vinden, geneutraliseerde gebieden in te stellen,
welke ten doel hebben aan de volgende personen, zonder enig onderscheid, bescherming
te bieden tegen het oorlogsgeweld:
a. gewonden en zieken, zowel strijders als niet-strijders;
b. burgers die niet aan de vijandelijkheden deelnemen en die, gedurende hun verblijf
in die gebieden, geen arbeid verlichten, welke een militair karakter draagt.
Wanneer de betrokken Partijen overeenstemming hebben bereikt ten aanzien van de aardrijkskundige
ligging, het beheer, de voedselvoorziening en de controle van het beoogde geneutraliseerd
gebied, zal een schriftelijke overeenkomst worden opgesteld en ondertekend door de
vertegenwoordigers van de Partijen bij het conflict. In deze overeenkomst zullen de
aanvang en de duur van de neutralisatie van het gebied worden vastgesteld.
De gewonden en zieken, evenals de gebrekkigen en de zwangere vrouwen, moeten in het
bijzonder worden beschermd en ontzien.
Voor zover de militaire vereisten zulks toelaten, zal iedere Partij bij het conflict
het nemen van maatregelen vergemakkelijken om de doden en gewonden op te zoeken, de
schipbreukelingen en andere personen die aan ernstig gevaar blootstaan, te hulp te
komen en hen te beschermen tegen plundering en slechte behandeling.
De Partijen bij het conflict zullen streven naar liet sluiten van plaatselijke overeenkomsten
voor de evacuatie van gewonden, zieken, gebrekkigen, ouden van dagen, kinderen en
kraamvrouwen uit belegerde of omsingelde gebieden, alsmede voor het doorlaten van
geestelijken van alle gezindten, van geneeskundig personeel en van geneeskundig materieel,
bestemd voor die gebieden.
Burgerziekeninrichtingen, ingericht voor de verzorging van de gewonden, zieken, gebrekkigen
en kraamvrouwen, mogen onder geen omstandigheid het doelwit van aanvallen zijn, doch
moeten te allen tijde worden ontzien en beschermd door de Partijen bij het conflict.
Staten die Partij zijn bij een conflict, moeten alle burgerziekeninrichtingen voorzien
van een bewijsstuk waaruit blijkt, dat zij burgerziekeninrichtingen zijn en dat de
in gebruik zijnde gebouwen niet worden aangewend voor doeleinden welke deze inrichtingen
zouden kunnen beroven van de bescherming overeenkomstig artikel 19.
Burgerziekeninrichtingen zullen worden aangeduid door middel van het embleem, bedoeld
in artikel 38 van het Verdrag van Genève voor de verbetering van het lot der gewonden
en zieken, zich bevindende bij de strijdkrachten te velde, van 12 Augustus 1949, doch uitsluitend indien zij daartoe door de Staat zijn gemachtigd.
De Partijen bij het conflict zullen, voor zover de militaire vereisten zulks toelaten,
de nodige maatregelen nemen om de kentekenen waardoor de burgerziekeninrichtingen
worden aangeduid, duidelijk zichtbaar te maken voor de vijandelijke strijdkrachten
te land, in de lucht en ter zee, ten einde iedere mogelijkheid van een vijandelijke
aanval te voorkomen.
Met het oog op de gevaren waaraan ziekeninrichtingen zijn blootgesteld indien zij
dicht bij militaire objecten zijn gelegen, verdient het aanbeveling, dat deze inrichtingen
zo ver mogelijk van zodanige objecten verwijderd zijn.
De bescherming waarop burgerziekeninrichtingen recht hebben, zal niet eindigen, tenzij
daarvan, buiten haar menslievende taak, gebruik wordt gemaakt voor het plegen van
voor de vijand schadelijke handelingen. De bescherming zal echter eerst eindigen na
een sommatie waarbij, in alle daarvoor in aanmerking komende gevallen, een redelijke
termijn is gesteld en waaraan geen gevolg is gegeven.
Het feit, dat zieke of gewonde leden van de gewapende macht in deze inrichtingen worden
verpleegd, of dat daarin aan deze strijders ontnomen draagbare wapens en munitie welke
nog niet aan de bevoegde tak van dienst zijn afgeleverd, aanwezig zijn, zal niet worden
beschouwd als een voor de vijand schadelijke handeling.
Het vaste personeel, uitsluitend belast met het werk in en het beheer van burgerziekeninrichtingen,
met inbegrip van het personeel, belast met het opzoeken, verzamelen, vervoeren en
behandelen van gewonde en zieke burgers, van gebrekkigen en kraamvrouwen, moet worden
ontzien en beschermd.
In bezet gebied en in gebieden waar militaire operaties plaats vinden, zal dit personeel
zich kenbaar maken door middel van een identiteitskaart welke de hoedanigheid van
de houder vermeldt en voorzien is van diens fotografie en van het droogstempel van
de bevoegde autoriteit, en bovendien door middel van een gestempelde en tegen vocht
bestand zijnde armband, welke het bij het verrichten van zijn werkzaamheden om de
linkerarm zal dragen. Deze armband zal worden verstrekt door de Staat en voorzien
zijn van het embleem, bedoeld in artikel 38 van het Verdrag van Genève voor de verbetering van het lot der gewonden
en zieken, zich bevindende bij de strijdkrachten te velde, van 12 Augustus 1949.
Ander personeel, belast met het werk in en het beheer van burgerziekeninrichtingen,
heeft het recht, bij het verrichten van zijn werkzaamheden, te worden ontzien en beschermd
en de armband te dragen, zoals bepaald en op de voorwaarden vervat in dit artikel.
De identiteitskaart zal de werkzaamheden vermelden, welke hun zijn opgedragen.
De directie van iedere ziekeninrichting zal te allen tijde een dagelijks bijgehouden
lijst van haar personeel ter beschikking houden van de bevoegde nationale dan wel
Transporten van gewonde en zieke burgers, van gebrekkigen en kraamvrouwen, uitgevoerd
te land door konvooien van voertuigen en door hospitaaltreinen of, op zee, door in
het bijzonder daarvoor bestemde schepen, moeten op dezelfde wijze worden ontzien en
beschermd als de in artikel 18 bedoelde zlekeninrichtingen en zullen, met toestemming
van de Staat, worden voorzien van het kenteken, bedoeld in artikel 38 van het Verdrag van Genève voor de verbetering van het lot der gewonden
en zieken, zich bevindende bij de strijdkrachten te velde, van 12 Augustus 1949.
Vliegtuigen welke uitsluitend worden gebruikt voor het vervoer van gewonde en zieke
burgers, van gebrekkigen en kraamvrouwen, dan wel voor het vervoer van geneeskundig
personeel en materieel, mogen niet worden aangevallen, maar moeten worden ontzien
zolang zij vliegen op hoogten, op tijden en volgens routes, zoals deze uitdrukkelijk
bij overeenkomst tussen alle betrokken Partijen bij het conflict zijn vastgesteld.
Zij mogen worden voorzien van het kenteken, bedoeld in artikel 38 van het Verdrag van Genève voor de verbetering van het lot der gewonden
en zieken, zich bevindende bij de strijdkrachten te velde, van 12 Augustus 1949.
Tenzij anders overeengekomen, is het overvliegen van vijandelijk of door de vijand
bezet gebied verboden.
Bedoelde vliegtuigen moeten aan iedere sommatie om te landen gevolg geven. In geval
van een zodanige gedwongen landing mag het vliegtuig met de inzittenden, na een eventueel
onderzoek, zijn vlucht vervolgen.
Iedere Hoge Verdragsluitende Partij zal de vrije doorvoer toestaan van alle zendingen
van geneeskundige voorraden en ziekenhuisbenodigdheden, alsmede van voorwerpen, nodig
voor de eredienst, welke uitsluitend bestemd zijn voor burgers van een andere Hoge
Verdragsluitende Partij, zelfs indien deze haar tegenstander is. Zij zal eveneens
de vrije doorvoer toestaan van alle zendingen van onontbeerlijke levensmiddelen, kleding
en versterkende middelen, bestemd voor kinderen beneden vijftien jaar, zwangere vrouwen
De verplichting van een Hoge Verdragsluitende Partij om de vrije doorvoer toe te staan
van de in het voorgaand lid bedoelde zendingen is onderworpen aan de voorwaarde, dat
deze Partij overtuigd is, dat er geen ernstige redenen bestaan te vrezen:
a. dat de zendingen zullen worden onttrokken aan haar bestemming,
b. dat de controle niet doeltreffend zal zijn, of
c. dat de vijand daarvan kennelijk profijt zal trekken voor zijn militaire inspanning
of zijn economie, door deze zendingen in de plaats te stellen van goederen welke hij
anders zelf zou hebben moeten verschaffen of produceren, of door materiaal, productiemiddelen
of diensten vrij te maken, welke hij anders zelf zou hebben moeten aanwenden voor
de productie van die goederen.
De Mogendheid die de doorvoer van de in het eerste lid van dit artikel bedoelde zendingen
toestaat, mag aan haar toestemming de voorwaarde verbinden, dat de uitdeling aan de
begunstigden geschiedt onder het toezicht ter plaatse van de beschermende Mogendheden.
Deze zendingen moeten zo spoedig mogelijk worden doorgezonden en de Mogendheid die
de vrije doorvoer daarvan toestaat, heeft het recht de technische regelingen voor
te schrijven, waaronder de doorvoer zal worden toegestaan.
De Partijen bij het conflict zullen de nodige maatregelen nemen, opdat kinderen beneden
vijftien jaar, die ten gevolge van de oorlog wees zijn geworden of van hun familie
zijn gescheiden, niet aan hun lot worden overgelaten en opdat, onder alle omstandigheden,
hun verzorging, de vervulling van hun godsdienstplichten en hun opvoeding worden vergemakkelijkt.
Hun opvoeding zal, voor zover mogelijk, worden toevertrouwd aan personen van gelijke
De Partijen bij het conflict zullen de opneming van deze kinderen in een onzijdig
land voor de duur van het conflict bevorderen, zulks met toestemming van de beschermende
Mogendheid, indien deze bestaat, en mits er voldoende waarborgen zijn, dat de beginselen,
omschreven in het eerste lid, in acht zullen worden genomen.
Bovendien zullen zij er naar streven de nodige maatregelen te nemen, opdat alle kinderen
beneden twaalf jaar geïdentificeerd kunnen worden, hetzij door het dragen van een
identiteitsplaatje, hetzij op andere wijze.
Alle personen die zich op het grondgebied van een Partij bij het conflict of in een
door haar bezet gebied bevinden, zullen in de gelegenheid worden gesteld aan de leden
van hun naaste familie, waar dezen zich ook bevinden, berichten van strikt persoonlijke
aard te zenden en berichten van hen te ontvangen. Deze correspondentie zal met spoed
en zonder ongerechtvaardigde vertraging worden verzonden.
Indien, ten gevolge van omstandigheden, de correspondentie tussen familieleden langs
de normale weg moeilijk of onmogelijk is geworden, zullen de betrokken Partijen bij
het conflict zich wenden tot een onzijdig bemiddelaar, zoals het in artikel 140 bedoeld
Centraal Bureau, ten einde in overleg daarmede te bepalen op welke wijze het nakomen
van haar verplichtingen onder de gunstigste omstandigheden wordt gewaarborgd, in het
bijzonder met medewerking van de nationale Rode Kruis (Rode Halve Maan, Rode Leeuw
en Zon) Verenigingen.
Indien de Partijen bij het conflict het nodig oordelen de correspondentie tussen familieleden
te beperken, mogen zij niet verder gaan dan het gebruik van standaard-formulieren
voor te schrijven, welke vijf en twintig woorden naar vrije keuze mogen bevatten,
en het aantal van deze te verzenden formulieren tot één per maand te beperken.
Iedere Partij bij het conflict zal de nasporingen vergemakkelijken, welke worden ingesteld
door leden van ten gevolge van de oorlog verspreide gezinnen om het contact met elkander
weder op te nemen en zo mogelijk het gezin te herenigen. Zij zal in het bijzonder
de werkzaamheden bevorderen van organisaties die zich aan deze taak wijden, mits deze
voor haar aanvaardbaar zijn en zich gedragen naar de door haar vastgestelde voorschriften
met betrekking tot de veiligheid.
Beschermde personen hebben, onder alle omstandigheden, recht op eerbieding van hun
persoon, hun eer, hun familierechten, hun godsdienstige overtuiging en de waarneming
van hun godsdienstplichten, en hun zeden en gewoonten. Zij moeten te allen tijde menslievend
worden behandeld en worden beschermd, in het bijzonder tegen iedere daad van geweld
of vreesaanjaging, tegen beledigingen en de nieuwsgierigheid van het publiek.
Vrouwen moeten in het bijzonder worden beschermd tegen iedere aanslag op haar eer,
met name tegen verkrachting, gedwongen prostitutie en iedere aanranding van haar eerbaarheid.
Onverminderd de bepalingen betreffende de gezondheidstoestand, leeftijd en sekse,
moeten alle beschermde personen door de Partij bij het conflict, in wier macht zij
zich bevinden, gelijkelijk worden ontzien, zonder enig voor hen nadelig onderscheid,
gegrond in het bijzonder op ras, godsdienst of politieke overtuiging.
De Partijen bij het conflict mogen echter ten aanzien van beschermde personen die
contrôle- of veiligheidsmaatregelen nemen, welke ten gevolge van de oorlog nodig mochten
Beschermde personen mogen niet worden gebruikt om door hun aanwezigheid bepaalde punten
of streken te vrijwaren voor militaire operaties.
De Partij bij het conflict, in wier macht zich beschermde personen bevinden, is verantwoordelijk
voor de behandeling welke hun door haar beambten wordt aangedaan, onverminderd de
persoonlijke aansprakelijkheid welke mocht bestaan.
Beschermde personen zullen alle faciliteiten genieten om zich te wenden tot de beschermende
Mogendheden, het Internationale Comité van het Rode Kruis, de nationale Rode Kruis
(Rode Halve Maan, Rode Leeuw en Zon) Vereniging van het land waar zij zich bevinden,
zomede tot iedere organisatie die hun hulp zou kunnen verlenen.
Deze verschillende organisaties zullen daartoe van de zijde der autoriteiten alle
faciliteiten ontvangen, binnen de grenzen, gesteld door militaire noodzaak of veiligheidsoverwegingen.
Afgezien van de in artikel 143 bedoelde bezoeken van de gedelegeerden van de beschermende
Mogendheden en van het Internationale Comité van het Rode Kruis, zullen de gevangenhoudende
of bezettende Mogendheden zoveel mogelijk bezoeken vergemakkelijken aan beschermde
personen door de vertegenwoordigers van andere organisaties die tot doel hebben geestelijke
bijstand of materiële hulp aan die personen te bieden.
Geen lichamelijke of morele dwang mag ten aanzien van beschermde personen worden uitgeoefend,
in het bijzonder met het doel om inlichtingen van hen of van derden te verkrijgen.
De Hoge Verdragsluitende Partijen komen nadrukkelijk overeen, dat het ieder van haar
verboden is enige maatregel te nemen, welke lichamelijk lijden of uitroeiing van beschermde
personen die zich in haar macht bevinden, veroorzaken. Dit verbod betreft niet alleen
levensberoving, marteling, lijfstraffen, verminking en geneeskundige of wetenschappelijke
proefnemingen welke de geneeskundige behandeling van een beschermd persoon niet vereist,
maar ook alle andere vormen van ruwheid, door burger- dan wel militaire functionarissen
Geen beschermd persoon mag worden gestraft voor een vergrijp dat hij niet persoonlijk
heeft begaan. Collectieve straffen, evenals alle maatregelen van vreesaanjaging of
terrorisme, zijn verboden.
Plundering is verboden.
Represaillemaatregelen ten aanzien van beschermde personen en hun eigendommen zijn
Het nemen van gijzelaars is verboden.
Alle beschermde personen die het grondgebied bij het begin of in de loop van een conflict
wensen te verlaten, hebben het recht zulks te doen, tenzij hun vertrek in strijd is
met de nationale belangen van de Staat. Op de aanvragen van deze personen om het grondgebied
te mogen verlaten moet worden beslist volgens een op regelmatige wijze vastgestelde
procedure en de beslissing moet zo spoedig mogelijk worden genomen. Degenen aan wie
is toegestaan het grondgebied te verlaten, mogen de voor hun reis benodigde gelden
en een redelijke hoeveelheid goederen en voorwerpen voor persoonlijk gebruik medenemen.
Personen aan wie toestemming tot het verlaten van het grondgebied is geweigerd, hebben
er recht op, dat een bevoegd gerecht of een daartoe door de gevangenhoudende Mogendheid
aangewezen administratief college deze weigering zo spoedig mogelijk opnieuw in beschouwing
Op verzoek zal aan de vertegenwoordigers van de beschermende Mogendheid - tenzij redenen
van veiligheid zich daartegen verzetten of de betrokken personen bezwaren hebben -
mededeling worden gedaan van de redenen tot afwijzing van de door deze personen ingediende
verzoeken tot het verlaten van het grondgebied en, zo spoedig mogelijk, van de namen
van alle personen aan wie toestemming is geweigerd.
Bij het vertrek, toegestaan krachtens het bepaalde in het voorgaand artikel, moeten
de veiligheid, hygiëne, gezondheidszorg en voeding voldoende gewaarborgd zijn. Alle
hieraan verbonden kosten worden, van het punt af waarop het grondgebied van de gevangenhoudende
Mogendheid wordt verlaten, gedragen door het land van bestemming of, in geval van
verblijf in een onzijdig land, door de Mogendheid van welke de betrokken personen
onderdanen zijn. De practische uitvoering van deze verplaatsingen kan, zo nodig, bij
bijzondere overeenkomsten tussen de betrokken Mogendheden worden vastgesteld.
Het bovenstaande doet geen afbreuk aan de bijzondere overeenkomsten welke tussen Partijen
bij het conflict gesloten mochten zijn met betrekking tot de uitwisseling en repatriëring
van haar onderdanen die in vijandelijke handen zijn gevallen.
Beschermde personen die zich in voorlopige hechtenis bevinden of een vrijheidsstraf
ondergaan, moeten gedurende hun gevangenhouding menslievend worden behandeld.
Zodra zij zijn vrijgelaten, kunnen zij, overeenkomstig de voorgaande artikelen, verzoeken
het grondgebied te mogen verlaten.
Met uitzondering van de bijzondere maatregelen welke krachtens dit Verdrag, in het
bijzonder op grond van de artikelen 27 en 41, kunnen worden genomen, zal de positie
van beschermde personen in beginsel beheerst blijven door de bepalingen betreffende
de behandeling van vreemdelingen in vredestijd. In ieder geval zullen hun de volgende
rechten worden verleend:
1. zij mogen de aan hen gerichte persoonlijke of collectieve zendingen ontvangen;
2. zij zullen, indien hun gezondheid zulks vereist, eenzelfde geneeskundige behandeling
en ziekenhuisverpleging ontvangen als de onderdanen van de betrokken Staat;
3. zij zullen in staat worden gesteld hun godsdienstplichten te vervullen en geestelijke
bijstand van de bedienaars van hun eredienst te ontvangen;
4. indien zij verblijven in een streek welke bijzonder aan oorlogsgevaren is blootgesteld,
zullen zij evenzeer als de onderdanen van de betrokken Staat gerechtigd zijn die streek
5. kinderen beneden vijftien jaar, zwangere vrouwen en moeders van kinderen beneden zeven
jaar zullen, wat hun behandeling betreft, dezelfde voorrechten genieten als de onderdanen
van de betrokken Staat.