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Regionaal Akkoord inzake het gebruik van de 87,5 - 108 MHz Band voor FM radio omroep, Genève, 07-12-1984

Geldend van 01-07-1987 t/m heden

Regionaal Akkoord inzake het gebruik van de 87,5 - 108 MHz Band voor FM radio omroep

Authentiek : EN

Regional Agreement

relating to the Use of the Band 87.5-108 MHz for FM Sound Broadcasting (Region 1 and Part of Region 3)

PREAMBLE

The duly accredited delegates of the following Members of the International Telecommunication Union:

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Socialist People's Republic of Albania, People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, Federal Republic of Germany, People's Republic of Angola, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Austria, Belgium, People's Republic of Benin, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Republic of Botswana, People's Republic of Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Republic of Cameroon, Republic of Cyprus, Vatican City State, People's Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Ivory Coast, Denmark, Arab Republic of Egypt, Spain, Finland, France, Gabonese Republic, Greece, Republic of Guinea, Hungarian People's Republic, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Iraq, Ireland, State of Israel, Italy, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Republic of Kenya, State of Kuwait, Kingdom of Lesotho, Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Principality of Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Republic of Mali, Republic of Malta, Kingdom of Morocco, Monaco, Mongolian People's Republic, Norway, Sultanate of Oman, Republic of Uganda, Kingdom of the Netherlands, People's Republic of Poland, Portugal, State of Qatar, Syrian Arab Republic, German Democratic Republic, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Republic of San Marino, Republic of Senegal, Sweden, Confederation of Switzerland, Kingdom of Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Republic of Chad, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Togolese Republic, Tunisia, Turkey, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Yemen Arab Republic, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Republic of Zambia, Republic of Zimbabwe,

meeting in Geneva for a Regional Administrative Radio Conference convened under the terms of Articles 7 and 54 of the International Telecommunication Convention (Nairobi, 1982) to establish an Agreement incorporating a Plan for sound broadcasting in the band 87.5 to 108 MHz in accordance with Resolution No. 510 of the World Administrative Radio Conference (Geneva, 1979), and No. 584 of the Radio Regulations, have adopted, subject to the approval of the competent authorities of their respective countries, the following provisions and the related Plan concerning the broadcasting service in the band 87.5 to 108 MHz in the planning area as defined in Article 1 of this Agreement.

Article 1

Definitions

For the purposes of this Agreement, the following terms shall have the meanings defined below:

1.1 Union: The International Telecommunication Union.

1.2 Secretary-General: The Secretary-General of the Union.

1.3 IFRB: The International Frequency Registration Board.

1.4 CCIR: The International Radio Consultative Committee.

1.5 Convention: The International Telecommunication Convention (Nairobi, 1982).

1.6 Radio Regulations: The Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1979) annexed to the Convention.

1.7 Conference: The Regional Administrative Conference for FM Sound Broadcasting in the VHF Band (Region 1 and certain countries concerned in Region 3) 1 (Geneva, 1984), also called the Regional Administrative Conference for the Planning of VHF Sound Broadcasting (Region 1 and part of Region 3) (Geneva, 1984).

1.8 Planning area: The countries of Region 1 as defined in No. 393 of the Radio Regulations together with the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the Islamic Republic of Iran.

1.9 Agreement: This Regional Agreement and its Annexes.

1.10 Plan: The Plan forming Annex 1 to this Agreement, and its Appendix2.

1.11 Contracting Member: Any Member of the Union which has approved or acceded to this Agreement.

1.12 Administration: Unless otherwise indicated, the term administration designates an administration, as defined in the Convention, of a Contracting Member.

1.13 Assignment in conformity with this Agreement: Any assignment appearing in the Plan, or for which the procedure of Article 4 has been successfully applied.

Article 2

Execution of the Agreement

2.1 The Contracting Members shall adopt for their sound broadcasting stations in the planning area operating in the band 87.5-108 MHz the characteristics specified in the Plan.

2.2 The Contracting Members shall not modify these characteristics or establish new stations, except under the conditions provided for in Article 4 of this Agreement.

2.3 The Contracting Members undertake to study and, in common agreement, to put into practice the measures necessary to eliminate any harmful interference that might result from the application of this Agreement.

2.4 Should agreement, as envisaged in section 2.3, above, prove impossible, the Contracting Members concerned may, in accordance with Article 35 of the Convention resort to the procedure laid down in Article 22 of the Radio Regulations.

2.5 The transitional procedures for bringing into service the assignments in the Plan in order to enable normal operation of stations of other services to which parts of the band 87.5-108 MHz are also allocated in accordance with Radio Regulations Nos. 581, 587, 588, 589 and 590, under the conditions specified therein, are contained in Resolutions Nos. 2 and 3.

Article 3

Annexes to the Agreement

The Agreement contains the following Annexes:

3.1 Annex 1: The Plan

Frequency Assignment Plan for FM Sound Broadcasting Stations in Region 1 and Part of Region 3 in the Band 87.5-108 MHz.

3.1.1 The Plan contains frequency assignments and associated characteristics of sound broadcasting stations in the band 87.5-108 MHz, coordinated either during the Conference or by the application of provisions contained in the Agreement, and comprises two parts.

3.1.1.1 The first part includes frequency assignments in the band 87.5-108 MHz for all countries in the planning area. The provisions of this Agreement are applicable to these assignments in the relations between all Contracting Members in the planning area. This part is intended to replace, when it is so decided by competent conferences, the corresponding sound broadcasting Plans appearing in the Regional Agreements, Stockholm (1961) and Geneva (1963), with regard to the Contracting Members parties to these Agreements.

3.1.1.2 The second part contains frequency assignments in the band 100-108 MHz for all countries in the planning area in order to permit all countries of Region 1 to use this band for sound broadcasting in conformity with No. 584 of the Radio Regulations. The provisions of this Agreement are applicable to these assignments in the relations between all Contracting Members in the planning area. In the absence of provisions applicable to all countries in Region 1, non-Contracting Members in the planning area are being recommended to apply the provisions of this Agreement (see Recommendation No. 1)3.

3.1.2 The Plan also includes, for a fixed term (see Article 6), a list of the assignments for which coordination remains to be effected; these assignments are listed in the Appendix.

3.2 Other Annexes

Annex 2: Technical Data

Annex 3: Basic Characteristics of Sound Broadcasting Stations to be Submitted for Modifications to the Plan in Application of Article 4 of the Agreement

Annex 4: Limits for Determining when Coordination with Another administration is Required as a Result of a proposed Modification to the Plan

Annex 5: Additional Technical Data which may be used for Coordination Between administrations

Article 4

Procedure Concerning Modifications to the Plan

4.1 Modifications to the Plan

When an administration proposes to make a modification to the Plan, i.e.:

- to modify the characteristics of a frequency assignment to a sound broadcasting station shown in the Plan, whether or not the station has been brought into use; or

- to bring into use an assignment to a sound broadcasting station not appearing in the Plan; or

- to modify the characteristics of a frequency assignment to a sound broadcasting station for which the procedure in this Article has been successfully applied, whether or not the station has been brought into use, or

- to cancel a frequency assignment to a sound broadcasting station,

the procedure contained in this Article shall be applied before any notification is made under Article 7 of this Agreement.

4.2 Initiation of the modification procedure

4.2.1 Any administration proposing to modify the characteristics of an assignment appearing in the Plan or to add a new assignment to the Plan shall obtain the agreement of any other administration whose services are likely to be affected.

4.2.2 a. The sound broadcasting stations of an administration are likely to be affected by a proposed modification to the Plan if the distance from the station under consideration to the nearest point on the boundary of the country of that administration is less than the limit indicated in Annex 4, Chapter 1.

4.2.2 b. The television stations of an administration in the band 87.5-100 MHz which are in conformity with the Stockholm Agreement (1961) are likely to be affected by a proposed modification to the Plan if the distance from the station under consideration to the nearest point on the boundary of the country of that administration is less than the limit indicated in Annex 4, Chapter 2.

4.2.2 c. The stations in the fixed and mobile services of an administration of a Contracting Member in Region 3 in the band 87.5-100 MHz are likely to be affected by a proposed modification to the Plan if the appropriate limits indicated in Annex 4, Chapters 4 and 5, are exceeded.

4.2.2 d. The stations in the land mobile service of an administration in Region 1 in the band 87.5-88 MHz, coordinated under Article 14 of the Radio Regulations, are likely to be affected by a proposed modification to the Plan if the limits indicated in Annex 4, Chapter 4, are exceeded.

4.2.2 e. The stations of the fixed and mobile services, except the aeronautical mobile (R) service, of an administration in Region 1, operating in the band 104-108 MHz in conformity with the Radio Regulations on a permitted basis until 31 December 1995, are likely to be affected by a proposed modification to the Plan if the appropriate limits indicated in Annex 4, Chapters 4, 5 and 6, are exceeded.

4.2.2 f. The stations in the aeronautical radionavigation service of an administration in the band 108-117.975 MHz are likely to be affected by a proposed modification to the Plan if the distance from the station under consideration to the nearest point on the boundary of the country of that administration is less than the limit indicated in Annex 4, Chapter 3. In this case, the procedure to be applied is contained in Article 5.

4.2.3 Administrations shall seek the agreement of other administrations preferably directly or, when this is not possible, by applying the procedure contained in this article.

4.2.4 The agreement mentioned in section 4.2.1 is not required if:

a. the proposed modification relates to a reduction in effective radiated power or to other changes which would not increase the level of interference to services of other countries; or

b. the distances from the station under consideration to the nearest points on the boundaries of other countries, the administrations of which are Contracting Members, are equal to or greater than the limits indicated in Annex 4; or

c. the proposed modification relates to a change in the site of the station and the distance between the actual site of the transmitter and the site indicated in the Plan is no greater than:

- 1,5 km for transmitters having a total e.r.p. greater or equal than 1 kW;

- 5 km for transmitters having a total e.r.p. less than 1 kW;

provided that the change in topographical conditions does not increase the probability of interference caused to the stations of other countries.

4.2.5 An administration proposing to modify the Plan shall communicate to the IFRB the information listed in Annex 3 and shall also indicate, if appropriate:

a. that the agreement referred to in section 4.2.1 is not required with any administration; or

b. the name of any administration which has already agreed to the modification proposed on the basis of the characteristics communicated to the IFRB.

4.2.6 When requesting the agreement of another administration, the administration proposing to modify the Plan may also communicate any additional information relating to proposed methods and criteria to be used as well as other details concerning the terrain, particular propagation conditions, etc. (see also Annex 5).

4.2.7 On receipt of the information referred to in section 4.2.5 above, the IFRB shall:

a. identify the administration whose services are likely to be affected in conformity with sections 4.2.2 and 4.2.4;

b. send immediately a telex to those administrations identified in a. above which have not yet given their agreement, drawing their attention to the information contained in the special section of a forthcoming weekly circular and indicating the nature of the modification to the Plan;

c. publish the information received in the special section of this weekly circular, together with the names of the administrations identified, indicating those whose agreement has been obtained.

4.3 Consultation of the administrations whose stations may be affected

4.3.1 The special section of the IFRB weekly circular, reffered to in 4.2.7 c, constitutes the formal request for agreement addressed to those administrations whose agreement remains to be obtained.

4.3.2 Any administration which considers that it should have been included in the list of administrations whose frequency assignments are likely to be affected may, within 28 days from the date of publication of the weekly circular, request the IFRB by telex to include its name. A copy of the request shall be sent to the administration proposing the modification to the Plan.

4.3.3 On receipt of the telex, the IFRB shall consider the matter and, if it finds that the name of this administration should have been included in the list, it shall:

- inform the administrations concerned by telex; and

- publish the name of the administration in an addendum to the special section of the weekly circular referred to its 4.2.7 c.

For this administration, the overall period of 100 days specified in section 4.3.10 shall run from the date of publication of the addendum to the special section of the weekly circular referred to above.

4.3.4 An administration receiving a telex from the IFRB sent in accordance with sections 4.2.7 or 4.3.3 above shall acknowledge receipt within 50 days.

4.3.5 If the IFRB has not received an acknowledgement after 50 days, it shall send a reminder telex and inform the administration that, if no reply is received within 10 days, it will be deemed to have received the request for agreement.

4.3.6 On receipt of the special section of the IFRB weekly circular referred to in sections 4.2.7 c. and 4.3.3, any administration listed therein shall determine the effect produced on its assignments by the proposed modification to the Plan, using any of the additional information referred to in section 4.2.6 which it finds acceptable.

4.3.7 If the administration consulted is responsible for:

4.3.7.1 a sound broadcasting station, it should normally accept the proposed modification provided that:

- the resulting usable field strength is not greater than 54dB (μV/m); or

- the resulting usable field strength is greater than 54 dB (μV/m), but is increased by 0.5 dB or less compared with the reference usable field strength. An increase of more than 0.5 dB is open to negotiations, in which more detailed calculation methods may be used.

The values referred to above shall be calculated by the method contained in Annex 2, Chapter 4, at the transmitter site or at specific points of the service area of the stations which are likely to be affected. The reference usable field strength of an assignment to be protected is the field strength which results from the Plan adopted by the Conference or, for an assignment entered in the Plan after the Conference following the application of this procedure, the field strength which results from the Plan at the time this assignments was first recorded in the Plan. If, due to deletions or modifications, the usable field strength becomes lower, then this lower value becomes the new reference usable field strength. The actual geographical conditions should be taken into account, whenever practicable.

4.3.7.2 a television station, it should normally accept an increase in the usable field strength at the transmitter site, provided that:

- the resulting usable field strength is not greater than 52 dB (μV/m), or

- the resulting usable field strength is greater than 52 dB (μV/m), but is increased by 0.5 dB or less compared with the usable field strength resulting from the Plan adopted by the Conference and from the television stations in accordance with the Stockholm Agreement at the date of the Conference. An increase of more than 0.5 dB is open to negotiations, in which more detailed calculation methods may be used.

4.3.7.3 a station in the mobile, except aeronautical mobile (OR), service in Region 3 in the frequency band 87.5-100 MHz, it should normally accept the following interfering field strength:

- 18 dB (μV/m) if the sound broadcasting station uses horizontal polarization;

- 0 dB (μV/m) if the sound broadcasting station uses vertical or mixed polarization. In the case of mixed polarization, only the vertical component of the total effective radiated power of the sound broadcasting station should be taken into account if at least one-tenth of the total effective radiated power is radiated in the vertical component.

These limits apply when the frequency of the sound broadcasting station coincides with the frequency of the station of the mobile service. If they do not coincide, an appropriate allowance should be made (see Annex 5, Chapter 2).

The interfering field strengths are calculated using the method contained in Annex 4, Chapter 4 at 10 m above ground at the site of the base station assuming the use of vertical polarization.

4.3.7.4 a station in the fixed service, it should normally accept an interfering field strength of 0dB (μV/m) at 10m above ground, calculated in accordance with the method in Annex 4, Chapter 5.

This limit applies when the frequency of the sound broadcasting station coincides with the frequency of the station of the fixed service. If they do not coincide, an appropriate allowance should be made (see Annex 5, Chapter 2).

4.3.7.5 a station in the land mobile service in Region 1 in the band 87.5-88 MHz, it should normally accept the following interfering field strengths:

- 14 dB (μV/m) for mobile stations using amplitude modulation if the sound broadcasting station uses horizontal polarization;

- 24 dB (μV/m) for mobile stations using frequency modulation if the sound broadcasting station uses horizontal polarization;

- 6 dB (μV/m) for mobile stations using amplitude modulation if the sound broadcasting station uses vertical or mixed polarization;

- 16 dB (μV/m) for mobile stations using frequency modulation if the sound broadcasting station uses vertical or mixed polarization.

In the case of mixed polarization, only the vertical component of the total effective radiated power of the sound broadcasting station should be taken into account if at least one-tenth of the total effective radiated power is radiated in the vertical component.

These limits apply when the frequency of the sound broadcasting station coincides with the frequency of the station of the land mobile service. If they do not coincide, an appropriate allowance should be made (see Annex 5, Chapter 2).

The interfering field strengths are calculated using the method contained in Annex 4, Chapter 4 at 10 metres above ground at the edge of the service area.

4.3.7.6 a station in the mobile, except aeronautical mobile (OR), service in Region 1 in the frequency band 104-108 MHz, it should normally accept the following interfering field strengths:

- 18 dB (μV/m) if the sound broadcasting station uses horizontal polarization;

- 0 dB (μV/m) if the sound broadcasting station uses vertical or mixed polarization. In the case of mixed polarization, only the vertical component of the total effective radiated power of the sound broadcasting station should be taken into account if at least one-tenth of the total effective radiated power is radiated in the vertical component.

These limits apply when the frequency of the sound broadcasting station coincides with the frequency of the station of the mobile service. If they do not coincide, an appropriate allowance should be made (see Annex 5, Chapter 2).

The interfering field strengths are calculated using the method contained in Annex 4, Chapter 4 at 10 m above ground at the site of the base station assuming the use of vertical polarization.

4.3.8 An administration receiving a telex from the IFRB sent in accordance with sections 4.2.7 or 4.3.3 may request the IFRB to calculate as indicated in section 4.3.7 above the increase in the usable field strength resulting from the proposed modification.

4.3.9 An administration may ask the administration proposing the modification to the Plan for any additional information it considers necessary to calculate the increase in the usable field strength. Similarly, the administration proposing the modification may ask any administration whose agreement it seeks for any additional information it considers necessary. The administrations shall inform the IFRB of such requests.

4.3.10 An administration which is not in a position to give its agreement to the proposed modification shall give its reasons within 100 days from the date of the weekly circular referred to the section 4.2.7 c.

4.3.11 Seventy days after the publication of the weekly circular mentioned in section 4.2.7 or 4.3.3, the IFRB shall request by telex any administration which has not yet given its decision in the matter to do so and shall inform it that, if no reply is received within an overall period of 100 days following the date of publication of this weekly circular, it is deemed to have agreed to the proposed modification to the Plan. This time limit may be extended by 14 days in the case of an administration which has requested additional information or which has asked the IFRB to carry out technical studies.

4.3.12 If at the end of the 100-day period (possibly extended by 14 days) there is continuing disagreement, the IFRB shall make any study that may be requested by these administrations; it shall inform them of the result of the study and shall make such recommendations as it may be able to offer for the solution of the problem.

4.3.13 An administration may request the assistance of the IFRB in the following cases:

- in seeking the agreement of another administration;

- in applying any stage of the procedure described in this Article;

- in carrying out technical studies in relation to this procedure;

- in applying the procedure with respect to other administrations.

4.4 Comments of other administrations

4.4.1 On receipt of the special section of the IFRB weekly circular published pursuant to section 4.2.7, administrations may send their comments to the administration proposing the modification either directly or through the IFRB. In any event the IFRB shall be informed that comments have been made.

4.4.2 An administration which has not notified its comments either to the administration concerned or to the IFRB within a period of 100 days following the date of the weekly circular referred to in section 4.2.7 c. shall be understood to have no objection to the proposed change. This time limit may be extended by 14 days in the case of an administration which has requested additional information or which has asked the IFRB to carry out technical studies.

4.5 Cancellation of an Assignment

When the assignment in conformity with this Agreement is cancelled, whether or not as a result of a modification (for instance, in connection with a change of frequency), the administration concerned shall immediately inform the IFRB, which shall publish this information in a special section of its weekly circular.

4.6 Updating of the Plan

4.6.1 An administration which has obtained the agreement of the administrations whose names were published in the special section referred to in sections 4.2.7 and 4.3.3, may bring the assignment in question into use and shall inform the IFRB, indicating the final agreed characteristics of the assignment together with the names of the administrations with which agreement has been reached.

4.6.2 The IFRB shall publish in the special section of its weekly circular the information received under sections 4.2.5 or 4.6.1 together with the names of any administrations with which the provisions of the article have been successfully applied. With respect to Contracting Members, the assignment concerned shall enjoy the same status as those appearing in the Plan.

4.6.3 The IFRB shall maintain an up-to-date master copy of the Plan, taking account of any modifications, additions and deletions made in accordance with the procedure of this Article.

4.6.4 The Secretary-General shall publish an up-to-date version of the Plan in an appropriate form as and when the circumstances justify and in any case every three years.

4.7 Elimination of harmful interference

If a change, although made in accordance with the provisions of this Article, causes harmful interference to services of other Contracting Members, the administration which has made the change shall take the requisite action to eliminate such interference.

4.8 Settlement of disputes

If, after application of the procedure described in this Article, the administrations concerned have been unable to reach agreement, they may resort to the procedure described in Article 50 of the Convention. They may also agree to apply the Optional Additional Protocol to the Convention.

Article 5

Compatibility with the Aeronautical Radionavigation Service

5.1 General

5.1.1 The Plan adopted by the Conference has identified the cases of potential interference to the aeronautical radionavigation stations, at a limited number of test points selected by administrations (see Annex 2, Chapter 7). Unresolved cases of Al, A2 and B2 type interference shall be dealt with by application of the procedures in section 5.2.1 below, and those of B1 type interference by application of the procedures in section 5.2.2 below, in both cases on the basis of the criteria contained in Annex 2, Chapter 7 (see also Annex 5).

5.1.2 Assignments in the Plan which may cause interference of any of these types to stations in the aeronautical radionavigation service are identified by the following symbols4:

Al/... type Al interference

A2/... type A2 interference

B2/... type B2 interference

followed by the symbols of the countries whose aeronautical radionavigation stations may be affected, or:

B1/.../... type B1 interference

followed, after the first oblique stroke, by the symbol of the country whose aeronautical radionavigation stations may be affected and, after the second oblique stroke, by the symbols of the countries whose sound broadcasting stations contribute to the interference.

5.2 Implementation of the Plan

5.2.1 Type A1, A2 and B2 interference

5.2.1.1 Before bringing into use an assignment in the Plan which bears a symbol A1/..., A2/... or B2/..., the administration responsible for the sound broadcasting station shall inform the administration designated after that symbol, not later than 120 days before the date of bringing into use, indicating the dates and conditions under which the sound broadcasting station intends to arrange test experimental transmissions.

5.2.1.2 The administrations concerned shall agree on the dates, duration and conditions of the test period.

5.2.1.3 The administration of the territory on which the aeronautical radionavigation station is operated shall verify the interference situation resulting from the experimental transmission. If this administration finds that the level of interference exceeds the level indicated in Annex 2, Chapter 7, it shall inform the administration of the territory on which the sound broadcasting station is to be operated.

If there is disagreement on the level of interference caused to the aeronautical radionavigation station, this level will be verified at other test points to be determined by the administration responsible for the aeronautical radionavigation station. If that level still exceeds the level indicated in Annex 2, Chapter 7, the administration of the territory on which the sound broadcasting station is to be operated shall be informed, with a copy to the IFRB.

5.2.1.4 The administration of the territory on which the sound broadcasting station is to be operated shall immediately adopt appropriate measures to reduce the interference to the aeronautical radionavigation station to or below the level indicated in Annex 2, Chapter 7.

5.2.1.5 If, despite the full application of the foregoing provisions, the administrations concerned fail to reach an agreement, and if experimental test transmissions show that the operation of the sound broadcasting station would actually cause harmful interference to an aeronautical radionavigation station, the broadcasting station shall not be brought into service. However, the status of this assignment, although not in use, shall be maintained with regard to all other assignments in the Plan.

5.2.1.6 When notifying the assignment of the sound broadcasting station in accordance with Article 7 of this Agreement, the administration responsible for this designated station shall indicate the agreement of the administration designated after the symbols A1/..., A2/... or B2/...

5.2.2 Type B1 interference

5.2.2.1 If all sound broadcasting stations contributing to the incompatibility case belong to the country operating the aeronautical radionavigation station, this case shall be resolved on a national basis. The IFRB shall offer assistance to the country concerned if it cannot resolve the case itself.

5.2.2.2 If all sound broadcasting stations contributing as "primary interferer"5to the incompatibility case belong to the country operating the aeronautical radionavigation station, this case shall be dealt with as in section 5.2.2.1 after section 5.2.2.4 has been applied in respect of the foreign broadcasting station contributing as "secondary interferer"6to the incompatibility.

5.2.2.3 Before bringing into use an assignment in the Plan which bears the symbol B1/.../..., the administration responsible for the sound broadcasting station shall consult all the administrations whose stations are likely to suffer interference, indicating the date at which it intends to bring this assignment into use.

5.2.2.4 Each administration whose sound broadcasting stations contribute to the interference shall reduce, in the direction of the test point considered, the effective radiated power of its sound broadcasting stations contributing to the incompatibility, where this is possible without reducing their service areas.

5.2.2.5 If this is insufficient, the administrations concerned shall take such appropriate measures as they may agree upon in order to avoid B1 interference.

5.2.2.6 In case of disagreement, the following measures shall be envisaged:

a. reduction of power of all sound broadcasting stations contributing to the incompatibility in the direction of the test point considered (by reducing the transmitter output power, by reducing the effective radiated power by means of an appropriate antenna diagram, or both);

b. seeking an alternative frequency for one of the sound broadcasting stations;

c. in exceptional cases seeking an alternative frequency for the aeronautical radionavigation station.

a. to c. are not given in order of priority. The most appropriate measure will depend on the particular case.

5.2.2.7 If, despite the full application of the foregoing provisions, the administrations concerned fail to reach an agreement, the bringing into use of any sound broadcasting assignment contributing to the interference shall be subject to experimental test transmissions to be carried out as indicated in sections 5.2.1.1 to 5.2.1.3 above.

If the experimental test transmissions show that the operation of the broadcasting assignment under test will give rise to a level of interference to the aeronautical radionavigation station concerned in excess of that indicated in Annex 2, Chapter 7, the administration responsible for the sound broadcasting assignment shall immediately adopt appropriate measures to reduce the interference to the aeronautical radionavigation station to or below the level indicated in Annex 2, Chapter 7. If this is not possible, there are two cases to be considered:

a. if the assignment to be brought into use belongs to an administration which has more than one assignment contributing to the interference, this administration shall decide which of its assignments shall not operate. However, the status of this assignment, although not in use, shall be maintained with regard to all other assignments in the Plan;

b. if the sound broadcasting stations contributing to the interference belong to different administrations, the sound broadcasting station whose assignment is to be brought into use shall not be brought into service. However, the status of this assignment, although not in use, shall be maintained with regard to all other assignments in the Plan.

5.2.2.8 When notifying the assignment of the sound broadcasting station in accordance with Article 7 of this Agreement, the administration responsible for this station shall indicate the agreement of the administrations whose stations were likely to suffer interference.

5.2.2.9 For the purpose of these provisions, a primary interferer is a sound broadcasting station the power of which at the input to the aeronautical radionavigation receiver located at the test point is equal to or above the trigger value, and a secondary interferer is a sound broadcasting station the power of which at the input the aeronautical radionavigation receiver located at the test point is equal to or above the cut-off value but below the trigger value (see Annex 2, Chapter 7).

5.3 Modifications to the Plan

5.3.1 Any administration wishing to modify the Plan shall obtain the agreement of any other administration whose aeronautical radionavigation stations are likely to be affected.

5.3.2 The aeronautical radionavigation stations of an administration are likely to be affected if the distance from the sound broadcasting station under consideration to the nearest point on the boundary of that country is less than the limit indicated in Annex 4, Chapter 3.

5.3.3 The administrations concerned shall agree on the criteria and methods to be used, taking into account those developed during the Conference (see Annex 2) and use the updated Plan and updated lists of the aeronautical radionavigation stations as well as any criteria appearing in the latest relevant CCIR Recommendations.

5.3.4 Administrations may request the IFRB to carry out this coordination on their behalf, including any calculations required for the protection of the aeronautical radionavigation stations, provided they supply the necessary information to the IFRB.

Article 6

Continued Coordination of Assignments Appearing in the Appendix to the Plan

6.1 The requirements concerning assignments which cause a nuisance field strength higher than 60 dB/μV/m to other assignments and which have not secured all the necessary agreements during the Conference are contained in the Appendix to the Plan. They will remain in this Appendix until 1 July 1992. Exceptionally, at the request of one or more of the administrations concerned, an assignment may remain in the Appendix until 31 December 1993; a copy of this request shall be sent to the IFRB.

6.2 Until the dates indicated in section 6.1 above, these assignments have the same status as the other assignments in the Plan as regards the application of the provisions of Article 4.

6.3 Administrations should continue coordination of these assignments, taking account of the geographical conditions and other relevant factors to the extent that the necessary data are available, and inform the IFRB of the agreements obtained.

6.4 When the IFRB finds that:

- all the necessary agreements have been obtained, or

- the assignment appearing in the Appendix to the Plan has been modified in such a way that its nuisance field strength caused to the stations of the administrations whose agreement is still required is 60dB/μV/m or less,

it shall publish the assignment concerned in a special section of its weekly circular and shall transfer it to the appropriate part of the Plan.

6.5 For the purpose of applying Article 4, the reference usable field strength to be used shall be:

- for an assignment appearing in Part 1 or Part 2 of the Plan, the usable field strength resulting from the other assignments appearing in those parts of the Plan;

- for an assignment appearing in the Appendix, the usable field strength resulting from all the assignments appearing in the Plan including the Appendix.

6.6 Each time an assignment is transferred from the Appendix to the appropriate part of the Plan, the reference usable field strength of the stations concerned shall be calculated again and the result obtained shall be used for the application of the provisions of Article 4.

Article 7

Notification of Frequency Assignments

7.1 When an administration of a Contracting Member proposes to bring into use an assignment in conformity with this Agreement, it shall notify the assignment to the IFRB in accordance with the provisions of Article 12 of the Radio Regulations. (See also Article 5 of this Agreement and Resolutions Nos. 2 and 3.)

7.2 In relations between Contracting Members, assignments thus brought into service and entered in the Master International Frequency Register will have the same status, irrespective of the date on which they are brought into service.

Article 8

Accession to the Agreement

8.1 Any Member of the Union in the planning area which has not signed the Agreement may at any time deposit an instrument of accession with the Secretary-General, who shall immediately inform the other Members of the Union. Accession to the Agreement shall be made without reservations and shall apply to the Plan as it stands at the time of accession.

8.2 Accession to the Agreement shall become effective on the date on which the instrument of accession is received by the Secretary-General.

Article 9

Scope of Application of the Agreement

9.1 The Agreement shall bind Contracting Members in their relations with one another but shall not bind those Members in their relations with non-Contracting Members7.

9.2 If a Contracting Member enters reservations with regard to any provision of this Agreement, other Contracting Members shall be free to disregard such provision in their relations with the Member which has made such reservations.

Article 10

Approval of the Agreement

10.1 Members signatory to the Agreement shall notify their approval of this Agreement, as promptly as possible, to the Secretary-General, who shall at once inform the other Members of the Union.

Article 11

Denunciation of the Agreement

11.1 Any Contracting Member may denounce this Agreement at any time by a notification sent to the Secretary-General, who shall inform the other Members of the Union.

11.2 Denunciation shall become effective one year after the date on which the Secretary-General receives the notification of denunciation.

11.3 On the date on which the denunciation becomes effective, the IFRB shall delete from the Plan the assignments in the band 87.5-108 MHz entered in the name of the Member denouncing the Agreement. (See Recommendation No. 1.)

Article 12

Revision of the Agreement

12.1 No revision of this Agreement shall be undertaken except by a competent administrative radio conference convened in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Convention, to which at least all the Members of the Union in the planning area shall be invited.

Article 13

Entry into Force and Duration of the Agreement

13.1 This Agreement shall enter into force on 1 July 1987, at 0001 hours UTC.

13.2 On that date, with the exception of stations operating in conformity with No. 342 of the Radio Regulations, sound broadcasting stations in operation with frequency assignments which do not appear in Parts 1 and 2 of the Plan referred to in Article 3, paragraph 3.1, shall cease transmitting. Such stations may resume operation provided the necessary agreements are obtained.

13.3 This Agreement and the annexed Plan have been established with a view to meeting the requirements of the broadcasting service (sound) in the band 87.5-108 MHz for a period of 20 years from the date of entry into force of the Agreement.

13.4 This Agreement shall remain in force until it is revised in accordance with Article 12.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned delegates of the Members of the Union mentioned above have, on behalf of the competent authorities of their respective countries, signed this Agreement in a single copy in the Arabic, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages; in case of dispute, the French text shall be authentic. This copy shall remain deposited in the archives of the Union. The Secretary-General shall forward one certified true copy to each Member of the Union in the planning area.

DONE at Geneva, 7 December 1984

ANNEX 1. Frequency Assignment Plan for FM Sound Broadcasting Stations in Region 1 and Part of Region 3 in the Band 87.5-108 MHz

Information included in the columns of the Plan
Note by the General Secretariat: The Plan, as described in Article 3 of the Agreement, is published in the form of microfiches placed in the pocket at the end of this volume. The Plan, except for the information in columns 14 and 16 and the notes relating to compatibility with the aeronautical radionavigation service, has also been published in Conference documents 190 (Rev. 1) and 191 (Rev. 1).
Column  

1.

Assigned frequency (MHz)

2.

Country symbol

3.

Name of transmitting station

4.

Symbol of the geographical area in which the station is located (see Table No. 1 of the Preface to the International Frequency List)

5.

Geographical coordinates, in degrees and minutes, of the transmitting antenna site

6.

Altitude of site of transmitting antenna above sea level (m)

7.

Height of the antenna above ground level (m)

8.

Polarization (H, V or M)

9.

System (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5)

  8

10.

Total effective radiated power (dBW)

11.

Maximum effective radiated power of the horizontally polarized component (dBW)

12.

Maximum effective radiated power of the vertically polarized component (dBW)

13.

Directivity of antenna (ND or D)

14.

Effective radiated power of the horizontal component and the vertical component in different azimuths (dBW)

15.

Maximum effective antenna height (m)

16.

Effective antenna height at different azimuths

17.

Sectors or directions of restricted e.r.p. (in degrees)

17.1

17.2

17.3

17.4

Sector No. 1

Sector No. 2

Sector No. 3

Sector No. 4

18.

Attenuation in the sector concerned (dB)

18.1

18.2

18.3

18.4

Attenuation in sector No. 1

Attenuation in sector No. 2

Attenuation in sector No. 3

Attenuation in sector No. 4

19.

Remarks9

The above information from column 1 to column 19 is an integral part of the Plan. In case of divergence between indications in columns 17 and 18 on the one hand and column 14 on the other, the information in column 14 should be used.

Meaning of the Symbols in the "Remarks" column (column 19 of the Plan)

Al/...

A2/...

B2/...

When it is brought into service this assignment may cause type A1,

A2, B2 interference to one or more aeronautical radionavigation

stations of the countries whose symbols are given after the oblique stroke. The provisions of Article 5 of the Agreement shall be applied before it is brought into service.

B1/.../...

This assignment may contribute to type B1 intermodulation interference to an aeronautical radionavigation station. The provisions of Article 5 of the Agreement shall be applied before it is brought into service. The symbol following the first oblique stroke is that of the country to which these aeronautical radionavigation stations belong. The symbols following the second oblique stroke are those of the countries whose sound-broadcasting stations contribute to the interference.

3/...

The bringing into service of this assignment is contingent on the withdrawal of assignments to television stations belonging to the administrations named after this symbol and may not take place until a date to be agreed with those administrations.

4/...

Up to the date which follows the symbol, this assignment shall be used with the characteristics given in columns 17 and 18. After that date, it may be used with the radiation characteristics given in column 14.

5/...

This assignment may continue to be used until the date which follows the symbol. After that date, it will be deleted from the Plan.

6/...

Coordination of this assignment with the country indicated under this symbol did not take place. The IFRB will study possible solutions for the resolution of this incompatibility and make appropriate recommendations to the countries concerned.

7/...

The Libyan Administration does not agree to the coordinates of this assignment because it is in Libyan territory.

8/...

The Libyan Administration may, in principle, change the ratio between the vertical and the horizontal polarization components as a result of experiments to be carried out on the site.

9/...

The Chad Administration does not agree to the coordinates of this assignment because it is in Chadian territory.

10/...

Agreement to carry out tests in order to determine the acceptable increase in power in relation to the characteristics given in the Plan, for the sector 300° to 340° between Belgium and Luxembourg and for the sector 120° to 140° between France and Luxembourg.

11/...

The e.r.p. is 175 kW or less in the sector 120° to 135°.

12/...

Austria and Switzerland have agreed that a power reduction in the sector 230° to 280° equal to that applicable to frequencies 102.1 MHz and 106.5 MHz will be applied at a date to be fixed after the Conference.

13/...

This assignment is coordinated with the Administration of Algeria with regard to the corresponding frequencies of channel No. 14.

14/...

In the coordination process the Libyan Administration will take into account at first the topography of the terrain.

15/...

The second sub-paragraph of Article 6, paragraph 6.4, does not apply to this assignment.

10 16/...

This assignment causes a nuisance field strength higher than 60 dB/μV/m to other assignments and, in accordance with Article 6, has to secure the agreement of the administrations identified after the oblique stroke.

ANNEX 2. Technical data

These data were used for the preparation of the Plan. They shall also be used for Plan modification procedures.

CHAPTER 1

Definitions

The following definitions supplement those contained in the International Telecommunication Convention and in the Radio Regulations.

1.1 Coverage area

The area within which the field strength of the wanted transmitter is equal to or greater than the usable field strength.

In this area the protection against interference is provided for 99% of time.

Note - The field strength of the wanted transmitter is derived from the propagation curve relating to 50% of locations and for 50% of time.

1.2 Service area

The part of the coverage area in which the administration has the right to demand that the agreed protection conditions be provided.

1.3 Usable field strength (Eu)

Minimum value of the field strength necessary to permit a desired reception quality, under specified receiving conditions, in the presence of natural and man-made noise and interference, either in an existing situation or as determined by agreements or frequency plans.

Note 1 - The desired quality is determined in particular by the protection ratio against noise and interference and, in the case of fluctuating noise or interference, by the percentage of time during which the required quality must be ensured.

Note 2 - The receiving conditions include, amongst others:

- the type of transmission and frequency band used;

- the receiving equipment characteristics (antenna gain, receiver characteristics, siting);

- receiver operating conditions, particularly the geographical zone, the time and the season, or if the receiver is mobile, the local variations of the field strength due to propagation effects.

Note 3 - The usable field strength can be calculated by the simplified multiplication method11, or the power sum method12. For the application of the Article 4 procedure, the simplified multiplication method is used.

1.4 Nuisance field

The field strength of the interfering transmitter (at its pertinent e.r.p.) modified by the relevant protection ratio.

CHAPTER 2

Propagation

2.1 Propagation data for the VHF broadcasting service

2.1.1 General

The propagation data given in this chapter were used for the planning of the broadcasting service. They relate field strength to path length and the effective transmitting antenna height. They represent the field strength exceeded at 50% of locations for 50% and 1 % of the time and apply to both horizontal and vertical polarization.

The data are given for various types of areas and climates, namely, land, cold sea, warm sea and areas subject to extreme super-refractivity. The definition of these categories has to be based on statistical data; it is thus to a certain extent arbitrary, but experience indicates that the following distinctions are appropriate for the application of the data set out in this chapter.

Cold sea

Seas, oceans and other substantial bodies of water at latitudes greater than 23.5° North or South, but excluding the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the Red Sea and the area extending from the Shatt-al-Arab to and including the Gulf of Oman.

Warm sea

Seas, oceans and other substantial bodies of water at latitudes less than 23.5° North or South, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Area of extreme super-refractivity

Seas, oceans and other substantial bodies of water in the area extending from the Shatt-al-Arab to and including the Gulf of Oman.

Note - In bilateral and multilateral negotiations during the Conference, some administrations in the Eastern Mediterranean area (East of 30° E) used the criteria described in section 2.3, for the application of the 1 % time curves, the sea area was assumed to include also a coastal strip extending up to 50 km inland and for the Nile delta region (from 30° East to 32° East) a coastal strip extending up to 200 km inland.

2.1.2 Area of extreme super-refractivity

2.1.2.1 Oversea paths

For oversea path calculations for 50% of the time, Figure 2.2 was used. For the application of the 1 % time curves, the sea area includes also a coastal strip extending up to 50 km inland.

For oversea paths in the area from the Shatt-al-Arab up to and including the Gulf of Oman, calculations for propagation occurring for 1 % of the time were based on the following formulae:

E = 106.9 - 20 log d for 10 ≤ d ≤ 400

E= 78.9- 0.06 d for d > 400

where

d = path length in km,

E = field strength in dB (μV/m).

2.1.2.2 Overland paths

For overland path calculations for 50% of the time, Figure 2.1 was used. For overland path calculations for 1 % of the time, Figure 2.3 was used, but any coastal strip as defined in section 2.1.2.1 was treated as sea.

2.1.2.3 Mixed paths

For both 1% and 50% of the time, mixed paths were evaluated according to the procedure set out in section 2.1.3.5.

2.1.3 Application of the curves

2.1.3.1 Time variability

The field-strength values given in Figures 2.1 to 2.5, are those exceeded for 50% and 1 % of the time. They are expressed in decibels relative to 1 μV/m and correspond to an effective radiated power of 1 kW.

The 50% time curves were used for the determination of coverage areas. The 50% and 1% time curves were used for interference calculations for steady and tropospheric interference respectively.

2.1.3.2 Effective transmitter antenna height

The effective height of the transmitting antenna, h1, is defined as its height over the average ground level between distances of 3 km and 15 km from the transmitter in the direction of the receiver. The height of the receiving antenna, h2, was assumed to be 10 m above ground level.

The curves given in Figures 2.1 to 2.5 correspond to effective transmitter antenna heights, h1, from 37.5 to 1200 metres.

For effective antenna heights, h1, of 20 m and 10 m, additional curves can be derived from the 37.5 m curve by applying correction factors of - 5dB and - 11 dB for distances up to 25 km, and 0 dB in both cases for distances in excess of 250 km, with linear interpolation for intermediate distances. For effective transmitter antenna heights, h1, of less than 10 m, the values derived for 10 m are used.

Bijlage 10000050331.png

2.1.3.3 Location variability

The curves given are representative of 50% of locations, the percentage which was used for planning purposes.

2.1.3.4 Terrain irregularity correction

The curves for propagation overland refer to the kind of irregular rolling terrain found in many parts of Region 1. No terrain irregularity correction was taken into account in drawing up the Plan.

Note - In bilateral or multilateral coordinations during the Conference, some administrations took account of actual path profiles. This method may also be used for coordination after the Conference.

2.1.3.5 Mixed land/sea path calculations

When the propagation path is partially over land and partially over sea, the following method is used for interpolation between the appropriate land and sea curves.

EL,t: field strength for land path equal in length to the mixed path for t% of the time,

ES,t: field strength for sea path equal in length to the mixed path for t% of the time,

EM,t: field strength for mixed path for t% of the time,

ds : length of sea path,

dT : length of total path.

The field strength for the mixed path(EM,t) is then determined by using the formula:

Bijlage 10000050332.png

In the calculations of mixed paths, a computerized approximation of the coastline was employed. It should be borne in mind that in some cases this may give rise to certain inaccuracies when compared to calculations based on the actual coastline.

2.2 Propagation data for the aeronautical radionavigation service

The compatibility calculations are based on free space propagation conditions. In drawing up the Plan the calculations were limited to the test points of the aeronautical radionavigation station in line of sight from the broadcasting station, it being assumed that the effective Earth's radius is 4/3 of the actual radius.

2.3 Additional propagation data for the Eastern Mediterranean

In bilateral and multilateral negotiations during the Conference, some administrations in the Eastern Mediterranean (East of 30° E) calculated the field strength for 1 % of the time for oversea paths using the following formulae:

E = 106.9 - 20 log d-0.07 d for 10 ≤ d < 100

E= 99.9 -20 logd for 100 ≤ d ≤ 568

E = 78.9 - 0.06 d for d > 568

where

d = path length in km,

E = field strength in dB (μV/m).

Bijlage 10000050333.png

FIGURE 2.1

Field strength (dB (µV/m)) for I kW e.r.p.

Propagation over land

50% of the time: 50% of the locations; h2 = 10 m

- . - . - Free space

PROPAGATION CURVES FOR THE BROADCASTING SERVICE

Bijlage 10000050334.png

FIGURE 2.2

Field strength (dB (µV/m)) for 1 kWe.r.p.

Propagation over sea

50% of the time; 50% of the locations; h, = 10 m

- . - . - Free space

PROPAGATION CURVES FOR THE BROADCASTING SERVICE

Bijlage 10000050335.png

FIGURE 2.3

Field strength (dB (µV/m)) for 1 kW e.r.p.

Propagation over land

1% of the time; 50% of the locations; h2 = 10 m

- . - . - Free space

PROPAGATION CURVES FOR THE BROADCASTING SERVICE

Bijlage 10000050337.png

FIGURE 2.4

Field strength (dB (µV/m)) for 1 kWe.r.p.

Propagation over cold sea

1 % of the time; 50% of the locations; h2 = 10 m

- . - . - Free space

PROPAGATION CURVES FOR THE BROADCAST1NG SERVICE

Bijlage 10000050338.png

FIGURE 2.5

Field strength (dB (µV/m)) for 1 kW e.r.p.

Propagation over warm sea

(excluding areas subject to extreme super-refractivity)

1 % of the time; 50% of ths locations; h2 = 10 m

- . - . - Free space

PROPAGATION CURVES FOR THE BROADCASTING SERVICE

CHAPTER 3

Technical standards and transmission characteristics for the sound broadcasting service

3.1 Transmission systems

In planning, the following transmission systems were used, as specified by the administrations when notifying their requirements:

System 1: Monophonic (maximum frequency deviation + 75 kHz)

System 2: Monophonic (maximum frequency deviation ± 50 kHz)

System 3: Stereophonic, polar modulation system (maximum frequency deviation + 50 kHz)

System 4: Stereophonic, pilot-tone system (maximum frequency deviation + 75 kHz)

System 5: Stereophonic, pilot-tone system (maximum frequency deviation + 50 kHz)

Column 9 of the Plan indicates the system used in accordance with the above classification.

The addition of sub-carriers for the transmission of supplementary information13was considered as being included in each of the five systems above, provided that the maximum carrier frequency deviation was not exceeded and the protection required was not increased.

As an alternative, other systems having different characteristics (e.g. other pre-emphasis characteristics, digital modulation) may be used, provided that such use does neither cause greater interference nor demand higher protection than the reference system indicated in the Plan.

3.2 Channel spacing

A uniform channel spacing of 100 kHz was adopted in principle for both monophonic and stereophonic emissions.

The nominal carrier frequencies are, in principle, integral multiples of 100 kHz.

3.3 Modulation standards

3.3.1 Monophonic transmissions

The radio-frequency signal consists of a carrier frequency modulated by the sound signal after preemphasis with a maximum frequency deviation of ±75 kHz or +50 kHz.

The pre-emphasis characteristic of the sound signal is identical to the admittance-frequency curve of a parallel resistance-capacitance circuit having a time constant of 50 μs.

3.3.2 Stereophonic transmissions

The radio-frequency signal consists of a carrier frequency modulated by baseband signal according to the specifications of the polar modulation or the pilot-tone system. The maximum frequency deviation is + 50 kHz for the polar modulation system and +75 kHz or +50 kHz for the pilot-tone system.

The pre-emphasis characteristics of the sound signals M and S14are identical to the admittance-frequency curve of a parallel resistancecapacitance circuit having a time constant of 50 μs.

3.4 Protection ratios

3.4.1 Monophonic transmissions

The radio-frequency protection ratios required to give satisfactory monophonic reception for 99 % of the time are given by the curve M2 in Figure 2.6 for systems using a maximum frequency deviation of +75 kHz. For steady interference a higher degree of protection is required; this is shown by the curve M1 in Figure 2.6. The protection ratios at specific frequency spacing values are also given in Table 2.1.

The corresponding values for systems using a maximum frequency deviation of + 50 kHz are given in Figure 2.7 and Table 2.2.

3.4.2 Stereophonic transmissions

The radio-frequency protection ratios required to give satisfactory stereophonic reception for 99% of the time are given by curve S2 in Figure 2.6 for transmissions using the pilot-tone system and a maximum frequency deviation of + 75 kHz. For steady interference, a higher degree of protection is required; this is shown by the curve S1 in Figure 2.6. The protection ratios at specific frequency spacing values are also given in Table 2.1.

Table 2.2 and Figure 2.7 give the radio-frequency protection ratios required for satisfactory reception in the case of tropospheric interference (99% of time), or in the case of steady interference for stereophonic transmissions using the pilot-tone system or the polar modulation system with a maximum frequency deviation of + 50 kHz.

Table 2.3 gives the radio-frequency protection ratios required for satisfactory stereophonic reception in the case of tropospheric interference (99% of time), or in the case of steady interference where the wanted and interfering transmitters use different maximum frequency deviations.

The protection ratios for stereophonic broadcasting assume the use of a lowpass filter following the frequency modulation demodulator in the receiver designed to reduce interference and noise at frequencies greater than 53 kHz in the pilot-tone system and greater than 46.25 kHz in the polar modulation system. Without such a filter or an equivalent arrangement in the receiver, the protection-ratio curves for stereophonic broadcasting cannot be met, and significant interference from transmission in adjacent or nearby channels is possible.

Note - The protection ratios for steady interference provide approximately a 50 dB signal-to-noise ratio. (Weighted quasi-peak measurement in conformity with CCIR Recommendation 468-3, with a reference signal at maximum frequency deviation.)15

Bijlage 10000050339.png

FIGURE 2.6

Radio-frequency protection ratio required by broadcasting services in Band 8 (VHF) at frequencies between 87.5 MHz and 108 MHz using a maximum frequency deviation of + 75 kHz

Curve M1: monophonic broadcasting; steady interference

Curve M2: monophonic broadcasting; tropospheric interference

(protection for 99% of the time)

Curve S1: stereophonic broadcasting; steady interference

Curve S2: stereophonic broadcasting; tropospheric interference

(protection for 99% of the time)

TABLE 2.1

Frequency spacing (kHz)

Radio-frequency protection ratio (dB) for a maximum frequency deviation of + 75 kHz

Monophonic

Stereophonic

Steady interference

Tropospheric interference

Steady interference

Tropospheric interference

0

36

28

45

37

25

31

27

51

43

50

24

22

51

43

75

16

16

45

37

100

12

12

33

25

150

8

8

18

14

200

6

6

7

7

250

2

2

2

2

300

-7

-7

-7

-7

350

-15

-15

-15

-15

400

-20

-20

-20

-20

Bijlage 10000050340.png

FIGURE 2.7

Radio-frequency protection ratio required by broadcasting services in Band 8 (VHF) at frequencies between 87-5 MHz and 108 MHz using a maximum frequency deviation of +50 kHz

Curve Ml: monophonic broadcasting; steady interference

Curve M2: monophonic broadcasting; tropospheric interference

(protection for 99% of the time)

Curve S1: stereophonic broadcasting; steady interference

Curve S2: stereophonic broadcasting; tropospheric interference

(protection for 99% of the time)

TABLE 2.2

Frequency spacing (kHz)

Radio-frequency protection ratio (dB) for a maximum frequency deviation of ± 50 kHz

Monophonic

Stereophonic

Steady interference

Tropospheric interference

Steady interference

Tropospheric interference

0

39

32

49

41

25

32

28

53

45

50

24

22

51

43

75

15

15

45

37

100

12

12

33

25

125

7.5

7.5

25

18

150

6

6

18

14

175

-2.5

2

12

11

200

-3.5

-2.5

7

7

225

-6

-3.5

5

5

250

2

-6

2

2

275

-7.5

-7.5

0

0

300

-10

-10

-7

-7

325

-12

-12

-10

-10

350

-15

-15

-15

-15

375

-17.5

-17.5

-17.5

-17.5

400

-20

-20

-20

-20

TABLE 2.3

Frequency spacing (kHz)

Maximum frequency deviation:

wanted transmitter ± 50 kHz

interfering transmitter ± 75 kHz

Maximum freq uency deviation:

wanted transmitter ± 75 kHz

interfering transmitter ± 50 kHz

Radio-frequencyprotection ratio (dB) stereophonic

Radio-frequencyprotection ratio (dB) stereophonic

Steady interference

Tropospheric interference

Steady interference

Tropospheric interference

0

49

41

45

37

25

53

45

51

43

50

51

43

51

43

75

45

37

45

37

100

33

25

33

25

125

25

18

24.5

18

150

18

14

18

14

175

12

11

11

10

200

7

7

7

7

225

5

5

4.5

4.5

250

2

2

2

2

275

0

0

-2

-2

300

-7

-7

-7

-7

325

-10

-10

-11.5

-11.5

150

-15

-15

-15

-15

375

-17.5

-17.5

-17.5

-17.5

400

-20

-20

-20

-20

3.5 Calculation of nuisance field

To apply the protection-ratio curves of Figures 2.6 and 2.7, it is necessary to determine whether, in the particular circumstances, the interference is to be regarded as steady or tropospheric16. A suitable criterion for this is provided by the concept of "nuisance field", which is the field strength of the interfering transmitter (at its pertinent e.r.p.) modified by the relevant protection ratio.

Thus, the nuisance field for steady interference is given by the formula:

Es = P + E (50,50) + As

and the nuisance field for tropospheric interference is given by the formula:

Et = P + E(50, T) + At

where

P:

e.r.p. (dB (1 kW)) of the interfering transmitter;

A:

radio-frequency protection ratio (dB);

E(50, T):

field strength (dB (μV/m)) of the interfering transmitter, normalized to 1 kW, and exceeded during T% of the time,

and where indices s and t indicate steady or tropospheric interference respectively.

The protection-ratio curve for steady interference is applicable when the resulting nuisance field is stronger than that resulting from tropospheric interference,

i.e.Es ≥ Et.

This means that As should be used in all cases when:

E(50,50) + As ≥ E(50, T) + At.

3.6 Minimum field strength

The planning was based on the following median values of the minimum usable field strength (measured 10 m above ground level):

- stereophonic service: 54 dB (μV/m) in rural areas;

- monophonic service: 48 dB (μV/m) in rural areas.

These values apply for systems with a maximum frequency deviation of ±50 kHz or ±75 kHz.

3.7 Maximum radiated power

No maximum power values have been specified.

3.8 Characteristics of transmitting and receiving antennas - polarization

3.8.1 Transmitting antennas

The maximum effective radiated power and, in the case of directional antennas, the azimuth(s) relative to True North together with the azimuths of the - 3 dB points anti-clockwise and clockwise from the azimuth of the maximum, have been indicated in accordance with the Radio Regulations (Appendix 1, section D, column 9).

The attenuation (dB) with respect to the maximum value of the effective radiated power has been specified at 10° intervals in a clockwise direction starting at True North. Where administrations have been unable to give information in such detail, they have, where possible, provided the values at 30° intervals in a clockwise direction starting at True North.

For mixed polarized transmissions, the effective radiated powers and radiation patterns have been specified separately for the horizontally and vertically polarized components.

3.8.2 Receiving antennas

For stereophonic transmissions, the directivity curve in Figure 2.8 was taken into account by administrations for assessing coverage areas. For monophonic transmissions, an omnidirectional receiving antenna was assumed.

In the computer analysis of the Plan during the Conference, no account was taken of receiving antenna directivity, since the usable field strength was calculated at the transmitter site.

The antenna was assumed to be at a height of 10 m above the ground.

Bijlage 10000050341.png

FIGURE 2.8

Discrimination obtained by the use of a directional receiving antenna for sound broadcasting stations in the band 87.5 to 108 MHz

Note 1 - It is considered that the protection shown will be available at the majority of antenna locations in built-up areas. At clear sites in open country, slightly higher values will be obtained.

Note 2 - The curve in Figure 2.8 is valid for signals of vertical or horizontal polarization, when both the wanted and the unwanted signals have the same polarization.

3.8.3 Polarization

Administrations were free to choose the polarization to be used in their countries17.

Polarization discrimination was not taken into account in the planning procedure, except in specific cases with the agreement of affected administrations. In such cases, a value of 10 dB was used for orthogonal polarization discrimination.

3.9 Receiver sensitivity and selectivity

Receiver sensitivity and selectivity were taken into account when specifying the values of the minimum usable field strength and the radio-frequency protection ratios.

CHAPTER 4

Determination of the usable field strength by the simplified multiplication method

4.1 Principle of calculation

The usable field strength is determined for a specified coverage probability (with respect to time and location) and depends on the values of the nuisance fields:

E si = Pi + Eni (50, T) + Ai + Bi

where:

Esi:

the nuisance field of the ithtransmitter corrected by the discrimination factor of the receiving antenna,

Pi:

the e.r.p. in dB (kW) of the ith unwanted transmitter,

Eni(50, T):

the field strength, in dB (μV/m), normalized to an e.r.p. of 1 kW, of the ith unwanted transmitter. The field strength is exceeded at 50 % of the locations during at least T% (e.g. 1 %) of the time,

Ai:

the radio-frequency protection ratio, in dB, associated with the ith unwanted transmitter,

Bi:

the receiving antenna discrimination, in dB.

Appropriate account of the effect of multiple interference can be taken by the use of statistical computation methods among which the simplified multiplication method is the least complex. With this method the usable field strength Eu can be calculated by iteration from:

Bijlage 10000050342.png

where

pc:

the coverage probability (e.g. 50% of locations, (100 -T)% of time) in the presence of n nuisance fields;

L(x):

the coverage probability in the presence of a single nuisance field, which equals the probability integral for a normal distribution (see section 4.2 below).

σn = 8.3 dB:

standard deviation according to location of the wanted and interfering field strengths, in dB (μV/m).

4.2 Calculation by computer

The calculation of the usable field strength with the simplified multiplication method is based on the probability integral for a normal distribution:

Bijlage 10000050343.png

This integration can, however, be avoided in the practical calculation by replacing it with a polynomial approximation as followd:

L (x) = 1 - ½(1 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + a4x4)-4 + ε(x)

with

a 1 = 0.196854

a 2 = 0.115194

a 3 = 0.000344

a 4 = 0.019527

ε (x) represents the error between the approximation and the exact value, obtained by the probability integral. Since |ε(x)| is less than 2.5.10 -4, this error can be neglected.

The above approximation was used to calculate the multiple interference by the simplified multiplication method.

4.3 Manual calculation

The basic material for the manual calculation of the usable field strength in applying the simplified multiplication method is given below18.

The manual calculation needs only additions, subtractions, multiplications, divisions and the reading of a value from Table 2.4.

An example with five interfering transmitters is given in Table 2.5.

Experience has shown that it is expedient to begin with a value for Eu 6 dB larger than the largest of the Esi values. If the difference between 0.52 and the result (product of the 5 values of L(xi)) equals Δ, the value of Eu should be modified by Δ /0.05 to obtain a better approximation. The whole process can be repeated to obtain better accuracy.

Table 2.5 shows that even after the second step, the difference between the value obtained and the precise value is of the order of 0.2 dB.

TABLE 2.4

Bijlage 10000050344.png
X

φ(x)

x

φ(x)

x

φ(x)

x

φ(x)

0.00

0.0000

0.60

0.4515

1.20

0.7699

1.80

0.9281

01

0.0080

61

0.4581

21

0.7737

81

0.9297

02

0.0160

62

0.4647

22

0.7775

82

0.9312

03

0.0239

63

0.4713

23

0.7813

83

0.9328

04

0.0319

64

0.4778

24

0.7850

84

0.9342

0.05

0.0399

0.65

0.4843

1.25

0.7887

1.85

0.9357

06

0.0478

66

0.4907

26

0.7923

86

0.9371

07

0.0558

67

0.4971

27

0.7959

87

0.9385

08

0.0638

68

0.5035

28

0.7995

88

0.9399

09

0.0717

69

0.5098

29

0.8029

89

0.9412

0.10

0.0797

0.70

0.5161

1.30

0.8064

1.90

0.9426

11

0.0876

71

0.5223

31

0.8098

91

0.9439

12

0.0955

72

0.5285

32

0.8132

92

0.9451

13

0.1034

73

0.5346

33

0.8165

93

0.9464

14

0.1113

74

0.5407

34

0.8198

94

0.9476

0.15

0.1192

0.75

0.5467

1.35

0.8230

1.95

0.9488

16

0.1271

76

0.5527

36

0.8262

96

0.9500

17

0.1350

77

0.5587

37

0.8293

97

0.9512

18

0.1428

78

0.5646

38

0.8324

98

0.9523

19

0.1507

79

0.5705

39

0.8355

99

0.9534

0.20

0.1585

0.80

0.5763

1.40

0.8385

2.00

0.9545

21

0.1663

81

0.5821

41

0.8415

05

0.9596

22

0.1741

82

0.5878

42

0.8444

10

0.9643

23

0.1819

83

0.5935

43

0.8473

15

0.9684

24

0.1897

84

0.5991

44

0.8501

20

0.9722

0.25

0.1974

0.85

0.6047

1.45

0.8529

2.25

0.9756

26

0.2041

86

0.6102

46

0.8557

30

0.9786

27

0.2128

87

0.6157

47

0.8584

35

0.9812

28

0.2205

88

0.6211

48

0.8611

40

0.9836

29

0.2282

89

0.6265

49

0.8638

45

0.9857

0.30

0.2358

0.90

0.6319

1.50

0.8664

2.50

0.9876

31

0.2434

91

0.6372

51

0.8690

55

0.9892

32

0.2510

92

0.6424

52

0.8715

60

0.9907

33

0.2586

93

0.6476

53

0.8740

65

0.9920

34

0.2661

94

0.6528

54

0.8764

70

0.9931

0.35

0.2737

0.95

0.6579

1.55

0.8789

2.75

0.9940

36

0.2812

96

0.6629

56

0.8812

80

0.9949

37

0.2886

97

0.6680

57

0.8836

85

0.9956

38

0.2961

98

0.6729

58

0.8859

90

0.9963

39

0.3035

99

0.6778

59

0.8882

95

0.9968

0.40

0.3108

1.00

0.6827

1.60

0.8904

3.00

0.99730

41

0.3182

01

0.6875

61

0.8926

10

0.99806

42

0.3255

02

0.6923

62

0.8948

20

0.99863

43

0.3328

03

0.6970

63

0.8969

30

0.99903

44

0.3401

04

0.7017

64

0.8990

40

0.99933

0.45

0.3473

1.05

0.7063

1.65

0.9011

3.50

0.99953

46

0.3545

06

0.7109

66

0.9031

60

0.99968

47

0.3616

07

0.7154

67

0.9051

70

0.99978

48

0.3688

08

0.7199

.68

0.9070

80

0.99986

49

0.3759

09

0.7243

69

0.9090

90

0.99990

0.50

0.3829

1.10

0.7287

1.70

0.9109

4.00

0.99994

51

0.3899

11

0.7330

71

0.9127

   

52

0.3969

12

0.7373

72

0.9146

   

53

0.4039

13

0.7415

73

0.9164

   

54

0.4108

14

0.74S7

74

0.9181

   

0.55

0.4177

1.15

0.7499

1.75

0.9199

   

56

0.4245

16

0.7540

76

0.9216

   

57

0.4313

17

0.7580

77

0.9233

   

58

0.4381

18

0.7620

78

0.9249

4.417

1 - 10-5

59

0.4448

19

0.7660

79

0.9265

4.892

1 - 10--6

0.60

0.4515

1.20

0.7699

1.80

0.9281

5.327

1 - 10--7

TABLE 2.5

Bijlage 10000050345.png
Bijlage 10000050346.png

CHAPTER 5

Frequency compatibility between sound and television broadcasting

5.1 Introduction

Several countries are operating television transmitters using the D/SECAM system in the band 87.5-100 MHz. All sound broadcasting requirements for stations in the area of coordination with countries using this band for television in accordance with the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961), have been assessed for compatibility with television stations.

5.2 Protection of sound-broadcasting stations within the coordination area

Calculations have been carried out to verify that there is no deterioration in the service areas of existing sound broadcasting stations which are operating in accordance with the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961) (notified to the IFRB before 1 December 1983) and which are situated in the area of coordination with countries using this band for television in accordance with the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961). For purposes of comparison, the reference situation (as described in section 5.4 below) has been used as a basis.

A sound broadcasting station was considered to be situated in the coordination area when its distance from the nearest point of the border of the country using this band for television in accordance with the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961) is less than the distance in Table B of Annex 1 to the Stockholm Agreement.

5.3 Comparison

For the purpose of assessing compatibility with television stations (see section 5.1 above) or protection to service areas of existing sound broadcasting transmitters (see section 5.2 above), the existing situation has been used as a reference situation and has been compared with the new Plan in the course of its development. To permit these comparisons, it has been necessary to calculate (as in section 5.6 below) the usable field strength (Eu) for all television transmitters and all existing sound broadcasting stations (as in sections 5.1 and 5.2 above) at a number of test locations (not more than 12) within the existing service area, as specified by the administrations concerned.

5.4 Reference situation

All existing or planned assignments to television or sound broadcasting stations in the band 87.5-100 MHz appearing in the Regional Plan (Stockholm, 1961) and those for which the procedure of the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961) has been successfully applied before the date of the opening of the Second Session of the Conference, have been taken into account. The sound broadcasting stations in Region 3 and in the part of Turkey not covered by the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961) which are operating in accordance with the Radio Regulations and notified to the IFRB before 1 December 1983 have been included in the reference situation. The calculation for the reference situation has only been made once.

5.5 Situation resulting from planning

All existing or planned assignments to television stations (as in section 5.4 above) and all sound broadcasting transmitters in the draft Plan have been taken into account.

5.6 Usable field strength for a transmitter at the specified test location

5.6.1 The nuisance field from each interfering transmitter was calculated according to section 3.5 of Chapter 3 using, in principle, propagation curves for 1 % of the time and the appropriate protection ratio taken:

5.6.1.1 for the wanted television transmitter,

- from Table 2.6 for interference from a television transmitter, or

- from Figure 2.9 for interference from a sound broadcasting transmitter.

Note - Since the protection ratio curve for the D/SECAM television broadcasting system against FM sound broadcasting interference is not defined for deviations of 6-7 MHz from the vision carrier frequency (see Figure 2.9), the protection of the sound carrier, considered as modulated according to system 2, was calculated separately.

5.6.1.2 for a wanted sound broadcasting transmitter,

- from Table 2.7 or Figure 2.10 for interference from a television transmitter, using protection ratio values for tropospheric interference, or

- from section 3.4 of Chapter 3 for interference from a FM sound broadcasting transmitter.

5.6.2 Receiving antenna discrimination is taken,

- from Figure 2.11 for a wanted television transmitter,

- from Figure 2.8 in Chapter 3 for a wanted sound broadcasting transmitter.

5.6.3 For orthogonal polarization, a discrimination value of 10 dB was applied for a wanted television transmitter. No polarization discrimination was applied for a wanted sound broadcasting transmitter.

5.6.4 The interference contribution of each interfering transmitter is the value of the nuisance field derived from section 5.6.1, plus any discrimination value derived from sections 5.6.2 or 5.6.3.

5.6.5 The usable field strength Eu was calculated from the individual interference contributions using the simplified multiplication method, taking into account the 20 largest (either TV or sound broadcasting) contributions and specified to one decimal place.

5.7 Results of examination

An incompatibility with a television station or a deterioration of the service area of a sound broadcasting station exists only if any value of Eu obtained (as in section 5.6), in accordance with section 5.5, exceeds the corresponding value of Eu in the reference situation defined in section 5.4 by more than 0.5 dB.

TABLE 2.6

Protection ratios, in dB, for two colour television transmissions with the same number of lines 19

Offset (multiples of 1/12 line-frequency)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Co-channel Transmitter stability ± 500 Hz (non-precision offset)

45

44

40

14

30

28

27

28

310

14

40

44

45

Lower adjacent channel

-6

Upper adjacent channel

+ 4

Bijlage 10000050347.png

FIGURE 2.9

D/SECAM television system protection ratio in the case of frequency-modulated sound broadcasting tropospheric interference 20

Note - For steady interference 10 dB are added.For further information see CCIR Report 306-4.

TABLE 2.7

Radio-frequency protection ratio required by FM sound broadcasting against interference from D/SECAM television transmissions 87.5 to 100 MHz

(Steady interference)

Wanted signal frequency (MHz) relative to vision carrier

RF protection ratio (dB)

mono

stereo

-2.0

-1.0

-0.5

-0.15

-0.1

-0.05

0.0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.25

0.5

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

4,18

4.25

4.41

4.48

4.7

5.0

6.0

6.25

6.3

64

6.45

6.475

6.525

6.55

6.6

6.7

7.0

-30

-2

0

19

24

30

35

30

24

19

10

0

-1

-3

-4

-5

8

10

10

8

-5

-15

-25

-13

5

6

15

25

28

25

15

6

-3 -30

-12

18

20

25

5

50

45

50

35

31

25

20

20

18

17

15

25

26

25

15

0

-5

-6

5

26

40

43

35

43

40

26

0

-13

Note 1 - For tropospheric interference (protection 99% of the time) these values may be reduced by 8 dB.

Note 2 - Values for frequencies from 0.5 to 4 MHz are greatly affected by picture content. The figures given are for a test pattern and are representative of the on-the-air test picture transmissions.

Note 3 - This table is valid for a vision/sound carrier power ratio of 10 dB.

Bijlage 10000050348.png

FIGURE 2.10

Radio-frequency protection ratio required by FM sound broadcasting against interference from D/SECAM television transmissions in the band 87.5 to 100 MHz (steady interference)

Note 1 - For tropospheric interference (protection 99% of the time) these values may be reduced by 8 dB.

Note 2 - This figure is valid for a vision/sound carrier power ratio of 10dB.

Bijlage 10000050349.png

FIGURE 2.11

Discrimination obtained by the use of a directional receiving antenna for television stations in the band 87.5 to 100 MHz

CHAPTER 6

Analysis of the Plan

6.1 Introduction

The Plan was analyzed on the basis of information supplied by administrations before or during the Second Session of the Conference or entered by the IFRB for administrations failing to supply information.

6.2 Method of analysis

In each analysis, the nuisance of field from each potentially interfering transmitter was calculated at the site of the wanted transmitter by the method given in section 3.5 of Chapter 3.

The usable field strength, Eu, was then calculated by the simplified multiplication method, taking into account the 20 largest values of nuisance field, specified to one decimal place. For the analysis of the Plan during the Conference, the simplified multiplication method was used for the whole of the planning area; however, for comparison purposes, the power sum method21was also used.

Sharing the television broadcasting in the European Broadcasting Area operating in accordance with the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961) in the band 87.5-100 MHz (see Chapter 5) was taken into account.

The method of analysis using during the Conference with respect to compatibility with the aeronautical radionavigation service in the band 108-117.975 MHz is described in Chapter 7.

6.2.1 Analysis during the Conference

The computer analysis of the Plan during the Conference was based on the methods and criteria given in Chapters 2 to 5 and 7, but it did not take into account any receiving antenna discrimination.

6.2.2 Analysis during the implementation of the Plan

After the Conference, the analysis of the Plan is to be based on the simplified multiplication method. The results based on the power sum method will also be provided on request for information only.

CHAPTER 7

Compatibility between the broadcasting service in the band 87.5-108 MHz and the aeronautical radionavigation service in the band 108-117.975 MHz

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 The criteria contained in this chapter were used for the assessment of compatibility between sound broadcasting stations in the band 87.5-108 MHz, and aeronautical radionavigation stations in the band 108-117.975 MHz.

7.1.2 The coordination contour method, as specified in section 7.3, was used in the determination of a potential incompatibility between the sound broadcasting stations of one country and the aeronautical radionavigation stations of another country. Such cases have been or will be settled through bilateral and multilateral negotiations between the administrations concerned.

7.1.3 Where the stations of the broadcasting service and the aeronautical radionavigation service belong to one and the same country, the administration concerned has conducted or will conduct an examination in order to find an appropriate solution.

7.2 Interference mechanisms

7.2.1 Type A interference: Due to radiation at frequencies in the aeronautical radionavigation band

These comprise the following:

Type Al: Intermodulation or other spurious products radiated from the broadcasting station;

Type A2: Out-of-band emissions from broadcasting stations in the aeronautical radionavigation band immediately above the band edge of 108 MHz.

7.2.2 Type B interference: Due to radiation at frequencies outside the aeronautical radionavigation band

These comprise the following:

Type Bl: Intermodulation generated in the receiver;

Type B2: Desensitization in the RF section of the receiver.

7.3 Coordination contour around the test point of an aeronautical radionavigation station

7.3.1 The coordination contour is defined by the projection on the Earth's surface of circles around each test point of the radionavigation station to be protected, with a radius as defined in sections 7.3.2 and 7.3.3. Broadcasting stations outside the coordination contour were considered as being unlikely to affect the service provided by the aeronautical radionavigation station concerned and were therefore disregarded.

7.3.2 For types Al, A2 and B2 interference the radius is 125km.

7.3.3 For type B1 interference the radius is 500km.

7.3.4 Only broadcasting stations which are in line-of-sight of the test point concerned were taken into account (see Chapter 2, section 2.2).

7.4 Test points

The calculations were limited to four test points only. These test points were chosen by the administration concerned in accordance with the conditions described in sections 7.4.1 and 7.4.2.

As the number of test points is insufficient, the administrations concerned may introduce additional test points for future coordination between administrations.

7.4.1 Instrument landing system (ILS)

Points A, B, C and D are defined in Figure 2.12. In some cases, the height of test point A differed from that indicated in Figure 2.12.

7.4.2 VHF omnidirectional range (VOR)

The four cardinal points (N, E, S and W) of the circle forming the boundary of the service area at a height of 1000 m above the VOR were chosen as test points by certain administrations. Other administrations preferred four other test points (with different locations, or heights, or both), which they considered more significant.

7.5 Polarization

No account was taken of polarization differences between the broadcasting and the aeronautical radionavigation signals except in special cases (e.g. circular polarization of the broadcasting signal).

The interfering signals were assumed to have the same polarization (vertical or horizontal) as the navigation system. If, instead, the broadcasting signal has a different polarization, there is in theory some reduction of received interfering signal levels, but it was agreed not to make any allowance. In cases, however, where an equal power in the other plane of polarization is added at the transmitter (e.g. circular polarization), an allowance was made by adding 1 dB to the effective radiated power of the polarization component in the same plane as that used by the navigation system.

7.6 Protection criteria for ILS and VOR

Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation contains specifications and characteristics relevant to the protection of both ILS and VOR.

7.6.1 Wanted signal

The minimum field strength to be protected is:

-ILS:

40µV/m (32dB(μV/m))

-VOR:

90µV/m (39dB(μV/m))

Bijlage 10000050350.png

FIGURE 2.12

ILS localizer protection volume

----: the limits of the ILS back beam protection volume; in this case, the range and height are indicated

●(A, B, C, D): test points for the ILS localizer

*(h): altitude indicated by the administration

7.6.2 Principles of calculation

The field strength of every broadcasting station in the band 87.5-108 MHz inside the coordination contour and within line-of-sight of a test point of an aeronautical radionavigation station was calculated at this test point as an interfering signal.

For types Al and A2 interference, this field strength was compared with the minimum field strength to be protected of the wanted signal, as indicated in section 7.6.1.

For type Bl interference the relevant intermodulation formulae were applied.

For type B2 interference the broadcasting signal level was compared with the maximum permitted level.

Where applicable, the field-strength E was converted to signal power N at the receiver input according to the following formula:

E(dB(μV/m)) = AT(dBm) + 118 + Ls + L(ƒ)

where:

Ls : system fixed loss of 3.5 dB;

L(f): system frequency-dependent loss at frequency f of 1 dB per MHz from 108-100 MHz and then 0.5 dB per MHz below 100 MHz.

7.6.3 Al interference

7.6.3.1 Protection ratio

A protection ratio of 17 dB was assumed, including a small safety margin in order to take account of multiple interference entries resulting from different broadcast transmitters.

7.6.3.2 The field strength of the interfering signal at the test point was calculated on the basis of the following level of the spurious component (in the case of several transmitters contributing to one spurious componentsee category a. below - the most powerful transmitter is taken as the reference in the calculation):

- 40 dB below the transmitter e.r.p. for transmitter e.r.p. below and equal to 2.5 W;

- 250 µW e.r.p. for transmitter e.r.p. above 2.5 W and below 79 kW;

- 85 dB below the transmitter e.r.p. for transmitter e.r.p. equal to and above 79 kW.

An antenna gain of 10 dB was assumed in defining the levels given above.

The levels of the spurious emission given above are valid in the band 108-137 MHz.

7.6.3.3 For the analysis of type Al interference, the following two categories of spurious emissions exist:

a. spurious emissions resulting from an intermodulation process caused at the transmitter site, e.g., by multiple transmitters feeding the same antenna;

b. spurious emissions with the exception of those covered by a. above.

Where the actual frequency of the spurious emission is known, Table 2.8 gives the values of protection ratio to be used for frequency differences up to 200 kHz from radionavigation transmitters. Type Al interference need not be considered for frequency differences greater than 200 kHz.

TABLE 2.8

Frequency difference (kHz) between spurious emission and wanted signal

Protection ratio (dB)

0

50

100

150

200

17

10

-4

-19

-38

In the computer analysis during the Conference, the worst case was assumed for category b., i.e., a spurious component coinciding with the aeronautical frequency under consideration.

7.6.3.4 During the Conference, no analysis was made for category a. due to lack of data.

7.6.4 Type A2 interference

The protection ratio values are given in Table 2.9.

TABLE 2.9

Frequency difference (kHz) between wanted signal and broadcasting signal

Protection ratio (dB)

150

200

250

300

-41

-50

-59

-68

A frequency difference less than 150 kHz cannot occur. For frequency differences greater than 300 kHz, this type of interference need not be considered.

7.6.5 Type B1 interference

Third-order intermodulation products of the form:

ƒintermod = 2ƒ1 –ƒ2(two-signal case) or

ƒintermod= ƒ1 + ƒ23 (three-signal case)

with ƒ12> ƒ3,

generated in the airborne ILS or VOR receiver will cause an unacceptable degradation of receiver performance, if ƒintermod coincides with or is close to the frequency of the wanted signal and the inequalities given below are fulfilled subject to the conditions in section 7.6.5.4.

Intermodulation of the second order is irrelevant and intermodulation of a higher order than three has not been considered.

N 1, N 2 and N 3 in the inequalities below have the following meaning:

N 1... level in dBm of the broadcasting signal of frequency ƒ1 in MHz at the input of the aeronautical radionavigation receiver

N2... level in dBm of the broadcasting signal of frequency ƒ 2 in MHz at the input of the aeronautical radionavigation receiver

N3... level in dBm of the broadcasting signal of frequency ƒ3 in MHz at the input of the aeronautical radionavigation receiver

max (0.4; 108.1 - ƒ) in the inequalities below has the following meaning: either 0.4 or 108.1 -ƒ whichever is greater.

Bijlage 10000050351.png

7.6.5.3 Frequency offset conditions

Before applying the formulas given in sections 7.6.5.1 or 7.6.5.2, a correction is applied to each broadcasting signal level which is a function of the frequency difference between the wanted signal and the intermodulation product, this correction is given in Table 2.10.

N1,2,3 (corrected) = N1,2,3 - correction term.

TABLE 2.10

Frequency difference between wanted signal and intermodulation product (kHz)

Correction term (dB)

0

0

±50

2

±100

8

±150

16

±200

26

For frequency differences beyond + 200 kHz, type B1 interference need not be considered.

7.6.5.4 Trigger and cut-off values

The trigger is the minimum power level at the input to the airborne ILS or VOR receiver considered necessary for a broadcasting signal to initiate the generation of intermodulation products which are potentially of sufficient power to exceed the receiver interference threshold. The trigger value for each contributing broadcasting signal of frequency ƒ at the ILS or VOR receiver input was derived from the following formula:

Bijlage 10000050352.png

The cut-off value is the minimum power level at the input to the airborne ILS or VOR receiver considered necessary for a broadcasting signal to contribute to the non-linear process which results in the formation of an intermodulation product potentially of sufficient power to exceed the receiver interference threshold.

For the compatibility analysis, a cut-off value of 12dB below the trigger value was chosen.

An intermodulation analysis was therefore carried out only if at least one signal was equal to or above the trigger value provided that the other signal or signals were equal to or above the cut-off value.

TABLE 2.11

Frequency of broadcasting signal (MHz)

Level (dBm)

107.9

106

102

< 100

-20

-5

5

10

7.6.6 Type B2 interference

Table 2.11 contains maximum permitted levels of broadcasting signals at the input to the airborne ILS or VOR receiver.

For intermediate values, the maximum permitted level was determined by linear interpolation.

ANNEX 3. Basic characteristics of sound broadcasting stations to be submitted for modifications to the Plan in application of Article 4 of the Agreement

1. Assigned frequency (MHz)

2. Country symbol

3. Name of transmitting station

4. Symbol of the geographical area in which the station is located (see Table No. 1 of the Preface to the International Frequency List)

5. Geographical coordinates, in degrees and minutes, of the transmitting antenna site

6. Altitude of site of transmitting antenna above sea level (m)

7. Height of the antenna above ground level (m)

8. Polarization (H, V or M)

9. System (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5)22

10. Total effective radiated power (dBW)

11. Maximum effective radiated power of the horizontally polarized component (dBW)

12. Maximum effective radiated power of the vertically polarized component (dBW)

13. Directivity of antenna (ND or D)

14. Effective radiated power of the horizontal component and the vertical component in different azimuths (dBW)

15. Maximum effective antenna height (m)

16. Effective antenna height at different azimuths

17. Sectors or directions of restricted e.r.p. (in degrees)

17.1 Sector No. 1

17.2 Sector No. 2

17.3 Sector No. 3

17.4 Sector No. 4

18. Attenuation in the sector concerned (dB)

18.1 Attenuation in sector No. 1

18.2 Attenuation in sector No. 2

18.3 Attenuation in sector No. 3

18.4 Attenuation in sector No. 4

19. Agreements obtained with ... (administration(s))

20. Remarks

Note - When the proposed modification involves the addition of a new frequency assignment at an existing station, the frequency assignments) at the existing station shall be included as supplementary information.

ANNEX 4. Limits for determining when coordination with another administration is required as a result of a proposed modification to the Plan

CHAPTER 1

Limits relating to sound broadcasting

In applying section 4.2.2 of Article 4 the following tables of distances between the broadcasting station and the nearest point on the boundary of any other administration shall be used to identify administrations whose sound broadcasting services may be considered as affected (Tables 4.1 tot 4.4).

The coordination distances of Tables 4.1 to 4.4 apply to cases where the propagation path is over land (index L), over cold sea (SC), over warm sea (SW), or in an area of super-refractivity and ducting (SS), respectively. To simplify coordination, the distances that would be adequate for the various FM sound broadcasting systems were unified by starting a single value of 54 dB (µV/m) for the nuisance field and by taking mean values for the protection ratio (39 dB for tropospheric, 47 dB for steady interference). The larger of the two distance values resulting from tropospheric and steady interference was adopted and rounded to the nearest multiple of 10 km or 5 km for coordination distances above or below 100 km, respectively.

Linear interpolation shall be used for effective radiated powers, in dBW, differing from those given in the tables and also for effective antenna heights, other than those in Tables 4.1 to 4.3. Antenna heights of 10 m or 1800 m, respectively, shall be used when the actual height is below the former or above the latter value.

For mixed paths the coordination distance.DM, shall be the sum of the pertinent fractions of the coordination distances, Di applicable to every type of propagation path involved.

Bijlage 10000050353.png

where

dT is the total path length from the transmitter to the nearest point on the border of the country concerned;and

di is the total length of those parts of the path which are over land, over cold sea, over warm sea or in areas of super-refractivity as the case may be.

TABLE 4.1

Coordination distances, D1, in km. for propagation paths over land

 

Effective antenna height (m)

Effective radiated power

10

37.5

75

150

300

600

1200

1800

dBW

W

Coordination distances (km)

55

300k

520

520

530

540

560

600

630

67(1

50

100k

460

460

470

490

510

540

580

610

45

30k

410

410

420

430

450

480

520

560

40

10k

350

350

370

380

400

430

470

500

35

3k

300

300

310

330

340

380

420

450

30

1k

250

250

260

270

290

320

360

400

25

300

140

190

210

220

240

280

320

350

20

100

70

140

160

180

190

230

270

300

15

30

45

100

130

140

150

190

230

260

10

10

35

65

90

100

120

150

190

220

5

3

30

45

65

75

95

120

160

180

0

1

20

35

50

60

80

100

140

150

TABLE 4.2

Coordination distances. DSC, in km. for propagation paths over cold sea

 

Effective antenna height (m)

Effective radiated power

10

37.5

75

150

300

600

1200

1800

dBW

W

Coordination distances (km)

55

300k

790

790

800

820

850

880

910

950

50

100k

680

680

700

720

740

770

810

850

45

30k

590

590

610

630

650

670

730

750

40

10k

510

510

530

540

560

590

640

670

35

3k

440

440

460

470

490

530

570

600

30

1k

380

380

390

400

430

460

500

530

25

300

320

320

330

350

370

400

440

470

20

100

260

260

280

290

310

350

380

420

15

30

150

210

220

240

260

300

340

360

10

10

75

150

170

180

200

250

290

300

5

3

40

100

120

130

150

200

240

260

0

1

25

65

80

95

120

150

200

210

TABLE 4.3

Coordination distances, Dsw, in km. for propagation paths over warm sea

 

Effective antenna height (m)

Effective radiated power

10

37.5

75

150

300

600

1200

1800

dBW

W

Coordination distances (km)

55

300k

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

50

100k

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

45

30k

1100

1100

1130

1150

1170

1200

1230

1280

40

10k

800

800

840

870

900

940

970

1010

35

3k

610

610

650

680

700

740

780

800

30

1k

490

490

520

550

560

600

650

670

25

300

390

390

410

440

460

490

540

560

20

100

310

310

330

360

370

400

440

480

15

30

210

240

260

290

300

330

360

400

10

10

85

170

200

220

240

270

300

340

5

3

40

110

140

160

190

220

250

290

0

1

25

70

90

120

140

170

200

240

TABLE 4.4

Coordination distances, Dss, in km. for propagation paths in areas of superrefractivity

Effective radiated power

Coordination distances

dBW

W

Dss(km)1)

55

300k

1480

50

100k

1400

-45

30k

1320

40

10k

1230

35

3k

1150

30

1k

1070

25

300

980

20

100

900

15

30

820

10

10

730

5

3

650

0

1

560

1) Independent of effective antenna height.

CHAPTER 2

Limits relating to television

In applying section 4.2.2 of Article 4, the following tables of distances between the sound broadcasting station and the nearest point on the boundary of any other administration shall be used to identify administrations whose TV broadcasting services operating in accordance with the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961) may be considered as affected (Tables 4.5 to 4.8).

The coordination distances in Tables 4.5 to 4.7 shall be used to ensure compatibility with television stations in countries using the band 87.5-100 MHz for television in accordance with the Regional Agreement (Stockholm, 1961). The tables apply to propagation paths which are fully overland or oversea (cold or warm). They are based on a nuisance field of 52 dB (μV/m) obtained by interpolation between values given for the bands 41-68 MHz and 174-223 MHz in the "Technical Data used by the European VHF/UHF Broadcasting Conference (Stockholm, 1961)" (part 4, section 4.2) and a protection ratio of 50 dB for tropospheric interference in accordance with Figure 2.9, in Chapter 5 of Annex 2. The coordination distances so obtained were rounded to the nearest multiple of 10 km or 5 km, respectively, for coordination distances above or below 100 km.

Coordination distances for steady interference are included in Tables 4.5 to 4.7 when they exceed those for tropospheric interference. They were derived from Figures 2.1 and 2.2 of Annex 2, adopting protection ratio values 10dB above those for tropospheric interference.

The corrections given in Table 4.8 take account of the fact that the protection ratio is a function of the frequency difference between the interfering signal and the wanted television signal. To account for this effect, the effective radiated power, in dBW, shall be reduced by this correction before the coordination distance is determined. A value of 0dB shall be used when the corrected effective radiated power, in dBW, is negative.

Linear interpolation shall be used for effective radiated powers, in dBW, differing from those given in the tables and also for effective antenna heights (m) other than those in Tables 4.1 to 4.3. Antenna heights of 10 m or 1800 m, respectively, shall be used when the actual height is below the former or above the latter value.

For mixed paths the coordination distance, DM, shall be the sum of the pertinent fractions of the coordination distances, Di, applicable to every type of propagation path involved.

Bijlage 10000050354.png

where

dT is the total path length from the transmitter to the nearest point on the border of the country concerned;and

di is the total length of those parts of the path which are over land, over cold sea, over warm sea as the case may be.

TABLE 4.5

Coordination distances, D1,,in km. for propagation paths overland

 

Effective antenna height (m)

Effective radiated power

10

37,5

75

150

300

600

1200

1800

dBW

w

Coordination distances (km)

55

300 k

660

660

670

690

710

740

780

810

50

100k

600

600

620

630

650

680

720

760

45

30k

550

550

560

580

600

630

670

700

40

10k

500

500

510

520

540

570

610

650

35

3k

440

440

450

470

490

520

560

590

30

1k

390

390

400

410

430

460

500

530

25

300

330

330

340

360

370

410

450

480

30

100

280

280

290

300

320

360

390

430

15

30

200

230

240

250

270

300

340

380

10

10

110

170

190

200

220

260

300

330

5

3

60

130

150

160

180

210

260

280

0

1

45

90

110

120

140

170

220

240

TABLE 4.6

Coordination distances. Dsc. in km, for propagation paths over cold sea

 

Effective antenna height (m)

Effective radiated power

10

37.5

75

150

300

600

1200

1800

dBW

W

Coordination distances (km)

55

300k

1160

1160

1190

1220

1240

1250

1270

1300

50

100k

990

990

1000

1040

1050

1070

1130

1160

45

30k

860

860

870

890

910

940

980

1010

40.

10k

750

750

760

780

800

840

870

910

35

3k

640

640

660

680

700

730

780

810

30

1k

560

560

580

590

610

640

700

720

25

300

480

480

500

510

530

570

610

640

20

100

410

410

430

440

470

500

540

570

15

30

350

350

370

380

400

440

480

510

10

10

300

300

310

320

350

380

420

450

5

3

230

240

260

270

290

330

360

390

0

1

110

190

200

220

230

280

320

340

TABLE 4.7

Coordination distances, Dsw, in km. for propagation paths over warm sea

 

Effective antenna height (m)

Effective radiated power

10

37.5

75

150

300

600

1200

1800

dBW

W

Coordination distances (km)

55

300k

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

50

100k

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

45

30k

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

40

10k

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

35

3k

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

1300

30

1k

950

950

990

1020

1050

1080

1110

1150

25

300

720

720

750

780

810

850

890

920

20

100

560

560

600

620

640

680

730

750

15

30

440

440

480

500

520

560

600

620

10

10

350

350

380

400

420

460

500

510

5

3

280

280

300

330

350

370

400

450

0

1

140

210

230

260

280

300

340

370

TABLE 4.8

Correction, in dB. to take account of the variation in protection ratio as a function of frequency

Frequency

Corr.

Frequency

Corr.

Frequencies

Corr.

Frequencies

Corr.

 

Frequencies

Corr.

MHz

dB

MHz

dB

MHz

dB

MHz

dB

 

MHz

dl!

92 0

25

9} 2

2

 

95.2

8

88.4

96.4

]5

90 4

98 4

14

92.1

22

93.3

0

 

95.3

9

88.5.

96.5

14

90.5.

98.5

16

92.2

19

Jo

   

95.4

10

88.6.

96.6

12

90.6,

98.6

18

92.3

16

94.3

0

   

11

88.7,

96.7

10

90.7,

98.7

21

92.4

13

94.4

1

87.6,

95.6

12

88.8.

96.8

9

90.8,

98.8

23

92.5

10

94.5

T

87.7,

95.7

13

88.9,

96.9

7

90.9,

98.9

25

92.6

8

94.6

3

87.8.

95.8

14

89.0,

97.0

5

to

to

 

92.7

7

94.7

4

87.9.

95.9

15

to

to

 

91.6.

99.6

25

92.8

6

94.8

5

88.0.

96.0

15

90.0,

98.0

5

91.7,

99.7

121)

92.9

5

94.9

6

88.1,

96.1

16

90.1.

98.1

7

91.8,

99.8

121)

93.0

4

95.0

6

88.2.

96.2

17

90.2,

98.2

10

91.9,

99.9

25

93.1

3

95.1

7

88.3.

96.3

17

90.3,

98.3

12

     

1) These correction values are valid assuming a vision carrier-to-sound carrier power ratio of 10dB.

CHAPTER 3

Limits relating to aeronautical radionavigation services

In applying section 4.2.2 of Article 4, the aeronautical radionavigation services of another administration are considered as being affected if the distance from the sound broadcasting station to the nearest point on the boundary of that administration is less than 500 km.

CHAPTER 4

Limits relating to the land mobile service

In applying section 4.2.2 of Article 4, the land mobile service of administrations listed in Nos. 487 and 589 of the Radio Regulations and of Contracting Members of Region 3 (in the band 87.5-100 MHz) are considered as being affected if the field strength from the sound broadcasting station exceeds the following limits at the nearest point on the boundary of another administration:

- for sound broadcasting stations using only horizontal polarization: 18dB(μV/m);

- for sound broadcasting stations using vertical or mixed polarization: 0dB(μV/m);

Within the band 87.5-88 MHz and for the land mobile service of countries mentioned in No. 581 of the Radio Regulations the following alternative limits shall apply:

- for sound broadcasting stations using only horizontal polarization: 14dB(μV/m);

- for sound broadcasting stations using only vertical or mixed polarization: 6dB (μV/m).

The field strength will be calculated for a receiving antenna height of 10 m above ground, based on the curves in Figures 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 (50% of locations, 10% of time). For mixed paths the calculation method as described in section 2.1.3.5 of Annex 2 will be applied.

In the case of mixed polarization, only the vertical component of the total e.r.p. of the sound broadcasting station should be taken into account. It is assumed that the land mobile service is vertically polarized and that in the case of mixed polarization of the sound broadcasting station at least onetenth of the total e.r.p. of the sound broadcasting station is radiated in the vertical component.

CHAPTER 5

Limits relating to the fixed service

In applying section 4.2.2 of Article 4, the fixed service of the administrations listed in No. 588 of the Radio Regulations and of the Contracting Members of Region 3 in the band 87.5-100 MHz shall be considered as affected if the field strength from the sound broadcasting station at the nearest point on the boundary of another administration exceeds the following limit.

For sound broadcasting stations: 0B (μV/m).

The field strength will be calculated for a receiving antenna height of 10 m above ground, using the curves in Figures 4.1,4.2 and 4.3 (50% of locations, 10% of time). For mixed paths, the calculation method described in section 2.1.3.5 of Annex 2 will be applied.

Bijlage 10000050355.png

FIGURE 4.1

Field strenght dB (µV/m)) for 1 kW e.r.p.

Propagation over land

10 % of the time; 50% of the locations; h2 = 10m

Free space

PROPAGATION CURVES FOR THE BROADCASTING SERVICE

Bijlage 10000050370.png

FIGURE 4.2

Field strenght dB (µV/m)) for 1 kW e.r.p.

Propagation over cold sea

10 % of the time; 50% of the locations; h2 = 10m

Free space

PROPAGATION CURVES FOR THE BROADCASTING SERVICE

Bijlage 10000050369.png

FIGURE 4.3

Field strenght dB (µV/m)) for 1 kW e.r.p.

Propagation over warm sea

10 % of the time; 50% of the locations; h2 = 10m

Free space

PROPAGATION CURVES FOR THE BROADCASTING SERVICE

CHAPTER 6

Limits relating to the aeronautical mobile (OR) service

In applying section 4.2.2 of Article 4, the aeronautical mobile (OR) service of the administrations listed in Nos. 587 and 589 of the Radio Regulations is considered as being affected if the field strength from the sound broadcasting station at the boundary of one of these administrations exceeds 20 dB (uV/m) at an altitude of 10000 metres. This field strength is based on free space propagation.

The coordination distance shall be not more than the line-of-sight distance corresponding to an effective Earth radius equal to 4/3 of the actual radius.

ANNEX 5. Additional technical data which may be used for coordination between administrations

CHAPTER 1

Aeronautical radionavigation service

1.1 Separation distance for compatibility

Table 5.1 gives the minimum separation distances between a test point of the radionavigation station to be protected and a sound broadcasting station at which the protection criteria for Al, A2, B1 and B2 types of interference are all met. The more critical requirements are those for Al and Bl; the higher of the two separation distances is shown in each case.

The Al distances assume the protection ratio for frequency coincidence, and that the level of the broadcasting transmitter spurious emissions conform to the level given in section 7.6.3.2 of Annex 2. The B1 distances ensure that the signal level is below the cut-off value as given in section 7.6.5.4 of Annex 2 with free-space propagation, but are subject to an upper limit of 500 km due to the practical considerations of the line-of-sight limit, in conformity with section 7.3 of Annex 2.

Where two or more assignments are used at a common site, the highest e.r.p. must be taken.

Linear interpolation shall be used for e.r.p. (in dBW) and frequency values not appearing in the table.

Preliminary analyses based on these distances assume, in the case of A1 and B1 types of interference, that there is frequency coincidence between a spurious emission or intermodulation product and the frequency of the radionavigation station. When the frequencies of the radionavigation station and of all broadcasting transmitters that may be involved are known, detailed calculations can be made for all types of interference using the data for protection of the aeronautical radionavigation service given in Chapter 7 of Annex 2. However, in the case of A1 type interference it will be necessary to check that the transmitter does not generate significant spurious components apart from third-order intermodulation products.

Any case-by-case study may take into account other relevant factors such as details of the propagation path between the broadcasting station and the aeronautical test point, and the radiation pattern of the broadcasting antenna in both the vertical and horizontal planes.

1.2 Future improvements in aeronautical receivers

It is expected that future receivers will permit a significant relaxation of compatibility criteria and that the following revised criteria will be applied from 1 January 1998.

1.2.1 B1 type interference

Present indications from the ICAO are that the two-signal case criterion for B1 type interference given in section 7.6.5.1 of Annex 2 will be replaced by:

Bijlage 10000050360.png

for both ILS and VOR receivers.

TABLE 5.1

Minimum separation distance in km between a test point of a radionavigation station and a sound broadcasting station required to ensure compatibility

 

Broadcasting station frequency (MHz)

Effective radiated power of broadcasting station

< 100

102

104

106

107

107.7 to 107.9

dBW

W

Separation distance (km)

55

300k

40

53

99

245

500

500

50

l00k

22

31

57

141

302

500

45

30k

20

20

31

77

166

494

40

10k

20

20

20

45

96

285

35

3k

20

20

20

24

52

156

30

1k

20

20

20

20

30

90

25

300

20

20

20

20

20

49

20

100

20

20

20

20

20

29

<I5

30

20

20

20

20

20

20

Subject to further study of type B1 interference by the CCIR, it is expected that a comparable relaxation in the criterion for the three-signal case will be possible and that the trigger and cut-off values given in section 7.6.5.2 of Annex 2 will be raised by 16 dB.

1.2.2 B2 type interference

The maximum permitted broadcasting signal levels at the input to the ILS or VOR receiver for B2 type interference shall be those given in the Table 5.2 in place of the values given in Table 2.11 of Annex 2.

TABLE 5.2

Frequency of broadcasting signal

(MHz)

Level

(dBm)

107.9

106

102

≤ 100

-10

5

15

15

For frequencies in between the values given above, the maximum permitted level will be determined by linear interpolation.

1.2.3 Further studies

Studies on possible improvements are requested in Recommendation No. 4.

CHAPTER 2

Fixed and mobile services, except the aeronautical mobile (OR) service

2.1 Sharing criteria for the protection of the land mobile service in the bands 87.5-100 MHz and 104-108 MHz

Field strength to be protected:

15 dB (μV/m) at a height of 3 m

Protection ratio:

See Table 5.3

TABLE 5.3

Frequency separation between carriers of the two services (kHz)

Protection ratio for the AM land mobile service (dB)

Protection ratio for the FM land mobile service (dB)

0

25

50

75

100

18

16

4.5

-7.5

-17.5

8

6

-5.5

-17.5

-27.5

Propagation data to be used for sharing calculations:

Propagation curves for calculating interference to the land mobile service operating in the VHF bands shall be derived from the broadcasting propagation curves (Figures 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 of Annex 4). Since these propagation curves are for a receiving antenna height of 10 m above the local terrain and the receiving antenna height is reduced from 10 m to 3 m, a 9dB reduction in the field strength shall be applied.

Note - The method and criteria concerning antenna height gain factors to be used by administrations for coordination between the broadcasting and land mobile and fixed services are to be agreed by the administrations concerned and should be based where possible on the latest relevant CCIR Recommendations.

Percentage of location to be protected:

50%

Percentage of time to be protected:

90%

Polarization discrimination for horizontally polarized broadcasting emission: 18 dB base station

2.2 Sharing criteria between FM sound broadcasting and the fixed service in the band 87.5-100 MHz and 104-108 MHz

The basic criteria can be those established for a base station in the land mobile service (see section 2.1 in this Annex). The field strength to be protected the height gain factors other than those specified and the effect of the directivity of the antenna in the fixed service will be considered by the administration concerned.

CHAPTER 3

Aeronautical mobile (OR) service

When the frequencies of the broadcasting and the aeronautical mobile stations are both known, the field strengths given in Table 5.4 below may be used as sharing criteria.

TABLE 5.4

Frequency separation in kHz between broadcasting station and aeronautical mobile (OR) station

Field strength in dB(μV/m) at an altitude of 10 000 metres

0

50

100

150

20

34

58

90

CHAPTER 4

Supplementary propagation data correction factors

This chapter gives supplementary correction factors which can be applied to the basic propagation curves to improve the accuracy of predictions in particular cases of coordination involving bilateral or multilateral negotiations between administrations.

4.1 Correction for various location percentages

The propagation curves in Annexes 2 and 5 are representative of 50% of locations. Figure 5.1 shows the correction (in dB) to be applied for other percentages of receiving locations.

4.2 Receiver terrain correction (terrain clearance angle)

The location correction in section 4.1 above can be applied only on a statistical basis. If more precision is required for predicting the field strength in a specific small receiving area a correction may be based on a "terrain clearance angle". This angle Θ is measured at a point chosen to be representative of the reception area; it is defined as the angle between the horizontal plane passing through the receiving antenna and the line from this antenna which clears all obstacles within 16 km in the direction of the transmitter. The example in Figure 5.2 indicates the sign convention, which is negative if the line to the obstacles is above the horizontal. Figure 5.3 indicates the correction, as a function of the angle 9, to be applied to the prediction for 50% of locations. If this correction is applied, the location correction in section 4.1 (Figure 5.1) may no longer be applicable.

Corrections for terrain clearance angles outside the range - 5° to 0.5°, are not given in Figure 5.3, because of the lack of experimental data. However, they may be obtained tentatively by linear extrapolation of the curve in Figure 5.3 with limiting values of 30 dB at 1.5° and -15°, subject to the condition that the free-space field strength is not exceeded.

Bijlage 10000050361.png

FIGURE 5.1

Ratio (dB) of the field strenght for a given percentage of the receiving locations to the field for 50% of the receiving locations

Frequency: 30 to 250 MHz

Bijlage 10000050362.png

FIGURE 5.2

Terrain clearance angle
Bijlage 10000050363.png

FIGURE 5.3

Receiving terrain clearance angle correction (VHF)

  • ^ [1]

    This Conference was held in two Sessions:

    • - the First Session, responsible for preparing a report to the Second Session, was held in Geneva from 23 August to 17 September 1982;

    • - the Second Session, responsible for drawing up a Plan and associated provisions was held in Geneva from 29 October to 7 December 1984.

  • ^ [2]

    [Red: Het Plan is niet afgedrukt; het is gedeponeerd bij de Centrale Directie der PTT te Groningen.]

  • ^ [3]

    [Red: De Aanbevelingen van de Regionale Administratieve Radioconferentie zijn niet afgedrukt.]

  • ^ [4]

    Note: For an explanation of the symbols, see the text concerning the remarks in the Plan (Annex 1).

  • ^ [5]

    See paragraph 5.2.2.9.

  • ^ [6]

    See paragraph 5.2.2.9.

  • ^ [7]

    For relations with non-Contracting Members with respect to the band 100108 MHz, see Article 3 of this Agreement (see also Resolution No. 4 and Recommendation No. 1).

  • ^ [8]

    See paragraph 3.1 of Annex 2 to the Agreement.

  • ^ [9]

    [Red: See the following page.]

  • ^ [10]

    Note by the General Secretariat: This new symbol for the Remarks column has been included at the request of the IFRB.

  • ^ [11]

    See Chapter 4.

  • ^ [12]

    See CCIR Recommendation 499-2.

  • ^ [13]

    See CCIR Recommendation 450-1.

  • ^ [14]

    M and S are equal to one half of the sum and one half of the difference of the "left-hand" and "right-hand" signals, respectively; for further information see CCIR Recommendation 450-1.

  • ^ [15]

    For further information see CCIR Report 796-1.

  • ^ [16]

    For further information see CCIR Recommendation 412-3.

  • ^ [17]

    For further information see CCIR Report 464-3.

  • ^ [18]

    For further details see CCIR Report 945.

  • ^ [19]

    For further information see CCIR Report 306-4.

  • ^ [20]

    For further information see CCIR Report 306-4.

  • ^ [21]

    For further information see CCIR Recommendation 499-2.

  • ^ [22]

    See section 3.1 of Annex 2 to the Agreement.