Verdrag inzake het behoud van wilde dieren en planten en hun natuurlijk leefmilieu in Europa, Bern, 19-09-1979

Geraadpleegd op 30-05-2024.
Geldend van 04-03-1999 t/m 07-03-2018

Verdrag inzake het behoud van wilde dieren en planten en hun natuurlijk leefmilieu in Europa

Authentiek : EN

Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats


The member States of the Council of Europe and the other signatories hereto,

Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members;

Considering the wish of the Council of Europe to co-operate with other States in the field of nature conservation;

Recognising that wild flora and fauna constitute a natural heritage of aesthetic, scientific, cultural, recreational, economic and intrinsic value that needs to be preserved and handed on to future generations;

Recognising the essential role played by wild flora and fauna in maintaining biological balances;

Noting that numerous species of wild flora and fauna are being seriously depleted and that some of them are threatened with extinction;

Aware that the conservation of natural habitats is a vital component of the protection and conservation of wild flora and fauna;

Recognising that the conservation of wild flora and fauna should be taken into consideration by the governments in their national goals and programmes, and that international co-operation should be established to protect migratory species in particular;

Bearing in mind the widespread requests for common action made by governments or by international bodies, in particular the requests expressed by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 1972 and the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe;

Desiring particularly to follow, in the field of wildlife conservation, the recommendations of Resolution No. 2 of the Second European Ministerial Conference on the Environment,

Have agreed as follows:

CHAPTER I. General Provisions

Article 1

  • 1 The aims of this Convention are to conserve wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats, especially those species and habitats whose conservation requires the co-operation of several States, and to promote such co-operation.

  • 2 Particular emphasis is given to endangered and vulnerable species, including endangered and vulnerable migratory species.

Article 2

The Contracting Parties shall take requisite measures to maintain the population of wild flora and fauna at, or adapt it to, a level which corresponds in particular to ecological, scientific and cultural requirements, while taking account of economic and recreational requirements and the needs of sub-species, varieties or forms at risk locally.

Article 3

  • 1 Each Contracting Party shall take steps to promote national policies for the conservation of wild flora, wild fauna and natural habitats, with particular attention to endangered and vulnerable species, especially endemic ones, and endangered habitats, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.

  • 2 Each Contracting Party undertakes, in its planning and development policies and in its measures against pollution, to have regard to the conservation of wild flora and fauna.

  • 3 Each Contracting Party shall promote education and disseminate general information on the need to conserve species of wild flora and fauna and their habitats.

CHAPTER II. Protection of habitats

Article 4

  • 1 Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate and necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure the conservation of the habitats of the wild flora and fauna species, especially those specified in the Appendices I and II, and the conservation of endangered natural habitats.

  • 2 The Contracting Parties in their planning and development policies shall have regard to the conservation requirements of the areas protected under the preceding paragraph, so as to avoid or minimise as far as possible any deterioration of such areas.

  • 3 The Contracting Parties undertake to give special attention to the protection of areas that are of importance for the migratory species specified in Appendices II and III and which are appropriately situated in relation to migration routes, as wintering, staging, feeding, breeding or moulting areas.

  • 4 The Contracting Parties undertake to co-ordinate as appropriate their efforts for the protection of the natural habitats referred to in this Article when these are situated in frontier areas.

CHAPTER III. Protection of species

Article 5

Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate and necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure the special protection of the wild flora species specified in Appendix I. Deliberate picking, collecting, cutting or uprooting of such plants shall be prohibited. Each Contracting Party shall, as appropriate, prohibit the possession or sale of these species.

Article 6

Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate and necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure the special protection of the wild fauna species specified in Appendix II. The following will in particular be prohibited for these species:

  • a. all forms of deliberate capture and keeping and deliberate killing;

  • b. the deliberate damage to or destruction of breeding or resting sites;

  • c. the deliberate disturbance of wild fauna, particularly during the period of breeding, rearing and hibernation, insofar as disturbance would be significant in relation to the objectives of this Convention;

  • d. the deliberate destruction or taking of eggs from the wild or keeping these eggs even if empty;

  • e. the possession of and internal trade in these animals, alive or dead, including stuffed animals and any readily recognisable part or derivative thereof, where this would contribute to the effectiveness of the provisions of this Article.

Article 7

  • 1 Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate and necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure the protection of the wild fauna species specified in Appendix III.

  • 2 Any exploitation of wild fauna specified in Appendix III shall be regulated in order to keep the populations out of danger, taking into account the requirements of Article 2.

  • 3 Measures to be taken shall include:

    • a. closed seasons and/or other procedures regulating the exploitation;

    • b. the temporary or local prohibition of exploitation, as appropriate, in order to restore satisfactory population levels;

    • c. the regulation as appropriate of sale, keeping for sale, transport for sale or offering for sale of live and dead wild animals.

Article 8

In respect of the capture or killing of wild fauna species specified in Appendix III and in cases where, in accordance with Article 9, exceptions are applied to species specified in Appendix II, Contracting Parties shall prohibit the use of all indiscriminate means of capture and killing and the use of all means capable of causing local disappearance of, or serious disturbance to, populations of a species, and in particular, the means specified in Appendix IV.

Article 9

  • 1 Each Contracting Party may make exceptions from the provisions of Articles 4, 5, 6, 7 and from the prohibition of the use of the means mentioned in Article 8 provided that there is no other satisfactory solution and that the exception will not be detrimental to the survival of the population concerned:

    • - for the protection of flora and fauna;

    • - to prevent serious damage to crops, livestock, forests, fisheries, water and other forms of property;

    • - in the interests of public health and safety, air safety or other overriding public interests;

    • - for the purposes of research arid education, of repopulation, of reintroduction and for the necessary breeding;

    • - to permit, under strictly supervised conditions, on a selective basis and to a limited extent, the taking, keeping or other judicious exploitation of certain wild animals and plants in small numbers.

  • 2 The Contracting Parties shall report every two years to the Standing Committee on the exceptions made under the preceding paragraph. These reports must specify:

    • - the populations which are or have been subject to the exceptions, and, when practical, the number of specimens involved;

    • - the means authorised for the killing or capture;

    • - the conditions of risk and the circumstances of time and place under which such exceptions were granted;

    • - the authority empowered to declare that these conditions have been fulfilled, and to take decisions in respect of the means that may be used, their limits and the persons instructed to carry them out;

    • - the controls involved.

CHAPTER IV. Special provisions for migratory species

Article 10

  • 1 The Contracting Parties undertake, in addition to the measures specified in Articles 4, 6, 7 and 8, to co-ordinate their efforts for the protection of the migratory species specified in Appendices II and III whose range extends into their territories.

  • 2 The Contracting Parties shall take measures to seek to ensure that the closed seasons and/or other procedures regulating the exploitation established under paragraph 3.a of Article 7 are adequate and appropriately disposed to meet the requirements of the migratory species specified in Appendix III.

CHAPTER V. Supplementary provisions

Article 11

  • 1 In carrying out the provisions of this Convention, the Contracting Parties undertake:

    • a. to co-operate whenever appropriate and in particular where this would enhance the effectiveness of measures taken under other articles of this Convention;

    • b. to encourage and co-ordinate research related to the purposes of this Convention.

  • 2 Each Contracting Party undertakes:

    • a. to encourage the reintroduction of native species of wild flora and fauna when this would contribute to the conservation of an endangered species, provided that a study is first made in the light of the experiences of other Contracting Parties to establish that such reintroduction would be effective and acceptable;

    • b. to strictly control the introduction of non-native species.

  • 3 Each Contracting Party shall inform the Standing Committee of the species receiving complete protection on its territory and not included in Appendices I and II.

Article 12

The Contracting Parties may adopt stricter measures for the conservation of wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats than those provided under this Convention.

CHAPTER VI. Standing Committee

Article 13

  • 1 For the purposes of this Convention, a Standing Committee shall be set up.

  • 2 Any Contracting Party may be represented on the Standing Committee by one or more delegates. Each delegation shall have one vote. Within the areas of its competence, the European Economic Community shall exercise its right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of its member States which are Contracting Parties to this Convention; the European Economic Community shall not exercise its right to vote in cases where the member States concerned exercise theirs, and conversely.

  • 3 Any member State of the Council of Europe which is not a Contracting Party to the Convention may be represented on the Committee as an observer.

    The Standing Committee may, by unanimous decision, invite any non-member State of the Council of Europe which is not a Contracting Party to the Convention to be represented by an observer at one of its meetings.

    Any body or agency technically qualified in the protection, conservation or management of wild fauna and flora and their habitats, and belonging to one of the following categories:

    • a. international agencies or bodies, either governmental or non-governmental, and national governmental agencies or bodies;

    • b. national non-governmental agencies or bodies which have been approved for this purpose by the State in which they are located,

    may inform the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, at least three months before the meeting of the Committee, of its wish to be represented at that meeting by observers. They shall be admitted unless, at least one month before the meeting, one-third of the Contracting Parties have informed the Secretary General of their objection.

  • 4 The Standing Committee shall be convened by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. Its first meeting shall be held within one year of the date of the entry into force of the Convention. It shall subsequently meet at least every two years and whenever a majority of the Contracting Parties so request.

  • 5 A majority of the Contracting Parties shall constitute a quorum for holding a meeting of the Standing Committee.

  • 6 Subject to the provisions of this Convention, the Standing Committee shall draw up its own Rules of Procedure.

Article 14

  • 1 The Standing Committee shall be responsible for following the application of this Convention. It may in particular:

    • - keep under review the provisions of this Convention, including its Appendices, and examine any modifications necessary;

    • - make recommendations to the Contracting Parties concerning measures to be taken for the purposes of this Convention;

    • - recommend the appropriate measures to keep the public informed about the activities undertaken within the framework of this Convention;

    • - make recommendations to the Committee of Ministers concerning non-member States of the Council of Europe to be invited to accede to this Convention;

    • - make any proposal for improving the effectiveness of this Convention, including proposals for the conclusion, with the States which are not Contracting Parties to the Convention, of agreements that would enhance the effective conservation of species or groups of species.

  • 2 In order to discharge its functions, the Standing Committee may, on its own initiative, arrange for meetings of groups of experts.

Article 15

After each meeting, the Standing Committee shall forward to the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe a report on its work and on the functioning of the Convention.

CHAPTER VII. Amendments

Article 16

  • 1 Any amendment to the articles of this Convention proposed by a Contracting Party or the Committee of Ministers shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe and forwarded by him at least two months before the meeting of the Standing Committee to the member States of the Council of Europe, to any signatory, to any Contracting Party, to any State invited to sign this Convention in accordance with the provisions of Article 19 and to any State invited to accede to it in accordance with the provisions of Article 20.

  • 2 Any amendment proposed in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be examined by the Standing Committee which:

    • a. for amendments to Articles 1 to 12, shall submit the text adopted by a three-quarters majority of the votes cast to the Contracting Parties for acceptance;

    • b. for amendments to Articles 13 to 24, shall submit the text adopted by a three-quarters majority of the votes cast to the Committee of Ministers for approval. After its approval, this text shall be forwarded to the Contracting Parties for acceptance.

  • 3 Any amendment shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after all the Contracting Parties have informed the Secretary General that they have accepted it.

  • 4 The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2.a and 3 of this Article shall apply to the adoption of new Appendices to this Convention.

Article 17

  • 1 Any amendment to the Appendices of this Convention proposed by a Contracting Party or the Committee of Ministers shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe and forwarded by him at least two months before the meeting of the Standing Committee to the member States of the Council of Europe, to any signatory, to any Contracting Party, to any State invited to sign this Convention in accordance with the provisions of Article 19 and to any State invited to accede to it in accordance with the provisions of Article 20.

  • 2 Any amendment proposed in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be examined by the Standing Committee, which may adopt it by a two-thirds majority of the Contracting Parties. The text adopted shall be forwarded to the Contracting Parties.

  • 3 Three months after its adoption by the Standing Committee and unless one-third of the Contracting Parties have notified objections, any amendment shall enter into force for those Contracting Parties which have not notified objections.

CHAPTER VIII. Settlement of disputes

Article 18

  • 1 The Standing Committee shall use its best endeavours to facilitate a friendly settlement of any difficulty to which the execution of this Convention may give rise.

  • 2 Any dispute between Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention which has not been settled on the basis of the provisions of the preceding paragraph or by negotiation between the parties concerned shall, unless the said parties agree otherwise, be submitted, at the request of one of them, to arbitration. Each party shall designate an arbitrator and the two arbitrators shall designate a third arbitrator. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 of this Article, if one of the parties has not designated its arbitrator within the three months following the request of arbitration, he shall be designated at the request of the other party by the President of the European Court of Human Rights within a further three months’ period. The same procedure shall be observed if the arbitrators cannot agree on the choice of the third arbitrator within the three months following the designation of the two first arbitrators.

  • 3 In the event of a dispute between two Contracting Parties one of which is a member State of the European Economic Community, the latter itself being a Contracting Party, the other Contracting Party shall address the request for arbitration both to the member State and to the Community, which jointly, shall notify it, within two months of receipt of the request, whether the member State or the Community, or the member and the Community jointly, shall be party to the dispute. In the absence of such notification within the said time limit, the member State and the Community shall be considered as being one and the same party to the dispute for the purposes of the application of the provisions governing the constitution and procedure of the arbitration tribunal. The same shall apply when the member State and the Community jointly present themselves as party to the dispute.

  • 4 The arbitration tribunal shall draw up its own Rules of Procedure. Its decisions shall be taken by majority vote. Its award shall be final and binding.

  • 5 Each party to the dispute shall bear the expenses of the arbitrator designated by it and the parties shall share equally the expenses of the third arbitrator, as well as other costs entailed by the arbitration.

CHAPTER IX. Final Provisions

Article 19

  • 1 This Convention shall be open for signature by the member States of the Council of Europe and non-member States which have participated in its elaboration and by the European Economic Community.

    Up until the date when the Convention enters into force, it shall also be open for signature by any other State so invited by the Committee of Ministers.

    The Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

  • 2 The Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of three months after the date on which five States, including at least four member States of the Council of Europe, have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

  • 3 In respect of any signatory State or the European Economic Community which subsequently express their consent to be bound by it, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of three months after the date of the deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.

Article, 20

  • 1 After the entry into force of this Convention, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, after consulting the Contracting Parties, may invite to accede to the Convention any non-member State of the Council which, invited to sign in accordance with the provisions of Article 19, has not yet done so, and any other non-member State.

  • 2 In respect of any acceding State, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of three months after the date of the deposit of the instrument of accession with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

Article 21

  • 1 Any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specify the territory or territories to which this Convention shall apply.

  • 2 Any Contracting Party may, when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession or at any later date, by declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Convention to any other territory specified in the declaration and for whose international relations it is responsible or on whose behalf it is authorised to give undertakings.

  • 3 Any declaration made under the preceding paragraph may, in respect of any territory mentioned in such declaration, be withdrawn by notification addressed to the Secretary General. Such withdrawal shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of six months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.

Article 22

  • 1 Any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, make one or more reservations regarding certain species specified in Appendices I to III and/or, for certain species mentioned in the reservation or reservations, regarding certain means or methods of killing, capture and other exploitation listed in Appendix IV. No reservations of a general nature may be made.

  • 2 Any Contracting Party which extends the application of this Convention to a territory mentioned in the declaration referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 21 may, in respect of the territory concerned, make one or more reservations in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

  • 3 No other reservation may be made.

  • 4 Any Contracting Party which has made a reservation under paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article may wholly or partly withdraw it by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. Such withdrawal shall take effect as from the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.

Article 23

  • 1 Any Contracting Party may, at any time, denounce this Convention by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

  • 2 Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of six months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.

Article 24

The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the member States of the Council of Europe, any signatory State, the European Economic Community if a signatory of this Convention and any Contracting Party of:

  • a. any signature;

  • b. the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;

  • c. any date of entry into force of this Convention in accordance with Articles 19 and 20;

  • d. any information forwarded under the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 13;

  • e. any report established in pursuance of the provisions of Article 15;

  • f. any amendment or any new Appendix adopted in accordance with Articles 16 and 17 and the date on which the amendment or new Appendix comes into force;

  • g. any declaration made under the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 21;

  • h. any reservation made under the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 22;

  • i. the withdrawal of any reservation carried out under the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 22;

  • j. any notification made under the provisions of Article 23 and the date on which the denunciation takes effect.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.

DONE at Bern, this 19th day of September 1979, in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each member State of the Council of Europe, to any signatory State, to the European Economic Community if a signatory and to any State invited to sign this Convention or to accede thereto.

Appendix I. Strictly protected flora species


Caulerpa ollivieri (for the Mediterranean)

Cystoseira amentacea (inclus var. stricta et var. spicata) (for the Mediterranean)

Cystoseira mediterranea (for the Mediterranean)

Cystoseira sedoides (for the Mediterranean)

Cystoseira spinosa (inclus C. adriatica) (for the Mediterranean)

Cystoseira zosteroides (for the Mediterranean)

Goniolithon byssoides (for the Mediterranean)

Laminaria rodriquezii (for the Mediterranean)

Laminaria ochroleuca (for the Mediterranean)

Lithophyllum lichenoides (for the Mediterranean)

Ptilophora mediterranea (for the Mediterranean)

Schimmelmannia schousboei = S. ornata (for the Mediterranean)


Cymodocea nodosa (or the Mediterranean)

Posidonia oceanica (for the Mediterranean)

Zostera marina (for the Mediterranean)



Asplenium hemoionitis L.

Asplenium jahandiezii (Litard.) Rouy


Woodwardia radicans (L.) Sm.


Culcita macrocarpa C. Presl


Dryopteris corleyi Fraser-Jenk.


Trichomanes speciosum Willd.


Isoetes boryana Durieu

Isoetes malinverniana Ces. & De Not.


Marsilea batardae Launert

Marsilea quadrifolia L.

Marsilea strigosia Willd.

Pilularia minuta Duriue ex.Braun


Botrychium matricariifolium A. Braun ex Koch

Botrychium multifidum (S. G. Gmelin) Rupr.

Botrychium simplex Hitchc.

Ophioglossum polyphyllum A.Braun


Salvinia natanas (L.) All.


Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei



Alisma wahlenbergii (O.R. Holmb.) Juz.

Caldesia parnassifolia (L.) Parl.

Luronium natans (L.) Raf.


Leucojum nicaeense Ard.

Narcissus angustifolius Curt.

Narcissus longispathus Pugsley

Narcissus nevadensis Pugsley

Narcissus scaberalus Henriq.

Narcissus triandus L.

Narcissus virdiflorus Schousboe

Sternbergia candida B. Mathew & Baytop


Rhazya orientalis (Decaisne) A.DC.


Arum purpureospathum Boyce


Aristolochia samsunensis Davis


Alkanna pinardii Boiss.

Anchuna crispa Viv. (inclu. A. litoreae)

Lithodora nitida (H. Ern) R. Fernandes

Myosotis rehsteineri Wartm.

Omphalodes kuzinskyana Willk.

Omphalodes litorralis Lełim.

Onosma halophlium Boiss. & Heldr.

Onosma proponticum Aznav.

Onosma troodi Kotschy

Solenanthus ałbanicus (Degen et al.) Degen & Baldacci

Symphytum cycladense Pawl.


Asyneuma giganteum (Boiss.) Bornm.

Campanula abietina Griseb. et Schenk.

Campanula damboldtiana Davis

Campanula gelida Kovanda

Campanula lanata Friv.

Campanula lycica Sorger & Kit Tan

Campanula morettiana Reichenb.

Campanula romanica Savul.

Campanula sabatia De Not.

Jasione lusitanica A.DC.

Physoplexis comosa (L.) Schur

Trachelium asperuloides Boiss. & Orph.


Arenaria nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter

Arenaria provincialis Chater & Halliday

Cerastium alsinifolium Tausch

Dianthus hypanicus Andrz.

Dianthus nitidus Waldst. et Kit.

Dianthus rupicola Biv.

Dianthus serotinus Waldst. et Kit.

Dianthus urumoffii Stoj. et Acht.

Gypsophiła papillosa P. Porta

Herniaria algarvica Chaudri

Herniaria maritima Link

Minuartia smejkalii Dvorakova

Moehringia hypanica Grynj. et Klok.

Moehringia jankae Griseb. ex Janka

Moehringia fontqueri Pau

Moehringia tomrnasinii Marches.

Petrocoptis grandiflora Rothm.

Petrocoptis montsicciana O. Bolos Rivas Mart.

Petrocoptis pseudoviscosa Femandez Casas

Saponaria halophila Hedge & Hub.-Mor.

Silene cretacea Fisch. ex Spreng.

Silene furcata Raf. subsp. angustiflora (Rupr.) Walters

Silene haussknechtii Heldr. ex Hausskn.

Silene hifacensis Rouy ex Willk.

Silene holzmannii Heldr. ex Boiss.

Silene mariana Pau

Silene orphanidis Boiss.

Silene pompeiopolitana Gay ex Boiss.

Silene rothmaleri Pinto da Silva.

Silene salsuginea Hub.-Mor.

Silene sangaria Coode & Cullen

Silene velutina Pourret ex Loisel.


Beta adanensis Pamuk. apud Aellen

Beta trojana Pamuk. apud Aellen

Kalidiopsis wagenitzii Aellen

Kochia saxicola Guss.

Microcnemum coralloides (Loscos & Pardo) subsp. anatolicum


Salicornia veneta Pignatti & Lausi

Salsola anatolica Aellen

Suaeda cucullata Aellen


Helianthemum alypoides Losa & Rivas Goday

Helianthemum arcticum (Grosser) Janch.

Helianthemum caput-felis Boiss.

Tuberaria major (Willk.) Pinto da Silva & Roseira


Andryala levitomentosa (E. I. Nayardy) P. D. Sell

Anthemis trotzkiana Claus ex Bunge.

Achillea glaberrima Klok.

Achillea thracica Velen.

Anacyclus latealatus Hub.-Mor.

Anthemis glaberrima (Rech·f.) Greuter

Anthemis halophila Boiss. & Bal.

Artemisia granatensis Boiss.

Artemisia insipida Vill.

Artemisia laciniata Willd.

Artemisia pancicii (Janka) Ronn.

Aster pyrenaeus Desf. ex DC.France,

Aster sibiricus L.

Carduus myriacanthus Salzm. ex DC.

Carlina diae (Rech.f.) Meusel & Kastener

Centaurea akamantis

Centaurea alba L. subsp. heldreichii (Halacsy) Dostal (Centaurea heldreichii Halacsy)

Centaurea alba L. subsp. princeps (Boiss. & Heldr.) Gugler (Centaurea princeps Boiss. & Heldr.)

Centaurea attica Nyman subsp. megarensis (Halacsy & Hayek) Dostal (Centaurea megarensis Halacsy & Hayek)

Centaurea balearica J.D. Rodriguez

Centaurea borjae Valdes-Benn. & Rivas Goday

Centaurea citricolor Font Quer

Centaurea corymbosa Pourret

Centaurea dubjanskyi Iljin.

Centaurea hermannii F. Hermann

Centaurea horrida Badaro

Centaurea jankae Brandza

Centaurea kalambakensis Freyn & Sint.

Centaurea kartschiana Scop.

Centaurea lactiflora Halacsy

Centaurea niederi Heldr.

Centaurea peucedanifolia Boiss. & Orph.

Centaurea pineticola Iljin.

Centaurea pinnata Pau

Centaurea pontica Prodan & E. I. Nayardy

Centaurea pseudoleucolepis Kleop

Centaurea pulvinata (G. Blanca) G. Blanca

Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fich. & Mey.

Crepis crocifolia Boiss. & Heldr.

Crepis granatensis (Willk.) G. Blanca & M. Cueto

Crepis purpurea Willd. Bieb

Dendranthema zawadskyi (Herb.) Tzvel.

Erigeron frigidus Boiss. ex DC.

Helichrysum sibthorpii Rouy

Hymenostemma pseudanthemis (Kunze) Willd.

Jurinea cyanoides (L.) Reichenb.

Jurinea fontqueri Cuatrec.

Lagoseris purpurea (Willd.) Boiss.

Lamyropsis microcephala (Moris) Dittrich & Greuter

Leontodon boryi Boiss. ex DC.

Leontodon microcephalus (Boiss. ex DC.) Boiss.

Leontodon siculus (Guss.) Finch & Sell

Ligularia sibirica (L.) Cass.**

Picris willkommii (Schultz Bip.) Nyman

Santolina elegans Boiss. ex DC.

Senecio elodes Boiss. ex DC.

Senecio nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter

Serratula tanaitica P. Smirn.

Sonchus erzincanicus Matthews

Wagenitzia lancifolia (Sieber ex Sprengel) Dostal


Convolvulus argyrothamnos Greuter

Convolvulus pulvinatus Sa’ad


Alyssum akamasicum B. L. Burtt

Alyssum borzaeanum E. I. Nayardy

Alyssum pyrenaicum Lapeyr. (Ptilotrichum pyrenaicum (Lapeyr.) Boiss.)

Arabis kennedyae Meikle

Armoracia macrocarpa (Waldst. & Kit.) Kit. ex Baumg.

Aurinia uechtritziana (Bornm.) Cullen et T. R. Dudley

Biscutella neustriaca Bonnet

Boleum asperum (Pers.) Desvaux

Brassica glabrescens Poldini

Brassica hilarionis Post

Brassica sylvestris (l.) Mill. subsp. taurica Tzvel.

Brassica insularis Moris

Brassica macrocarpa Guss.

Braya purpurasceus (R.Br.) Bunge

Cochlearia polonica Frohlich

Crambe koktebelica (Junge) N. Busch.

Coincya rupestris Rouy (Hutera rupestris P. Porta)

Coronopus navasii Pau

Crambe litwinonowii K. Gross.

Diplotaxis ibicensis (Pau) Gomez-Campo

Diplotaxis siettiana Maire

Draba dorneri Heuffel

Erucastrum palustre (Pirona) Vis.

Erysimum pieninicum (Zapal.) Pawl.

Iberis arbuscula Runemark

Ionopsidium acaule (Desf.) Reichemb.

Ionopsidium savianum (Caruel) Ball ex Arcang.

Lepidium turczaninowii Lipsky.

Murbeckiella sousae Rothm.

Schivereckia podolica (Besser) Andrz.

Sisymbrium cavanillesianum Valdes & Castroviejo (S. matritense P.W. Ball & Heywood)

Sisymbrium confertum Stev.

Sisymbrium supinum L.

Thlaspi cariense A. Carlström

Thlaspi jankae A. Kern


Carex secalina Willd. ex Wahlenb.

Eleocharis carniolica Koch


Borderea chouardii (Gaussen) Heslot


Dipsacus cephalarioides Mathews & Kupicha


Aldrovanda vesiculosa L.


Euphorbia margalidiana Kuhbier & Lewejohann

Euphprbia nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter


Centaurium rigualii Esteve Chueca

Centaurium somedanum Lainz

Gentiana ligustica R. de Vilm. Chopinet

Gentianella anglica (Pugsley) E. R Warburg


Erodium astragaloides Boiss. & Reuter

Erodium chrysanthum L’Herit. ex DC.

Erodium paularense Fernandez-Gonzalez & Izco

Erodium rupicola Boiss.


Haberlea rhodopensis Friv.

Jankaea heldreichii (Boiss.) Boiss.

Ramonda serbica Pancic


Avenula hackelii (Henriq.) Holub

Bromus bromoideus (Lej.) Crepin

Bromus grossus Desf. ex DC.

Bromus interruptus (Hackel) Druce

Bromus moesiacus Velen.

Bromus psammophilus P. M. Smith

Coleanthus subtilis (Tratt.) Seidl

Eremopoa mardinensis R. Mill

Gaudinia hispanica Stace & Tutin

Micropyropsis tuberosa Romero-Zarco Gabezudo

Poa granitica Br- Bl.

Poa riphaea (Ascherson et Graebner) Fritsch

Puccinellia pungens (Pau) Paunero

Stipa austroitalica Martinovsky

Stipa bavarica Martinovsky & H. Scholz

Stipa danubialis Dihoru & Roman

Stipa styriaca Martinovsky

Stipa syreistschikowii P. Smirn.

Trisetum subalpestre (Hartm.) Neuman


Ribes sardoum Martelli


Hypericum aciferum (Greuter) N. K. B. Robson

Hypericum salsugineum Robson & Hub.-Mor.


Crocus abantensis T. Baytop & Mathew

Crocus cyprius Boiss. & Kotschy

Crocus etrascus Parl.

Crocus hartmannianus Holmboe

Crocus robertianus C. D. Brickell

Gladiolus felicis Mirek

Iris marsica Ricci & Colasante


Dracocephalum austriacum L.

Dracocephalum ruyschiana L.

Micromeria taygetea P. H. Davis

Nepeta dirphya (Boiss.) Heldr. ex Halacsy

Nepeta sphaciotica P. H. Davis

Origanum cordifolium (Auch. & Montbr.) Vogel (Amaracus cordifolium Montr. & Auch.)

Origanum dictamnus L.

Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr

Phlomis brevibraceteata Turrill

Phlomis cypria Post

Rosmarinus tomentosus Huber-Morath & Maire

Salvia crassifolia Sibth. & Smith

Sideritis cypria Post

Sideritis incana L. ssp. glauca (Cav.) Malagarriga

Sideritis javalambrensis Pau

Sideritis serrata Cav. ex Lag.

Teucrium lepicephalum Pau

Teucrium charidemi Sandwith

Teucrium lamiifolium D’Urv.

Teucrium turredanum Losa & Rivas Goday

Thymus aznavourri Velen.

Thymus camphoratus Hoffmanns. & Link

Thymus camosus Boiss.

Thymus cephalotos L.


Anthyllis hystrix Cardona, Contandr. & E. Sierra

Astragalus aitosensis Ivanisch.

Astragalus algarbiensis Coss. ex Bunge

Astragalus aquilanus Anzalone

Astragalus centralpinus Braun-Blanquet

Astragalus kungurensis Boriss.

Astragalus macrocarpus DC. subsp. lefkarensis Agerer-Kirchoff & Meikle

Astragalus maritimus Moris

Astragalus peterfii Jav.

Astragalus physocalyx Fischer

Astragalus psedopurpureus Gusul.

Astragalus setosulus Gontsch.

Astragalus tanaiticus C. Koch.

Astragalus tremolsianus Pau

Astragalus verrucosus Moris

Cytisus aeolicus Guss. ex Lindl.

Genista dorycnifolia Font Quer

Genista holopetala (Fleischm. ex Koch) Baldacci

Genista tetragona Bess.

Glycyrrhiza iconica Hub.-Mor.

Hedysarum razoumovianum Fisch. et Helm.

Ononis maweana Ball

Oxytropis deflexa (Pallas) DC. ssp. norvegica Nordh.

Sphaerophysa kotschyana Boiss.

Thermopsis turcica Kit Tan, Vural & Küçüködü

Trifolium banaticum (Heuffel) Majovsky

Trifolium pachycalyx Zoh.

Trifolium saxatile All.

Trigonella arenicola Hub.-Mor.

Trigonella halophila Boiss.

Trigonella polycarpa Boiss. & Heldr.

Vicia bifoliolata J. D. Rodriguez


Pinguicula crystallina Sibth. & Sm.

Pinguicula nevadensis (Lindb.) Casper


Allium grosii Font Quer

Allium regelianum A. Beck.

Allium vuralii Kit Tan

Androcymbium europaeum (Lange) K. Richter

Androcymbium rechingeri Greuter

Asparagus lycaonicus Davis

Asphodelus bento-rainhae Pinto da Silva

Chionodoxa lochiae Meikle

Chionodoxa luciliae Boiss.

Colchicum arenarium Waldst. & Kit.

Colchicum corsicum Baker

Colchicum cousturieri Greuter

Colchicum davidovii Stef.

Colchicum fominii Bordz.

Colchicum micranthum Boiss.

Fritillaria conica Boiss.

Fritillaria drenovskii Degen & Stoy.

Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix

Fritillaria euboeica (Rix Doerfler) Rix

Fritillaria graeca Boiss.

Fritillaria montana Hoppe.

Fritillaria gussichiae (Degen & Doerfler) Rix

Fritillaria obliqua Ker-Gawl.

Fritillaria rhodocanakis Orph. ex Baker

Fritillaria tuntasia Heldr. ex Halacsy

Lilium jankae A. Kerner

Lilium rhodopaeum Delip.

Muscari gussonei (Parl.) Tod.

Ornithogalum reverchonii Lange

Scilla morrisii Meikle

Scilla odorata Link

Tulipa cypria Stapf

Tulipa goulimya Sealy & Turrill

Tulipa hungarica Borbas

Tulipa praecox Ten.

Tulipa sprengeri Baker


Linum dolomiticum Borbas


Lythrum flexuosum Lag.

Lythrum thesioides M. Bieb.


Kosteletzkya pentacarpos (L.) Ledeb.


Caulinia tenuissima (A. br. ex Magnus) Tzvel.

Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & W. L. Schmidt

Najas tenuissima (A. Braun) Magnus


Cephalanthera cucullata Boiss & Heldr.

Comperia comperiana (Steven) Aschers. & Graebner

Cypripedium calceolus L.

Dactylorhiza chuhensis Renz & Taub.

Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich.

Ophrys argolica Fleischm.

Ophrys oestrifera Bieb.

Ophrys isaura Renz & Taub.

Ophrys kotschyi Fleischm. & Soo

Ophrys lunulata Parl.

Ophrys lycia Renz & Taub.

Ophrys taurica (Agg.) Nevski.

Orchis provincialis Balb.

Platanthera obtusata (Pursh) Lindl. subsp. oligantha (Turcz.) Hulten

Spiranthes aestivalis (Poiret) L. C. M. Richard


Paeonia cambessedesii (Willk.) Willk.

Paeonia clusii F. C. Stern subsp. rhodia (Stearn) Tzanoudakis

Paeonia officinalis L. subsp. banatica (Rochel) Soo

Paeonia paraassica Tzanoudakis

Paeonia tenuifolia L.


Phoenix theophrasti Greuter


Papaver lapponicum (Tolm.) Nordh.

Rupicapnos africana (Lam.) Pomel


Armeria pseudarmeria (Murray) Mansfeld

Armeria rouyana Daveau

Armeria soleirolii (Duby) Godron

Armeria velutina Welv. ex Boiss. & Reuter

Limonium anatolicum Hedge

Limonium tamaricoides Bokhari


Polemonium boreale Adams


Polygonum praelongum Coode & Cullen

Rheum rhaponticum L.

Rumex rupestris Le Gall


Androsace cylindrica DC.

Androsace mathildae Levier

Androsace pyrenaica Lam.

Cyclamen coum Mill.

Cyclamen kuznetzovii Kotov et Czernova.

Cyclamen mirabile Hildebr.

Lysimachia minoricensis J. D. Rodriguez

Primula apennina Widmer

Primula deorum Velen.

Primula egaliksensis Wormsk.

Primula frondosa Janka

Primula glaucescens Moretti

Primula palinuri Petagna

Primula spectabilis Tratt.

Primula wulfeniana Scot subsp. baumgarteniana (Degen & Moesz) Ludi

Soldanella villosa Darracq


Aconitum corsicum Gayer

Aconitum flerovii Steinb.

Aconitum lasiocarpum (Reichenb.) Gáyer

Adonis cyllenea Boiss, Heldr. & Orph.

Adonis distorta Ten.

Anemone uralense Nevski.

Aquilegia bertolonii Schott

Aquilegia kitaibelii Schott

Aquilegia ottonis subsp. taygetea (Orph.) Strid

Aquilegia pyrenaica D.C. subsp. cazorlensis (Heywood) Galiano & Rivas Martinez (Aquilegia cazorlensis Heywood)

Consolida samia R H. Davis

Delphinium caseyi B. L. Burtt

Pulsatilla grandis Wend. (Pulsatilla halleri (All.) Willd. subsp. grandis (Wend.) Meikle

Pulsatilla patens (L.) Miller

Pulsatilla slavica G. Reuss

Ranunculus fontamis C. Presl

Ranunculus kykkoensis Meikle

Ranunculus weyleri Mares


Reseda decursiva Forssk. Gibraltar


Crataegus dikmensis Pojark

Geum bulgaricum Panc.

Potentilla delphinensis Gren. & Godron

Potentilla emilii-popii E. I. Nayardy

Potentilla silesiaca Uechtr.

Pyrus anatolica Browicz


Galium cracoviense Ehrend.

Galium globuliferum Hub.-Mor & Reese

Galium litorale Guss.

Galium moldavicum (Dobrescu) Franco

Galium rhodopeum Velen.

Galium viridiflorum Boiss & Reuter


Thesium ebracteatum Hayne


Saxifraga berica (Beguinot) D. A. Webb

Saxifraga cintrana Kuzinsky ex Willk.

Saxifraga florulenta Moretti

Saxifraga hirculus L.

Saxifraga presolanensis Engl.

Saxifraga tombeanensis Boiss. ex Engl.

Saxifraga valdensis DC.

Saxifraga vayredana Luizet


Antirrhinum charidemi Lange

Euphrasia marchesettii Wettst. ex Marches.

Linaria algarviana Chav.

Linaria ficalhoana Rouy

Linaria flava (Poiret) Desf.

Linaria hellenica Turril

Linaria loeselii Schweigger

Linaria ricardoi Cout.

Linaria tursica B. Valdes & Cabezudo

Lindernia procumbens (Krocker) Philcox

Odontites granatensis Boiss.

Pedicularis sudetica Willd.

Verbascum afyonense Hub.-Mor.

Verbascum basivelatum Hub.-Mor.

Verbascum cylleneum (Boiss. & Heldr.) Kuntze

Verbascum degenii Hal.

Verbascum purpureum (Janka) Huber-Morath

Verbascum stepporum Hub.-Mor.

Veronica euxina Turrill

Veronica oetaea L.-A. Gustavsson

Veronica turrilliana Stoj. et Stef.


Globularia stygia Orph. ex Boiss.


Atropa baetica Willk.

Mandragora officinarum L.


Daphne arbuscula Celak.

Daphne petraea Leybold

Daphne rodriguezii Texidor

Thymelea broterana Coutinho


Trapa natans L.


Typha minima Funk

Typha shuttleworthii Koch & Sonder


Zelkova abelicea (Lam.) Boiss.


Angelica heterocarpa Lloyd

Angelica palustris (Besser) Hoffman

Apium bermejoi Llorens

Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag.

Athamanta cortiana Ferrarini

Bupleurum capillare Boiss. & Heldr.

Bupleuram dianthifolium Guss.

Bupleurum kakiskalae Greuter

Eryngium alpinum L.

Eryngium vivipanun Gay

Ferula orientalis L.

Ferula halophila H. Pesmen

Ferula sadleriana Ledebour

Laserpitium longiradiuni Boiss.

Naufraga balearica Constance & Cannon

Oenanthe conioides Lange

Petagnia saniculifolia Guss.

Rouya polygama (Desf.) Coincy

Seseli intracatum Boiss.

Thorella verticillatinιιndata (Thore) Briq.


Centranthus kellererii (Stoj. Stef. et Georg.) Stoj. et Stef.

Centranthus trinervis (Viv.) Beguinot


Viola athois W. Becker

Viola cazorlensis Gandoger

Viola cryana Gillot

Viola delphinantha Boiss.

Viola hispida Lam.

Viola jaubertiana Mares & Vigineix




Notothylas orbicularis (schwein.) sull



Mannia triandra (Scop.) Grolle


Cephalozia macounii (Aust.) Aust.


Petalophyllum ralfsii (Wils.) Nees et Gott. ex Lehm.


Frullania parvistipula Steph.


Marsupella profunda Lindb.


Jungermannia handelii (Schiffn.) Amak.


Riccia breidleri Jur. ex Steph


Riella helicophylla (Mont.) Hook.


Scapania massalongi (K. Muell.) K. Muell.



Drepanocladus vernicosus (Mitt.) Warnst.


Bruchia vogesiaca Schwaegr.


Buxbaumia viridis (Moug. ex Lam. & DC). Brid ex Moug. & Nestl.


Atractylocarpus alpinus (Schimp. ex Milde) Lindb.

Cynodontium suecicum (H. Arn. & C. Jens.) I. Hag.

Dicranum viride (Sull. & Lesq.) Lindb.


Dichelyma capillaceum (With.) Myr.


Pyramidula tetragona (Brid.) Brid.


Distichophyllum carinatum Dix. & Nich.


Meesia longiseta Hedw.


Orthotrichum rogeri Brid.


Sphagnum pylaisii Brid.


Tayloria rudolphiana (Garov.) B.S.G.

Endemic species of the maraconesian region



Asplenium azoricum Lovis


Polystichum drepanum (Swartz) C. Presl


Hymenophyllum maderensis


Isoetes azorica Durieu ex Milde


Diphasium madeirense (Wilee.) Rothm.


Marsilea azorica Launert



Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine



Dracaena draco (L.) L.


Caralluma burchardii N.E. Brown

Ceropegia chrysantha Svent.

Vincetoxicum pannonicum (Borhidi) Holub


Berberis maderensis Lowe


Echium gentianoides Webb ex Coincy

Echium handiense Svent.

Echium pininana Webb et Berth.

Myosotis azorica H. C. Watson

Myosotis maritima Hochst. ex Seub.

Myosotis praecox Hulphers

Onosma polyphylla Lebed.

Onosma tornensis Javorka


Azorina vidalii (H. C. Watson) Feer

Musschia aurea (L.f.) DC.

Musschia wollastonii Lowe


Sambucus palmensis Link


Cerastium azoricum Hochst.

Silene nocteolens Webb et Berth


Cistus chinamadensis Bañares & Romero

Helianthemum bystropogophyllum Svent.

Helianthemum teneriffae Cosson


Andryala crithmifolia Ait.

Argyranthemum lidii Humphries

Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.F.) Lowe subsp. succulentum (Lowe) Humphries

Argyranthemum winterii (Svent.) Humphries

Atractylis arbuscula Svent. & Michaelis

Atractylis preauxiana Schultz Bip.

Bellis azorica Hochst. ex Seub.

Calendula maderensis Dc.

Carlina onopordifolia Besser

Cheirolophus duranii (Burchard) Holub

Cheirolophus falsisectus Montelongo et Moraleda

Cheirolophus ghomerythus (Svent.) Holub

Cheirolophus junonianus (Svent.) Holub

Cheirolophus metlesicsii Montelongo

Cheirolophus santosabreui Santos

Cheirolophus satarataensis (Svent.) Holub

Cheirolophus tagananensis (Svent.) Holub

Helichrysum monogynum B.L. Burth. & Sunding

Helichrysum gossypinum Webb

Hypochoeris oligocephala (Svent. & D. Bramwell) Lack Lactuca watsoniana Trelease

Leotodon filii (Hochst. ex Seub.) Paiva & Orm.

Onopordum carduelinum Bolle

Onopordum nogalesii Svent.

Pericallis hadrosomus Svent.

Pericallis malvifolia (L’Hér) B. Nord.

Phagnalon benetii Lowe

Senecio hermosae Pitard

Sonchus gandogeri Pitard

Stemmacantha cynaroides

Sventenia bupleuroides Font Quer

Tanacetum o’shanahanii Febles. Marrero et Suárez

Tanacetum ptarmiciflorum (Webb) Schultz Bip.

Tolpis glabrescens Kämmer


Convolvulus caput-medusae Lowe

Convolvulus lopez-socasi Svent.

Convolvulus massonii A. Dietr.

Pharbitis preauxii Webb


Aeonium balsamiferum Webb et Berth.

Aeonium gomeraense Praeger

Aeonium saundersii Bolle

Aichrysum dumosum (Lowe) Praeg.

Monanthes wildpretii Bañares & Scholz


Crambe arborea Webb ex Christ

Crambe laevigata DG ex Christ

Crambe scoparia Svent.

Crambe sventenii B. Petters. ex Bramw. & Sunding

Parolinia schizogynoides Svent.

Sinapidendron sempervivifolium Mnzs.


Carex malato-belizii Raymond


Scabiosa nitens Roem. & Schult.


Daboecia azorica Tutin & Warb.

Erica scoparia L. subsp. azorica (Hochst.) D. A. Webb

Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.


Euphorbia bourgaeana Gay ex Boiss.

Euphorbia handiensis Burchard

Euρhorbia lambii Svent.

Euphorbia stygiana H. C. Watson


Geranium maderense Yeo


Agrostis gracilaxa Franco

Deschampsia maderensis (Hack. et Bornm.) Buschm.

Phalaris maderensis (Mnzs.) Mnzs.


Micromeria glomerata P. Pérez

Micromeria leucantha Svent. ex Pérez

Salvia herbanica Santos et Fernández

Sideritis cystosiphon Svent.

Sideritis discolor (Webb ex de Noe) Bolle

Sideritis infernalίs Bolle

Sideritis marmorea Bolle.

Teucrium abutiloides l’Her.


Adenocarpus ombriosus Ceb. & Ort.

Anthyllis lemanniana Lowe

Anagyris latifolia Brouss. ex Willd.

Cicer canariensis Santos & Gweil

Dorycnium spectabile Webb & Berthel.

Genista benehoavensis (Bolle ex Svent.) Del Arco

Lotus callis-viridis D. Bramwell & D. H. Davis

Lotus azoricus P. W. Ball

Lotus eremiticus Santos

Lotus kunkellii (E. Chueca) D. Bramwell et al.

Lotus maculatus Breitfeld

Lotus pyranthus P. Perez

Teline nervosa (Esteve) A. Hansen et Sund.

Teline rosmarinifolia Webb & Berthel.

Teline salsoloides Arco & Acebes.

Vicia dennesiana H. C. Watson


Androcymbium psammlophilum Svent.

Smilax divaricata Sol. ex Wats.


Myrica rivas-martinezii Santos.


Jasminum azoricum L.

Picconia azorica (Tutin) Knbol.

Syringa josikaea Jacq. fil.


Barlia metlesicsiaca Teschner

Goodyera macrophylla Lowe

Himantoglossum caprinum (Bieb.) C. Koch.

Orchis punctulata Stev. ex Lindl.

Orchis scopulorum Summerh.

Steveniella satyrioides (Stev.) Schlechter.


Pittosporum coriaceum Dryander ex Aiton


Plantago famarae Svent.

Plantago malato-belizii Lawalree


Limonium arborescens (Brouss.) Kuntze

Limonium dendroides Svent.

Limonium fruticans (Webb) O. Kuntze

Limonium perezii Stapf

Limonium preauxii (Webb et Berth.) O. Kuntze

Limonium spectabile (Svent.) Kunkel & Sunding

Limonium sventenii Santos & Femandez Galvan


Rumex azoricus Rech.


Frangula azorica Tutin


Bencomia brachystachya Svent.

Bencomia exstipulata Svent.

Bencomia sphaerocarpa Svent.

Chamaemeles coriacea Lindl.

Dendriopoterium pulidoi Svent.

Marcetella maderensis (Bornm.) Svent.

Pmnus lusitanica ssp. azorica (Moui.) Franco


Ruta microcarpa Svent.


Kunkeliella canariensis Steara

Kunkeliella psilotoclada (Svent.) Stearn

Kunkeliella subsucculenta Kammer


Sideroxylon marmulano Banks ex Lowe


Saxifraga portosanctana Boiss.


Euphrasia azorica H. C. Watson

Euphrasia grandiflora Hochst.

Isoplexis ehalcantha Svent. & O’Shanahan

Isoplexis isabelliana (Webb & Berthel.) Masferrer


Globularia ascanii D. Bramwell & Kunkel

Globularia sarcophylla Svent.


Solanum lidii Sunding


Ammi trifoliatum (Wats.) Trel.

Bunium brevifolium Lowe

Bupleurum handiense (Bolle) Kunkel

Chaerophylum azoricum Trel.

Monizia edulis Lowe

Ferula latipinna Santos

Sanicula azorica Gunthn. ex Seub.


Viola paradoxa Lowe




Echinodium spinosum (Mitt.) Jur.


Bryoerythrophyllum machadoanum (Sergio) M. Hill


Thamnobryum femandesii Sergio




( Med.) = in the Mediterranean







Atelerix algirus (Erinaceus algirus)



Crocidura suaveolens ariadne (Crodidura ariadne)


Crocidura russula cypria (Crocidura cypria)


Crocidura canariensis



Desmana moschata


Galemys pyrenaicus (Desmana pyrenaica)




all species except Pipistrellus pipistrellus





Pteromys volans (Sciuropterus russicus)


Sciurus anomalus


Spermophilus citellus (Citellus citellus)


Spermophilus suslicus (Citellus suslicus)



Cricetus cricetus


Mesocricetus newtoni


Microtus bavaricus (Pitymys bavaricus)


Microtus cabrerae


Microtus tatricus


Spalax graecus



Dryomis laniger


Myomimus roachi (Myomimus bulgaricus)



Sicista betulina


Sicista subtilis



Hystrix cristata





Alopex lagopus


Canis lupus


Cuon alpinus



all species



Gulo gulo


Mustela eversmannii


Mustela lutreola (Lutreola lutreola)


Lutra lutra


Vormela peregusna



Caracal caracal


Felis silvestris


Lynx pardinus (Lynx pardina)


Panthera pardus


Panthera tigris



Odobenus rosmarus



Monachus monachus


Phoca hispida saimensis


Phoca hispida ladogensis





Cervus elaphus corsicanus



Capra aegagrus


Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica


Gazella subgutturosa


Gazella dorcas


Ovibos moschatus


Rupicapra rupicapra ornata





Monodon monoceros



Delphinus delphis


Globicephala macrorhynchus


Globicephala melas


Grampus griseus


Lagenorhynchus acutus


Lagenorhynchus albirostris


Orcinus orca


Pseudorca crassidens


Steno bredanensis


Stenella coeruleoalba


Stenella frontalis


Tursiops truncatus (tursio)



Phocoena phocoena



Kogia breviceps


Kogia simus (Med.)


Physeter macrocephalus (Med.)



Hyperoodon rostratus


Mesoplodon bidens


Mesoplodon densirostris (Med.)


Mesoplodon mirus


Ziphius cavirostris



Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Med.)


Balaenoptera borealis (Med.)


Balaenoptera edeni


Balaenoptera physalus


Megaptera novaeangliae (longimana, nodosa)


Sibbaldus (Balaenoptera) musculus



Balaena mysticetus


Eubalaena glacialis







all species





Podiceps auritus


Podiceps grisegena


Podiceps nigricollis (caspicus)


Podiceps ruficollis





all species



Bulweria bulwerii


Procellaria diomedea


Pterodroma madeira


Pterodroma feae


Puffinus assimilis baroli


Puffinus puffinus


Puffinus yelkouan





Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Med.)


Phalocrocorax pygmaeus



all species





Ardea purpurea


Ardeola ralloides


Botaurus stellaris


Bulbucus (Ardeola) ibis


Casmerodius albus (Egretta alba)


Egretta garzetta


Ixobrychus minutus


Nycticorax nycticorax



all species



all species



Phoenicopterus ruber





Anser erythropus


Branta leucopsis


Branta ruficollis


Bucephala islandica


Cygnus cygnus


Cygnus bewickii (columbianus)


Histrionicus histrionicus


Marmaronetta (Anas) angustirostris


Mergus albellus


Oxyura leucocephala


Polysticta stelleri


Somateria spectabilis


Tadorna tadorna


Tadorna ferruginea




all species





Tetrao urogallus cantabricus





Turnix sylvatica



all species



Crex crex


Fulica cristata


Porphyrio porphyrio


Porzana porzana


Porzana pusilla


Porzana parva



all species





Arenaria interpres


Charadrius alexandrinus


Charadrius dubius


Charadrius hiaticula


Charadrius leschenaulti


Eudromias morinellus


Hoplopterus spinosus



Calidris alba


Calidris alpina


Calidris ferruginea


Calidris maritima


Calidris minuta


Calidris temminckii


Gallinago media


Limicola falcinellus


Numenius tenuirostris


Tringa cinerea


Tringa glareola


Tringa hypoleucos


Tringa ochropus


Tringa stagnatilis



all species



all species



Burhinus oedicnemus



all species



Chlidonias hybrida


Chlidonias leucopterus


Chlidonias niger


Gelochelidon nilotica


Hydroprogne caspia


Larus audouinii


Larus genei


Larus melanocephalus


Larus minutus


Larus (Xenia) sabini


Pagophila eburnea


Sterna albifrons


Sterna dougallii


Sterna hirundo


Sterna paradisaea (macrura)


Sterna sandvicensis





all species



Columba bollii


Columba junoniae





Clamator glandarius




all species





all species





Apus caffer


Apus melba


Apus pallidus


Apus unicolor





Alcedo atthis


Ceryle rudis


Halcyon smyrnensis



Merops apiaster



Coracias garrulus



Upopa epops




all species





Calandrella brachydactyla


Calandrella rufescens


Chersophilus duponti


Eremophila alpestris


Galerida theklae


Melanocorypha bimaculata


Melanocorypha calandra


Melanocorypha leucoρtera


Melanocorypha yeltoniensis



all species



all species



Pycnonotus barbatus



all species



Bombycilia garrulus



Cinclus cinclus



Troglodytes troglodytes



all species




Cercotrichas galactotes


Erithacus rubecula


Irania gutturalis


Luscinia luscinia


Luscinia megarhynchos


Luscinia (Cyanosylvia) svecica


Monticola saxatilis


Monticola solitarius


Oenanthe finischii


Oenanthe hispanica


Oenanthe isabellina


Oenanthe leucura


Oenanthe oenanthe


Oenanthe pleschanka (leucomela)


Phoenicurus ochruros


Phoenicurus phoenicurus


Saxicola dacotiae


Saxicola rubetra


Saxicola torquata


Tarsiger cyanurus


Turdus torquatus




all species




all species




all species




Panurus biarmicus



all species



all species



all species



Calcarius lapponicus


Emberiza aureola


Emberiza caesia


Emberiza cia


Emberiza cineracea


Emberiza cirlus


Emberiza citrinella


Emberiza leucocephala


Emberiza melanocephala


Emberiza pusilla


Emberiza rustica


Emberiza schoeniclus


Plectrophenax nivalis



Carduelis cannabina


Carduelis carduelis


Carduelis chloris


Carduelis flammea


Carduelis flavirostris


Carduelis hornemanni


Carduelis spinus


Carpodacus erythrinus


Coccothraustes coccothraustes


Fringilla teydea



Loxia curvirostra


Loxia leucoptera


Loxia pityopsittacus


Loxia scotica


Pinicola enucleator


Rhodopechys githaginea


Serinus citrinella


Serinus pusillus


Serinus serinus



Montrifringilla nivalis


Petronia petronia



Sturnus roseus


Sturnus unicolor



Oriolus oriolus



Cyanopica cyanus


Nucifraga caryocatactes


Perisoreus infaustus


Pyrrhocorax graculus


Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax







Testudo graeca


Testudo hermanni


Testudo marginata


Emys orbicularis


Mauremys caspica1)



Dermochelys coriacea



Caretta caretta


Chelonia mydas


Eretmochelys imbricata


Lepidochelys kempii



Rafetus euphraticus


Trionyx triunguis





Cyrtodactylus kotschyi


Tarentola angustimentalis


Tarentola boettgeri


Tarentola delalandii


Tarentola gomerensis


Phyllodactylus europaeus



Stellio stellio (Agama stellio)



Chamaeleo chamaeleon



Algyroides fitzingeri


Algyroides marchi


Algyroides moreoticus


Algyroides nigropunctatus


Alchaeolacerta bedriagae (Lacerta bedriagae)


Alchaeolacerta monticola (Lacerta monticola)


Gallotia galloti


Gallotia simonyi (Lacerta simonyi)


Gallotia stehlini


Lacerta agilis


Lacerta clarkorum


Lacerta dugesii


Lacerta graeca


Lacerta horvathi


Lacerta lepida


Lacerta parva


Lacerta princeps


Lacerta schreiberi


Lacerta trilineata


Lacerta viridis


Ophisops elegans


Podarcis erhardii


Podarcis filfolensis


Podarcis lilfordi


Podarcis melisellensis


Podarcis milensis


Podarcis muralis


Podarcis peloponnesiaca


Podarcis pityusensis


Podarcis sicula


Podarcis taurica


Podarcis tiliguerta


Podarcis wagleriana



Ophisaurus apodus



Ablepharus kitaibelii


Chalcides bedriagai


Chalcides ocellatus


Chalcides sexlineatus


Chalcides simonyi (Chalcides occidentalis)


Chalcides viridianus


Ophiomorus punctatissimus





Coluber cypriensis


Coluber gemonensis


Coluber hippocrepis


Coluber jugularis2)


Coluber najadum3)


Coluber viridiflavus


Coronella austriaca


Elaphe longissima


Elaphe quatuorlineata


Elaphe situla


Natrix megalocephala


Natrix tessellata


Telescopus fallax



Vipera albizona


Vipera ammodytes


Vipera barani


Vipera kaznakovi


Vipera latasti


Vipera lebetina4)


Vipera pontica


Vipera ursinii


Vipera wagneri


Vipera xanthina







Chioglossa lusitanica


Euproctus asper


Euproctus montanus


Euproctus platycephalus


Mertensiella luschani (Salamandra luschani)


Salamandra atra5)


Salamandrina terdigitata


Triturus carnifex


Triturus cristatus


Triturus dobrogicus


Triturus italicus


Triturus karelinii


Triturus montandoni



Speleomantes flavus (Hydromantes flavus)


Speleomantes genei (Hydromantes genei)


Speleomantes imperialis (Hydromantes imperialis)


Speleomantes italicus (Hydromantes italicus)


Speleomantes supramontis (Hydromantes supramontis)



Proteus anguinus




Alytes cisternasii


Alytes muletensis


Alytes obstetricans


Bombina bombina


Bombina variegata


Discoglossus galganoi


Discoglossus jeanneae


Discoglossus montalentii


Discoglossus pictus


Discoglossus sardus


Neurergus crocatus


Neurergus strauchi



Pelobates cultripes


Pelobates fuscus


Pelobates syriacus


Pelodytes caucasicus



Bufo calamita


Bufo viridis



Hyla arborea


Hyla meridionalis


Hyla sarda



Rana arvalis


Rana dalmatina


Rana holtzi


Rana iberica


Rana italica


Rana latastei









Cetorhinus maximus (Med.)



Carcharodon carcharias (Med.)







Lethenteron zanandrai (Med.)





Acipenser naccarii


Acipenser sturio


Huso huso (Med.)





Umbra krameri





Pomatoschistus canestrinii (Med.)


Pomatoschistus tortonesei (Med.)





Hippocampus hippocampus (Med.)


Hippocampus ramulosus (Med.)





Aphanius fasciatus (Med.)


Aphanius iberus (Med.)


Valencia hispanica


Valencia leutourneuxi





Romanichthys valsanicola


Zingel asper





Mobula mobular (Med.)









Apteromantis aptera



Palingenia longicauda



Aeshna viridis


Brachythemis fuscopalliata


Calopteryx syriaca


Coenagrion freyi


Coenagrion mercuriale


Cordulegaster trinacriae


Gomphus graslinii


Leucorrhinia albifrons


Leucorrhinia caudalis


Leucorrhinia pectoralis


Lindenia tetraphylla


Macromia splendens


Ophiogomphus cecilia


Oxygastra curtisii


Stylurus (= Gomphus) flavipes


Sympecma braueri



Baetica ustulata


Saga pedo



Buprestis splendens


Carabus olympiae


Cerambyx cerdo


Cucujus cinnaberinus


Dytiscus latissimus


Graphoderus bilineatus


Osmoderma eremita


Rosalia alpina



Apatura metis


Coenonympha hero


Coenonympha oedippus


Erebia calcaria


Erebia christi


Erebia sudetica


Eriogaster catax


Euphydryas (Eurodryas) aurinia


Fabriciana elisa


Hyles hippophaes


Hypodryas maturna


Lopinga achine


Lycaena dispar


Maculinea arion


Maculinea nausithous


Maculinea teleius


Melanargia arge


Papilio alexanor


Papilio hospiton


Parnassius apollo


Parnassius mnemosyne


Plebicula golgus


Polyommatus galloi


Polyommatus humedasae


Proserpinus prosperpina


Zerynthia polyxena





Macrothele calpeiana





Ocypode cursor (Med.)


Pachyplasma giganteum (Med.)







Gibbula nivosa (Med.)


Patella ferruginea (Med.)


Patella nigra (Med.)



Charonia rubicunda (= C. lampas = C. nodiferum) (Med.)


Charonia tritonis (= C. seguenziae) (Med.)


Dendropoma petraeum (Med.)


Erosaria spurca (Med.)


Luria lurida (= Cyproea lurida) (Med.)


Mitra zonata (Med.)


Ranella olearia (Med.)


Schilderia achatidea (Med.)


Tonna galea (Med.)


Zonaria pyrum (Med.)



Caseolus calculus


Caseolus commixta


Caseolus sphaerula


Discus defloratus6)


Discus guerinianus


Discula leacockiana


Discula tabellata


Discula testudinalis


Discula turricula


Elona quimperiana


Geomalacus maculosus


Geomitra moniziana


Helix subplicata


Leiostyla abbreviata


Leiostyla cassida


Leiostyla corneocostata


Leiostyla gibba


Leiostyla lamellosa





Margaritifera auricularia



Lithophaga lithophaga (Med.)


Pinna pernula (Med.)



Pholas dactylus (Med.)






Asterina pancerii (Med.)


Ophidiaster ophidianus (Med.)




Centrostephanus longispinus (Med.)






Errina aspera (Med.)




Astroides calycularis (Med.)


Gerardia savaglia (Med.)






Aplysina cavernicola (Med.)


Asbestopluma hypogea (Med.)


Axinelle polyploïdes (Med.)


Petrobiona massiliana (Med.)

1) Mauremys caspica has been divided into two new species:

Mauremys caspica

Mauremys leprosa (Mauremys caspica leprosa)

2) Coluber jugularis has been divided into two new species:

Coluber jugularis

Coluber caspius (Coluber jugularis caspius)

3) Coluber najadum has been divided into two new species:

Coluber najadum

Coluber rubriceps (Coluber najadum rubriceps)

4) Vipera lebetina has been divided into two new species:

Vipera lebetina

Vipera schweizeri (Vipera lebetina schweizeri)

5) Salamandra atra has been divided into two new species:

Salamandra atra

Salamandra lanzai (Salamandra atra lanzai)

6) Discus defloratus: This species is no longer recognised as a taxonomically valid species as it was described from a few specimens, now recognised as belonging to a different species of Discus.

Notes to Appendix

* Asterisks have been written where the name of the species has been changed to a more recent one, but the old name is kept in brackets.

Footnotes have been used to update taxonomically some taxa.

APPENDIX III. Protected fauna species





Erinaceus europaeus


all species




Pipistrellus pipistrellus




Lepus timidus

Lepus capensis (europaeus)




Sciurus vulgaris

Marmota marmota


Castor fiber


all species


Microtus ratticeps (oeconomus)

Microtus nivalis (lebrunii)

Microtus cabrerae



all species not mentioned in Appendix II




Meles meles

Mustela erminea

Mustela nivalis

Putorius (Mustela) putorius

Martes martes

Martes foina

Vormela peregusna


all species


Falis catus (silvestris)

Lynx lynx


Phoca vitulina

Pusa (Phoca) hispida

Pagophilus groenlandicus (Phoca groenlandica)

Erignathus barbatus

Halichoerus grypus

Cystophora cristata




Sus scrofa meridionalis


all species


Bison bonasus

Ovis aries (musimon, ammon)

Capra ibex

Capra pyrenaica

Rupicapra rupicapra



All species not included in Appendix II with the exception of:

Larus marinus

Larus fuscus

Larus argentatus

Columba palumbus

Passer domesticus

Sturnus vulgaris

Garrulus glandarius

Pica pica

Corvus monedula

Corvus frugilegus

Corvus corone (corone and comix)



All species not included in Appendix II



All species not included in Appendix II





Eudontomyzon hellenicum

Eudontomyzon mariae

Eudontomyzon vladykovi

Lampetra fluviatilis

Lampetra planeri

Lampetra zanandreai

Petromyzon marinus



Acipenser ruthenus

Acipenser stellatus

Acipenser sturio

Huso huso



Alosa alosa

Alosa fallax

Alosa pontica



Coregonus (all species)


Thymallus thymallus


Hucho hucho Salmo salar (*)



Abramis ballerus

Abramis sapa

Abramis vimba

Alburnoides bipunctatus

Alburnus albidus

Aspius aspius

Barbus bocagei

Barbus comiza

Barbus meridionalis

Barbus microcephalus

Barbus peloponensis

Barbus plebejus

Barbus sclateri

Barbus steindachneri

Chalcalburnus chalcoides

Chondrostoma genei

Chondrostoma kneri

Chondrostoma lemingi

Chondrostoma lusitanicum

Chondrostoma nasus

Chondrostoma phoxinus

Chondrostoma polylepis

Chondrostoma soetta

Chondrostoma toxostoma

Chondrostoma willkommi

Gobio albipinnatus

Gobio kessleri

Gobio uranoscopus

Leucaspius delineatus

Leucaspius stymphalicus

Leuciscus illyricus

Leuciscus lucumotis

Leuciscus microlepis

Leuciscus polylepis

Leuciscus pyrenaicus

Leuciscus soufia

Leuciscus svallize

Leuciscus turskyi

Leuciscus ukliva

Pachychilon pictum

Pelecus cultratus

Phoxinellus adspersus

Phoxinellus hispanicus

Pseudophoxinus marathonicus

Pseudophoxinus stymphalicus

Rhodeus sericeus

Rutilus albumoides

Rutilus arcasii

Rutilus frissii

Rutilus graecus

Rutilus lemmingii

Rutilus macedonicus

Rutilus macrolepidotus

Rutilus pigus

Rutilus racovitzai

Rutilus rubilio


Cobitis elongata

Cobitis hassi

Cobitis larvata

Cobitis paludicola

Cobitis taenia

Cobitis trichonica

Misgurnis fossilis

Sabanejewia aurata

Subanejewia calderoni



Siluris aristotelis

Siluris glanis



Aphanius fasciatus

Aphanius iberus



Syngnathus abaster

Syngnathus nigrolineatus


Pungitius hellenicus

Puntitius platygaster



Cottus poecilopus

Myoxocephalus quadricornis



Gymnocephalus baloni

Gymnocephalus schraetzer

Stizostedion volgense

Zingel zingel

Zingel streber


Blennius fluviatilis


Gobius fluviatilis

Gobius kessleri

Gobius nigricans

Gobius ophiocephalus

Gobius syrman

Gobius thressalus

Padogobius panizzai

Padogobius martensi

Pomatoschistus canestrini

Pomatoschistus microps

Pomatoschistus minutus

Proterorhinus marmoratus


Epinephelus marginatus (in Mediterranean)


Sciæna umbra (in Mediterranean)

Umbrina cirrosa (in Mediterranean)



Isurus oxyrinchus (in Mediterranean)

Lamna nasus (in Mediterranean)


Prionace glauca (in Mediterranean)


Squatina squatina (in Mediterranean)



Raja alba (in Mediterranean)



Mobula mobular (in Mediterranean)






Lucanus cervus


Graellsia isabellae



Astacus astacus

Austropotamobius pallipes

Austropotamobius torrentium

Homarus gammarus (in Mediterranean)

Maja squinado (in Mediterranean)

Palinurus elephas (in Mediterranean)

Scyllarides latus (in Mediterranean)

Scyllarides pigmaeus (in Mediterranean)

Scyllarus arctus (in Mediterranean)




Helix pomatia



Margaritifera margaritifera

Unio elongatulus

Microcondylaea compressa




Hirudo medicinalis



Hippospongia communis (in Mediterranean)

Spongia agaricina (in Mediterranean)

Spongia officinalis (in Mediterranean)

Spongia zimocca (in Mediterranean)



Antipathes sp. plur. (in Mediterranean)


Corallium rubrun (in Mediterranean)



Paracentrotus lividus (in Mediterranean)


(*) The provisions for this appendix shall not apply to salmon in sea waters.

APPENDIX IV. Prohibited means and methods of killing, capture and other forms of exploitation






Electricity with alternating current

Artificial light sources

CRAYFISH (Decapoda)



Vertaling : NL

Verdrag inzake het behoud van wilde dieren en planten en hun natuurlijk leefmilieu in Europa


De Lid-Staten van de Raad van Europa en de andere ondertekenaars van dit Verdrag,

Overwegende dat het doel van de Raad van Europa is het tot stand brengen van een grotere eenheid tussen zijn leden;

Overwegende dat het de wil van de Raad van Europa is samen te werken met andere Staten op het gebied van het behoud van de natuur;

Erkennende dat de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten een natuurlijk erfgoed vormen van esthetische, wetenschappelijke, culturele, recreatieve, economische en intrinsieke waarde, en dat het van belang is dit natuurlijke erfgoed te beschermen en door te geven aan de komende generaties;

Erkennende de essentiële rol van de in het wild voorkomende dieren plantesoorten bij de instandhouding van het biologisch evenwicht;

Vaststellende dat tal van in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten steeds minder voorkomen en dat sommige hiervan met uitsterven worden bedreigd;

Zich ervan bewust dat het in stand houden van de natuurlijke leefmilieus een van de wezenlijke bestanddelen is van de bescherming en het behoud van de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten;

Erkennende dat met de instandhouding van de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten rekening dient te worden gehouden door de Regeringen bij hun nationale doelstellingen en programma’s en dat een vorm van internationale samenwerking tot stand dient te worden gebracht in het bijzonder om de trekkende diersoorten te behouden;

Zich bewust zijnde van de vele verzoeken om gemeenschappelijk optreden van Regeringen of internationale instanties, met name de verzoeken van de Conferentie van de Verenigde Naties over het leefmilieu van 1972 en van de Raadgevende Vergadering van de Raad van Europa;

Verlangende in het bijzonder om, op het gebied van de instandhouding van het leven in het wild, de aanbevelingen op te volgen die zijn vervat in Resolutie nr. 2 van de Tweede Europese Ministers Conferentie inzake het Leefmilieu,

Zijn overeengekomen als volgt:

HOOFDSTUK I. Algemene bepalingen

Artikel 1

  • 1 Dit Verdrag heeft ten doel te zorgen voor de instandhouding van de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten en de daarbij behorende natuurlijke leefmilieus, met name die soorten en die leefmilieus voor de instandhouding waarvan de samenwerking van verschillende Staten is vereist, en een zodanige samenwerking te bevorderen.

  • 2 Bijzondere aandacht wordt besteed aan die soorten, met inbegrip van de trekkende soorten, die met uitsterven worden bedreigd en die kwetsbaar zijn.

Artikel 2

De Verdragsluitende Partijen nemen de nodige maatregelen om de populaties van in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten te handhaven of te brengen op een niveau dat met name overeenkomt met hetgeen vanuit ecologisch, wetenschappelijk en cultureel standpunt is vereist, daarbij rekening houdend met de vereisten op economisch en recreatief gebied en met de behoeften van ondersoorten, variëteiten of vormen die plaatselijk worden bedreigd.

Artikel 3

  • 1 Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij neemt de nodige maatregelen ter bevordering van een nationaal beleid voor de instandhouding van de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten en de natuurlijke leefmilieus, waarbij bijzondere aandacht wordt besteed aan die soorten die met uitsterven worden bedreigd en die kwetsbaar zijn, vooral aan endemische soorten, en aan bedreigde leefmilieus, in overeenstemming met de bepalingen van dit Verdrag.

  • 2 Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij verbindt zich ertoe om bij haar beleid op het gebied van ruimtelijke ordeningen ontwikkeling en bij haar maatregelen tegen verontreiniging, rekening te houden met de instandhouding van de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten.

  • 3 Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij bevordert de voorlichting en de verspreiding van algemene informatie betreffende de noodzaak tot het instandhouden van de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten alsmede de daarbij behorende leefmilieus.

HOOFDSTUK II. Bescherming van de leefmilieus

Artikel 4

  • 1 Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij neemt passende en noodzakelijke maatregelen in de vorm van wetten en voorschriften om de leefmilieus van de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten te beschermen, in het bijzonder van de soorten, genoemd in de bijlagen I en II, en om de bedreigde natuurlijke leefmilieus in stand te houden.

  • 2 De Verdragsluitende Partijen houden bij hun beleid op het gebied van de ruimtelijke ordening en ontwikkeling, rekening met de behoeften van de instandhouding van de in het vorige lid bedoelde beschermde gebieden ten einde iedere achteruitgang van deze gebieden zo veel mogelijk te vermijden of te verminderen.

  • 3 De Verdragsluitende Partijen verbinden zich ertoe bijzondere aandacht te besteden aan de bescherming van de gebieden die van belang zijn voor de in de bijlagen II en III genoemde trekkende soorten en die gunstig liggen ten opzichte van de trekroutes, zoals overwinterings-, rust-, voeder-, broed- of ruiplaatsen.

  • 4 De Verdragsluitende Partijen verbinden zich ertoe hun inspanningen ter bescherming van de in dit artikel bedoelde natuurlijke leefmilieus voor zover nodig te coördineren wanneer deze zijn gelegen in gebieden die zich over de landgrenzen uitstrekken.

HOOFDSTUK III. Instandhouding van de soorten

Artikel 5

Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij neemt passende en noodzakelijke maatregelen in de vorm van wetten en voorschriften om te zorgen voor bijzondere bescherming van de in het wild voorkomende plantesoorten, genoemd in bijlage I. Het opzettelijk plukken, verzamelen, afsnijden of ontwortelen van bedoelde planten is verboden. Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij verbiedt voor zover nodig het in het bezit hebben of de verkoop van deze soorten.

Artikel 6

Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij neemt passende en noodzakelijke maatregelen in de vorm van wetten en voorschriften om te zorgen voor bijzondere bescherming van de in het wild voorkomende diersoorten, genoemd in Bijlage II. Waar het deze soorten betreft, is met name verboden:

  • a. iedere vorm van opzettelijk vangen, in bezit houden en opzettelijk doden;

  • b. het opzettelijk aantasten of vernielen van broed- of rustplaatsen;

  • c. het opzettelijk verstoren van de in het wild voorkomende diersoorten, met name gedurende de broedperiode, de periode waarin de jongen afhankelijk zijn, en de overwinteringsperiode, voor zover hiermee duidelijk wordt ingegaan tegen de doelstellingen van dit Verdrag;

  • d. het opzettelijk vernielen of rapen van eieren in de natuur of het in het bezit houden van eieren, zelfs wanneer deze leeg zijn;

  • e. het houden en het binnenslands verhandelen van deze dieren, hetzij levend hetzij dood, met inbegrip van opgezette dieren, en van ieder gemakkelijk te herkennen deel of produkt van deze dieren, voor zover zulks bijdraagt tot de doeltreffendheid van de bepalingen van dit artikel.

Artikel 7

  • 1 Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij neemt passende en noodzakelijke maatregelen in de vorm van wetten en voorschriften ter bescherming van de in het wild voorkomende diersoorten, genoemd in bijlage III.

  • 2 Voor iedere exploitatie van de in het wild voorkomende diersoorten, genoemd in bijlage III, worden voorschriften vastgesteld ten einde deze populaties niet in gevaar te brengen, rekening houdend met het bepaalde in artikel 2.

  • 3 Deze maatregelen omvatten met name:

    • a. het instellen van gesloten seizoenen en/of het treffen van andere maatregelen waarbij de exploitatie wordt geregeld;

    • b. het instellen van een tijdelijk of plaatselijk verbod van exploitatie, indien daartoe aanleiding bestaat, ten einde de bestaande populaties in staat te stellen weer op peil te komen;

    • c. het uitvaardigen van voorschriften, indien daartoe aanleiding bestaat, voor het verkopen het houden, of vervoeren met het oog op verkoop, of het ten verkoop aanbieden van wilde dieren, hetzij levend hetzij dood.

Artikel 8

Wat betreft het vangen of het doden van de in het wild voorkomende diersoorten, genoemd in bijlage III, en in de gevallen waarin afwijkingen overeenkomstig artikel 9 zijn toegestaan ten aanzien van de soorten, genoemd in bijlage II, verbieden de Verdragsluitende Partijen het gebruik van alle niet-selectieve middelen voor het vangen en het doden alsmede van de middelen die plaatselijk de verdwijning ten gevolge kunnen hebben of de rust ernstig kunnen verstoren van de populaties van een soort, in het bijzonder de middelen, genoemd in bijlage IV.

Artikel 9

  • 1 Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij mag afwijken van het bepaalde in de artikelen 4, 5, 6 en 7 alsmede van het verbod tot het gebruik van de middelen bedoeld in artikel 8, mits er geen andere bevredigende oplossing bestaat en de afwijkingen geen aantasting met zich brengen van het voortbestaan van de desbetreffende populatie:

    • - ter bescherming van de flora en fauna;

    • - ter voorkoming van belangrijke schade aan gewassen, veestapel, bossen, visgronden, wateren en andere vormen van bezit;

    • - in het belang van de volksgezondheid en de openbare veiligheid, de veiligheid in de lucht of andere openbare belangen van essentiële aard;

    • - ten behoeve van onderzoek en onderwijs, repopulatie, het opnieuw uitzetten van exemplaren alsmede voor noodzakelijk telen, kweken en fokken;

    • - ten einde het onder streng gecontroleerde omstandigheden mogelijk te maken op selectieve wijze en in beperkte mate bepaalde wilde dieren en planten in kleine hoeveelheden te verzamelen, te houden of op iedere andere verantwoorde wijze te exploiteren.

  • 2 De Verdragsluitende Partijen leggen iedere twee jaar aan de Permanente Commissie een verslag voor over de afwijkingen krachtens het vorige lid. In deze verslagen moeten worden vermeld:

    • - de populaties die vallen onder of die hebben gevallen onder de afwijkingen en, zo mogelijk, het aantal betrokken exemplaren;

    • - de toegestane middelen voor het doden of het vangen;

    • - de omstandigheden, wat betreft risico, tijd en plaats, waaronder tot deze afwijkingen is besloten;

    • - de autoriteit die bevoegd is te verklaren dat aan deze omstandigheden is voldaan en bevoegd is besluiten te nemen omtrent de middelen die mogen worden aangewend, en binnen welke grenzen, alsmede omtrent de personen, belast met de uitvoering;

    • - de uitgevoerde controle.

HOOFDSTUK IV. Bijzondere bepalingen betreffende trekkende soorten

Artikel 10

  • 1 Naast de maatregelen aangeduid in de artikelen 4, 6, 7 en 8, verbinden de Verdragsluitende Partijen zich ertoe hun inspanningen te coördineren voor de instandhouding van de trekkende soorten, genoemd in de bijlagen II en III, waarvan het verspreidingsgebied zich uitstrekt over hun grondgebied.

  • 2 De Verdragsluitende Partijen nemen maatregelen ten einde ervoor te zorgen dat de gesloten seizoenen en/of andere maatregelen waarbij de exploitatie wordt geregeld, ingesteld krachtens het derde lid, letter a, van artikel 7, goed overeenkomen met de behoeften van de trekkende soorten, genoemd in bijlage III.

HOOFDSTUK V. Aanvullende bepalingen

Artikel 11

  • 1 Bij de uitvoering van de bepalingen van dit Verdrag verbinden de Verdragsluitende Partijen zich ertoe:

    • a. samen te werken telkens wanneer dit wenselijk is en met name wanneer deze samenwerking de doeltreffendheid zou kunnen verhogen van de maatregelen, genomen krachtens de andere artikelen van dit Verdrag;

    • b. de onderzoekswerkzaamheden die verband houden met de doelstellingen van dit Verdrag, te stimuleren en te coördineren.

  • 2 Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij verbindt zich ertoe:

    • a. te bevorderen dat in het wild voorkomende inheemse dier- en plantesoorten opnieuw worden uitgezet, wanneer deze maatregel zal bijdragen tot de instandhouding van een soort die met uitsterven wordt bedreigd, mits eerst, rekening houdend met de ervaringen van de andere Verdragsluitende Partijen, wordt bestudeerd of een zodanige maatregel doeltreffend en aanvaardbaar is;

    • b. het uitzetten van niet-inheemse soorten aan strenge controle te onderwerpen.

  • 3 Iedere Verdragsluitende Partij deelt aan de Permanente Commissie mede welke soorten op haar grondgebied totale bescherming genieten en niet voorkomen in de bijlagen I en II.

Artikel 12

De Verdragsluitende Partijen kunnen voor de instandhouding van de in het wild voorkomende dier- en plantesoorten alsmede van de daarbij behorende natuurlijke leefmilieus, strengere maatregelen nemen dan die waarin dit Verdrag voorziet.