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Overeenkomst tot oprichting van de Wereldhandelsorganisatie, Marrakesh, 15-04-1994

Geldend van 01-01-1995 t/m heden

Overeenkomst tot oprichting van de Wereldhandelsorganisatie

Authentiek : EN

Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization

The Parties to this Agreement,

Recognizing that their relations in the field of trade and economic endeavour should be conducted with a view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, and expanding the production of and trade in goods and services, while allowing for the optimal use of the world's resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development, seeking both to protect and preserve the environment and to enhance the means for doing so in a manner consistent with their respective needs and concerns at different levels of economic development,

Recognizing further that there is need for positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries, and especially the least developed among them, secure a share in the growth in international trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development,

Being desirous of contributing to these objectives by entering into reciprocal and mutually advantageous arrangements directed to the substantial reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade and to the elimination of discriminatory treatment in international trade relations,

Resolved, therefore, to develop an integrated, more viable and durable multilateral trading system encompassing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the results of past trade liberalization efforts, and all of the results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations,

Determined to preserve the basic principles and to further the objectives underlying this multilateral trading system,

Agree as follows:

Article I. Establishment of the Organization

The World Trade Organization (hereinafter referred to as "the WTO") is hereby established.

Article II. Scope of the WTO

  • 1 The WTO shall provide the common institutional framework for the conduct of trade relations among its Members in matters related to the agreements and associated legal instruments included in the Annexes to this Agreement.

  • 2 The agreements and associated legal instruments included in Annexes 1, 2 and 3 (hereinafter referred to as "Multilateral Trade Agreements") are integral parts of this Agreement, binding on all Members.

  • 3 The agreements and associated legal instruments included in Annex 4 (hereinafter referred to as "Plurilateral Trade Agreements") are also part of this Agreement for those Members that have accepted them, and are binding on those Members. The Plurilateral Trade Agreements do not create either obligations or rights for Members that have not accepted them.

  • 4 The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 as specified in Annex 1A (hereinafter referred to as "GATT 1994") is legally distinct from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated 30 October 1947, annexed to the Final Act Adopted at the Conclusion of the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment, as subsequently rectified, amended or modified (hereinafter referred to as "GATT 1947").

Article III. Functions of the WTO

  • 1 The WTO shall facilitate the implementation, administration and operation, and further the objectives, of this Agreement and of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and shall also provide the framework for the implementation, administration and operation of the Plurilateral Trade Agreements.

  • 2 The WTO shall provide the forum for negotiations among its Members concerning their multilateral trade relations in matters dealt with under the agreements in the Annexes to this Agreement. The WTO may also provide a forum for further negotiations among its Members concerning their multilateral trade relations, and a framework for the implementation of the results of such negotiations, as may be decided by the Ministerial Conference.

  • 3 The WTO shall administer the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (hereinafter referred to as the "Dispute Settlement Understanding" or "DSU") in Annex 2 to this Agreement.

  • 4 The WTO shall administer the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (hereinafter referred to as the "TPRM") provided for in Annex 3 to this Agreement.

  • 5 With a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making, the WTO shall cooperate, as appropriate, with the International Monetary Fund and with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its affiliated agencies.

Article IV. Structure of the WTO

  • 1 There shall be a Ministerial Conference composed of representatives of all the Members, which shall meet at least once every two years. The Ministerial Conference shall carry out the functions of the WTO and take actions necessary to this effect. The Ministerial Conference shall have the authority to take decisions on all matters under any of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, if so requested by a Member, in accordance with the specific requirements for decision-making in this Agreement and in the relevant Multilateral Trade Agreement.

  • 2 There shall be a General Council composed of representatives of all the Members, which shall meet as appropriate. In the intervals between meetings of the Ministerial Conference, its functions shall be conducted by the General Council. The General Council shall also carry out the functions assigned to it by this Agreement. The General Council shall establish its rules of procedure and approve the rules of procedure for the Committees provided for in paragraph 7.

  • 3 The General Council shall convene as appropriate to discharge the responsibilities of the Dispute Settlement Body provided for in the Dispute Settlement Understanding. The Dispute Settlement Body may have its own chairman and shall establish such rules of procedure as it deems necessary for the fulfilment of those responsibilities.

  • 4 The General Council shall convene as appropriate to discharge the responsibilities of the Trade Policy Review Body provided for in the TPRM. The Trade Policy Review Body may have its own chairman and shall establish such rules of procedure as it deems necessary for the fulfilment of those responsibilities.

  • 5 There shall be a Council for Trade in Goods, a Council for Trade in Services and a Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (hereinafter referred to as the "Council for TRIPS"), which shall operate under the general guidance of the General Council. The Council for Trade in Goods shall oversee the functioning of the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A. The Council for Trade in Services shall oversee the functioning of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (hereinafter referred to as "GATS"). The Council for TRIPS shall oversee the functioning of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (hereinafter referred to as the "Agreement on TRIPS"). These Councils shall carry out the functions assigned to them by their respective agreements and by the General Council. They shall establish their respective rules of procedure subject to the approval of the General Council. Membership in these Councils shall be open to representatives of all Members. These Councils shall meet as necessary to carry out their functions.

  • 6 The Council for Trade in Goods, the Council for Trade in Services and the Council for TRIPS shall establish subsidiary bodies as required. These subsidiary bodies shall establish their respective rules of procedure subject to the approval of their respective Councils.

  • 7 The Ministerial Conference shall establish a Committee on Trade and Development, a Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions and a Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration, which shall carry out the functions assigned to them by this Agreement and by the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and any additional functions assigned to them by the General Council, and may establish such additional Committees with such functions as it may deem appropriate. As part of its functions, the Committee on Trade and Development shall periodically review the special provisions in the Multilateral Trade Agreements in favour of the least-developed country Members and report to the General Council for appropriate action. Membership in these Committees shall be open to representatives of all Members.

  • 8 The bodies provided for under the Plurilateral Trade Agreements shall carry out the functions assigned to them under those Agreements and shall operate within the institutional framework of the WTO. These bodies shall keep the General Council informed of their activities on a regular basis.

Article V. Relations with Other Organizations

  • 1 The General Council shall make appropriate arrangements for effective cooperation with other intergovernmental organizations that have responsibilities related to those of the WTO.

  • 2 The General Council may make appropriate arrangements for consultation and cooperation with non-governmental organizations concerned with matters related to those of the WTO.

Article VI. The Secretariat

  • 1 There shall be a Secretariat of the WTO (hereinafter referred to as "the Secretariat") headed by a Director-General.

  • 2 The Ministerial Conference shall appoint the Director-General and adopt regulations setting out the powers, duties, conditions of service and term of office of the Director-General.

  • 3 The Director-General shall appoint the members of the staff of the Secretariat and determine their duties and conditions of service in accordance with regulations adopted by the Ministerial Conference.

  • 4 The responsibilities of the Director-General and of the staff of the Secretariat shall be exclusively international in character. In the discharge of their duties, the Director-General and the staff of the Secretariat shall not seek or accept instructions from any government or any other authority external to the WTO. They shall refrain from any action which might adversely reflect on their position as international officials. The Members of the WTO shall respect the international character of the responsibilities of the Director-General and of the staff of the Secretariat and shall not seek to influence them in the discharge of their duties.

Article VII. Budget and Contributions

  • 1 The Director-General shall present to the Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration the annual budget estimate and financial statement of the WTO. The Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration shall review the annual budget estimate and the financial statement presented by the Director-General and make recommendations thereon to the General Council. The annual budget estimate shall be subject to approval by the General Council.

  • 2 The Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration shall propose to the General Council financial regulations which shall include provisions setting out:

    • a) the scale of contributions apportioning the expenses of the WTO among its Members; and

    • b) the measures to be taken in respect of Members in arrears.

    The financial regulations shall be based, as far as practicable, on the regulations and practices of GATT 1947.

  • 3 The General Council shall adopt the financial regulations and the annual budget estimate by a two-thirds majority comprising more than half of the Members of the WTO.

  • 4 Each Member shall promptly contribute to the WTO its share in the expenses of the WTO in accordance with the financial regulations adopted by the General Council.

Article VIII. Status of the WTO

  • 1 The WTO shall have legal personality, and shall be accorded by each of its Members such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions.

  • 2 The WTO shall be accorded by each of its Members such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise of its functions.

  • 3 The officials of the WTO and the representatives of the Members shall similarly be accorded by each of its Members such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the independent exercise of their functions in connection with the WTO.

  • 5 The WTO may conclude a headquarters agreement.

Article IX. Decision-Making

  • 1 The WTO shall continue the practice of decision-making by consensus followed under GATT 1947.1 Except as otherwise provided, where a decision cannot be arrived at by consensus, the matter at issue shall be decided by voting. At meetings of the Ministerial Conference and the General Council, each Member of the WTO shall have one vote. Where the European Communities exercise their right to vote, they shall have a number of votes equal to the number of their member States2 which are Members of the WTO. Decisions of the Ministerial Conference and the General Council shall be taken by a majority of the votes cast, unless otherwise provided in this Agreement or in the relevant Multilateral Trade Agreement.3

  • 2 The Ministerial Conference and the General Council shall have the exclusive authority to adopt interpretations of this Agreement and of the Multilateral Trade Agreements. In the case of an interpretation of a Multilateral Trade Agreement in Annex 1, they shall exercise their authority on the basis of a recommendation by the Council overseeing the functioning of that Agreement. The decision to adopt an interpretation shall be taken by a three-fourths majority of the Members. This paragraph shall not be used in a manner that would undermine the amendment provisions in Article X.

  • 3 In exceptional circumstances, the Ministerial Conference may decide to waive an obligation imposed on a Member by this Agreement or any of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, provided that any such decision shall be taken by three fourths4of the Members unless otherwise provided for in this paragraph.

    • a) A request for a waiver concerning this Agreement shall be submitted to the Ministerial Conference for consideration pursuant to the practice of decision-making by consensus. The Ministerial Conference shall establish a time-period, which shall not exceed 90 days, to consider the request. If consensus is not reached during the time-period, any decision to grant a waiver shall be taken by three fourths5of the Members.

    • b) A request for a waiver concerning the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 1A or IB or 1C and their annexes shall be submitted initially to the Council for Trade in Goods, the Council for Trade in Services or the Council for TRIPS, respectively, for consideration during a time-period which shall not exceed 90 days. At the end of the timeperiod, the relevant Council shall submit a report to the Ministerial Conference.

  • 4 A decision by the Ministerial Conference granting a waiver shall state the exceptional circumstances justifying the decision, the terms and conditions governing the application of the waiver, and the date on which the waiver shall terminate. Any waiver granted for a period of more than one year shall be reviewed by the Ministerial Conference not later than one year after it is granted, and thereafter annually until the waiver terminates. In each review, the Ministerial Conference shall examine whether the exceptional circumstances justifying the waiver still exist and whether the terms and conditions attached to the waiver have been met. The Ministerial Conference, on the basis of the annual review, may extend, modify or terminate the waiver.

  • 5 Decisions under a Plurilateral Trade Agreement, including any decisions on interpretations and waivers, shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

Article X. Amendments

  • 1 Any Member of the WTO may initiate a proposal to amend the provisions of this Agreement or the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1 by submitting such proposal to the Ministerial Conference. The Councils listed in paragraph 5 of Article IV may also submit to the Ministerial Conference proposals to amend the provisions of the corresponding Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1 the functioning of which they oversee. Unless the Ministerial Conference decides on a longer period, for a period of 90 days after the proposal has been tabled formally at the Ministerial Conference any decision by the Ministerial Conference to submit the proposed amendment to the Members for acceptance shall be taken by consensus. Unless the provisions of paragraphs 2, 5 or 6 apply, that decision shall specify whether the provisions of paragraphs 3 or 4 shall apply. If consensus is reached, the Ministerial Conference shall forthwith submit the proposed amendment to the Members for acceptance. If consensus is not reached at a meeting of the Ministerial Conference within the established period, the Ministerial Conference shall decide by a two-thirds majority of the Members whether to submit the proposed amendment to the Members for acceptance. Except as provided in paragraphs 2, 5 and 6, the provisions of paragraph 3 shall apply to the proposed amendment, unless the Ministerial Conference decides by a three-fourths majority of the Members that the provisions of paragraph 4 shall apply

  • 2 Amendments to the provisions of this Article and to the provisions of the following Articles shall take effect only upon acceptance by all Members:

    Article IX of this Agreement

    Articles I and II of GATT 1994

    Article II: 1 of GATS

    Article 4 of the Agreement on TRIPS.

  • 3 Amendments to provisions of this Agreement, or of the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 1A and 1C, other than those listed in paragraphs 2 and 6, of a nature that would alter the rights and obligations of the Members, shall take effect for the Members that have accepted them upon acceptance by two thirds of the Members and thereafter for each other Member upon acceptance by it. The Ministerial Conference may decide by a three-fourths majority of the Members that any amendment made effective under this paragraph is of such a nature that any Member which has not accepted it within a period specified by the Ministerial Conference in each case shall be free to withdraw from the WTO or to remain a Member with the consent of the Ministerial Conference.

  • 4 Amendments to provisions of this Agreement or of the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 1A and 1C, other than those listed in paragraphs 2 and 6, of a nature that would not alter the rights and obligations of the Members, shall take effect for all Members upon acceptance by two thirds of the Members.

  • 5 Except as provided in paragraph 2 above, amendments to Parts I, II and III of GATS and the respective annexes shall take effect for the Members that have accepted them upon acceptance by two thirds of the Members and thereafter for each Member upon acceptance by it. The Ministerial Conference may decide by a three-fourths majority of the Members that any amendment made effective under the preceding provision is of such a nature that any Member which has not accepted it within a period specified by the Ministerial Conference in each case shall be free to withdraw from the WTO or to remain a Member with the consent of the Ministerial Conference. Amendments to Parts IV, V and VI of GATS and the respective annexes shall take effect for all Members upon acceptance by two thirds of the Members.

  • 6 Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Article, amendments to the Agreement on TRIPS meeting the requirements of paragraph 2 of Article 71 thereof may be adopted by the Ministerial Conference without further formal acceptance process.

  • 7 Any Member accepting an amendment to this Agreement or to a Multilateral Trade Agreement in Annex 1 shall deposit an instrument of acceptance with the Director-General of the WTO within the period of acceptance specified by the Ministerial Conference.

  • 8 Any Member of the WTO may initiate a proposal to amend the provisions of the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 2 and 3 by submitting such proposal to the Ministerial Conference. The decision to approve amendments to the Multilateral Trade Agreement in Annex 2 shall be made by consensus and these amendments shall take effect for all Members upon approval by the Ministerial Conference. Decisions to approve amendments to the Multilateral Trade Agreement in Annex 3 shall take effect for all Members upon approval by the Ministerial Conference.

  • 9 The Ministerial Conference, upon the request of the Members parties to a trade agreement, may decide exclusively by consensus to add that agreement to Annex 4. The Ministerial Conference, upon the request of the Members parties to a Plurilateral Trade Agreement, may decide to delete that Agreement from Annex 4.

  • 10 Amendments to a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

Article XI. Original Membership

  • 1 The contracting parties to GATT 1947 as of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, and the European Communities, which accept this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements and for which Schedules of Concessions and Commitments are annexed to GATT 1994 and for which Schedules of Specific Commitments are annexed to GATS shall become original Members of the WTO.

  • 2 The least-developed countries recognized as such by the United Nations will only be required to undertake commitments and concessions to the extent consistent with their individual development, financial and trade needs or their administrative and institutional capabilities.

Article XII. Accession

  • 1 Any State or separate customs territory possessing full autonomy in the conduct of its external commercial relations and of the other matters provided for in this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements may accede to this Agreement, on terms to be agreed between it and the WTO. Such accession shall apply to this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements annexed thereto.

  • 2 Decisions on accession shall be taken by the Ministerial Conference. The Ministerial Conference shall approve the agreement on the terms of accession by a two-thirds majority of the Members of the WTO.

  • 3 Accession to a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

Article XIII. Non-Application of Multilateral Trade Agreements between Particular Members

  • 1 This Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 1 and 2 shall not apply as between any Member and any other Member if either of the Members, at the time either becomes a Member, does not consent to such application.

  • 2 Paragraph 1 may be invoked between original Members of the WTO which were contracting parties to GATT 1947 only where Article XXXV of that Agreement had been invoked earlier and was effective as between those contracting parties at the time of entry into force for them of this Agreement.

  • 3 Paragraph 1 shall apply between a Member and another Member which has acceded under Article XII only if the Member not consenting to the application has so notified the Ministerial Conference before the approval of the agreement on the terms of accession by the Ministerial Conference.

  • 4 The Ministerial Conference may review the operation of this Article in particular cases at the request of any Member and make appropriate recommendations.

  • 5 Non-application of a Plurilateral Trade Agreement between parties to that Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

Article XIV. Acceptance, Entry into Force and Deposit

  • 1 This Agreement shall be open for acceptance, by signature or otherwise, by contracting parties to GATT 1947, and the European Communities, which are eligible to become original Members of the WTO in accordance with Article XI of this Agreement. Such acceptance shall apply to this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements annexed hereto. This Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements annexed hereto shall enter into force on the date determined by Ministers in accordance with paragraph 3 of the Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and shall remain open for acceptance for a period of two years following that date unless the Ministers decide otherwise. An acceptance following the entry into force of this Agreement shall enter into force on the 30th day following the date of such acceptance.

  • 2 A Member which accepts this Agreement after its entry into force shall implement those concessions and obligations in the Multilateral Trade Agreements that are to be implemented over a period of time starting with the entry into force of this Agreement as if it had accepted this Agreement on the date of its entry into force.

  • 3 Until the entry into force of this Agreement, the text of this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements shall be deposited with the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947. The Director-General shall promptly furnish a certified true copy of this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and a notification of each acceptance thereof, to each government and the European Communities having accepted this Agreement. This Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and any amendments thereto, shall, upon the entry into force of this Agreement, be deposited with the Director-General of the WTO.

  • 4 The acceptance and entry into force of a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement. Such Agreements shall be deposited with the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947. Upon the entry into force of this Agreement, such Agreements shall be deposited with the Director-General of the WTO.

Article XV. Withdrawal

  • 1 Any Member may withdraw from this Agreement. Such withdrawal shall apply both to this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements and shall take effect upon the expiration of six months from the date on which written notice of withdrawal is received by the Director-General of the WTO.

  • 2 Withdrawal from a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

Article XVI. Miscellaneous Provisions

  • 1 Except as otherwise provided under this Agreement or the Multilateral Trade Agreements, the WTO shall be guided by the decisions, procedures and customary practices followed by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947 and the bodies established in the framework of GATT 1947.

  • 2 To the extent practicable, the Secretariat of GATT 1947 shall become the Secretariat of the WTO, and the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947, until such time as the Ministerial Conference has appointed a Director-General in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article VI of this Agreement, shall serve as Director-General of the WTO.

  • 3 In the event of a conflict between a provision of this Agreement and a provision of any of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, the provision of this Agreement shall prevail to the extent of the conflict.

  • 4 Each Member shall ensure the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with its obligations as provided in the annexed Agreements.

  • 5 No reservations may be made in respect of any provision of this Agreement. Reservations in respect of any of the provisions of the Multilateral Trade Agreements may only be made to the extent provided for in those Agreements. Reservations in respect of a provision of a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

DONE at Marrakesh this fifteenth day of April one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four, in a single copy, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic.

Explanatory Notes:

The terms "country" or "countries" as used in this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements are to be understood to include any separate customs territory Member of the WTO.

In the case of a separate customs territory Member of the WTO, where an expression in this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements is qualified by the term "national", such expression shall be read as pertaining to that customs territory, unless otherwise specified.

List of annexes

ANNEX 1

ANNEX 1A: Multilateral Agreements on Trade in Goods

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

Agreement on Agriculture

Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

Agreement on Textiles and Clothing

Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade

Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures

Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

Agreement on Preshipment Inspection

Agreement on Rules of Origin

Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures

Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

Agreement on Safeguards

ANNEX 1B: General Agreement on Trade in Services and Annexes

ANNEX 1C : Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

ANNEX 2

Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes

ANNEX 3

Trade Policy Review Mechanism

ANNEX 4

Plurilateral Trade Agreements

Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft

Agreement on Government Procurement

International Dairy Agreement

International Bovine Meat Agreement

ANNEX 1

ANNEX 1A

MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS ON TRADE IN GOODS General interpretative note to Annex 1A:

In the event of conflict between a provision of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 and a provision of another agreement in Annex 1A to the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (referred to in the agreements in Annex 1A as the "WTO Agreement"), the provision of the other agreement shall prevail to the extent of the conflict.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

1. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 ("GATT 1994") shall consist of:

  • a the provisions in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated 30 October 1947, annexed to the Final Act Adopted at the Conclusion of the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment (excluding the Protocol of Provisional Application), as rectified, amended or modified by the terms of legal instruments which have entered into force before the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement;

  • b the provisions of the legal instruments set forth below that have entered into force under the GATT 1947 before the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement:

    • i) protocols and certifications relating to tariff concessions;

    • ii) protocols of accession (excluding he provisions(a) concerning provisional application and withdrawal of provisional application and (b) providing that Part II of GATT 1947 shall be applied provisionally to the fullest extent not inconsistent with legislation existing on the date of the Protocol);

    • iii) decisions on waivers granted under Article XXV of GATT 1947 and still in force on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement6;

    • iv) other decisions of the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947;

  • c the Understandings set forth below:

    • i) Understanding on the Interpretation of Article II:1(b) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

    • ii) Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XVII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

    • iii) Understanding on Balance-of-Payments Provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

    • iv) Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

    • v) Understanding in Respect of Waivers of Obligations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

    • vi) Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXVIII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994; and

  • d the Marrakesh Protocol to GATT 1994.

2. Explanatory Notes

  • a The references to "contracting party" in the provisions of GATT 1994 shall be deemed to read "Member". The references to "less-developed contracting party" and "developed contracting party" shall be deemed to read "developing country Member" and "developed country Member". The references to "Executive Secretary" shall be deemed to read "Director-General of the WTO".

  • b The references to the CONTRACTING PARTIES acting jointly in Articles XV:1, XV:2, XV:8, XXXVIII and the Notes Ad Article XII and XVIII; and in the provisions on special exchange agreements in Articles XV:2, XV:3, XV:6, XV:7 and XV:9 of GATT 1994 shall be deemed to be references to the WTO. The other functions that the provisions of GATT 1994 assign to the CONTRACTING PARTIES acting jointly shall be allocated by the Ministerial Conference.

  • c

    • i) The text of GATT 1994 shall be authentic in English, French and Spanish.

    • ii) The text of GATT 1994 in the French language shall be subject to the rectifications of terms indicated in Annex A to document MTN.TNC/41.

    • iii) The authentic text of GATT 1994 in the Spanish language shall be the text in Volume IV of the Basic Instruments and Selected Documents series, subject to the rectifications of terms indicated in Annex B to document MTN.TNC/41.

3

  • a) The provisions of Part II of GATT 1994 shall not apply to measures taken by a Member under specific mandatory legislation, enacted by that Member before it became a contracting party to GATT 1947, that prohibits the use, sale or lease of foreign-built or foreign-reconstructed vessels in commercial applications between points in national waters or the waters of an exclusive economic zone. This exemption applies to: (a) the continuation or prompt renewal of a nonconforming provision of such legislation; and (b) the amendment to a non-conforming provision of such legislation to the extent that the amendment does not decrease the conformity of the provision with Part II of GATT 1947. This exemption is limited to measures taken under legislation described above that is notified and specified prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement. If such legislation is subsequently modified to decrease its conformity with Part II of GATT 1994, it will no longer qualify for coverage under this paragraph.

  • b) The Ministerial Conference shall review this exemption not later than five years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement and thereafter every two years for as long as the exemption is in force for the purpose of examining whether the conditions which created the need for the exemption still prevail.

  • c) A Member whose measures are covered by this exemption shall annually submit a detailed statistical notification consisting of a fiveyear moving average of actual and expected deliveries of relevant vessels as well as additional information on the use, sale, lease or repair of relevant vessels covered by this exemption.

  • d) A Member that considers that this exemption operates in such a manner as to justify a reciprocal and proportionate limitation on the use, sale, lease or repair of vessels constructed in the territory of the Member invoking the exemption shall be free to introduce such a limitation subject to prior notification to the Ministerial Conference.

  • e) This exemption is without prejudice to solutions concerning specific aspects of the legislation covered by this exemption negotiated in sectoral agreements or in other fora.

Understanding on the interpretation of Article II:1(b) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

Members hereby agree as follows:

1

In order to ensure transparency of the legal rights and obligations deriving from paragraph l(b) of Article II, the nature and level of any "other duties or charges" levied on bound tariff items, as referred to in that provision, shall be recorded in the Schedules of concessions annexed to GATT 1994 against the tariff item to which they apply. It is understood that such recording does not change the legal character of "other duties or charges".

2

The date as of which "other duties or charges" are bound, for the purposes of Article II, shall be 15 April 1994. "Other duties or charges" shall therefore be recorded in the Schedules at the levels applying on this date. At each subsequent renegotiation of a concession or negotiation of a new concession the applicable date for the tariff item in question shall become the date of the incorporation of the new concession in the appropriate Schedule. However, the date of the instrument by which a concession on any particular tariff item was first incorporated into GATT 1947 or GATT 1994 shall also continue to be recorded in column 6 of the Loose-Leaf Schedules.

3

"Other duties or charges" shall be recorded in respect of all tariff bindings.

4

Where a tariff item has previously been the subject of a concession, the level of "other duties or charges" recorded in the appropriate Schedule shall not be higher than the level obtaining at the time of the first incorporation of the concession in that Schedule. It will be open to any Member to challenge the existence of an "other duty or charge", on the ground that no such "other duty or charge" existed at the time of the original binding of the item in question, as well as the consistency of the recorded level of any "other duty or charge" with the previously bound level, for a period of three years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement or three years after the date of deposit with the Director-General of the WTO of the instrument incorporating the Schedule in question into GATT 1994, if that is a later date.

5

The recording of "other duties or charges" in the Schedules is without prejudice to their consistency with rights and obligations under GATT 1994 other than those affected by paragraph 4. All Members retain the right to challenge, at any time, the consistency of any "other duty or charge" with such obligations.

6

For the purposes of this Understanding, the provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply.

7

"Other duties or charges" omitted from a Schedule at the time of deposit of the instrument incorporating the Schedule in question into GATT 1994 with, until the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947 or, thereafter, with the Director-General of the WTO, shall not subsequently be added to it and any "other duty or charge" recorded at a level lower than that prevailing on the applicable date shall not be restored to that level unless such additions or changes are made within six months of the date of deposit of the instrument.

8

The decision in paragraph 2 regarding the date applicable to each concession for the purposes of paragraph l(b) of Article II of GATT 1994 supersedes the decision regarding the applicable date taken on 26 March 1980 (BISD 27S/24).

Understanding on the interpretation of Article XVII of the General Agreement on tariffs and Trade 1994

Members,

Noting that Article XVII provides for obligations on Members in respect of the activities of the state trading enterprises referred to in paragraph 1 of Article XVII, which are required to be consistent with the general principles of non-discriminatory treatment prescribed in GATT 1994 for governmental measures affecting imports or exports by private traders;

Noting further that Members are subject to their GATT 1994 obligations in respect of those governmental measures affecting state trading enterprises;

Recognizing that this Understanding is without prejudice to the substantive disciplines prescribed in Article XVII;

Hereby agree as follows:

1

In order to ensure the transparency of the activities of state trading enterprises, Members shall notify such enterprises to the Council for Trade in Goods, for review by the working party to be set up under paragraph 5, in accordance with the following working definition:

"Governmental and non-governmental enterprises, including marketing boards, which have been granted exclusive or special rights or privileges, including statutory or constitutional powers, in the exercise of which they influence through their purchases or sales the level or direction of imports or exports."

This notification requirement does not apply to imports of products for immediate or ultimate consumption in governmental use or in use by an enterprise as specified above and not otherwise for resale or use in the production of goods for sale.

2

Each Member shall conduct a review of its policy with regard to the submission of notifications on state trading enterprises to the Council for Trade in Goods, taking account of the provisions of this Understanding. In carrying out such a review, each Member should have regard to the need to ensure the maximum transparency possible in its notifications so as to permit a clear appreciation of the manner of operation of the enterprises notified and the effect of their operations on international trade.

3

Notifications shall be made in accordance with the questionnaire on state trading adopted on 24 May 1960 (BISD 9S/184-185), it being understood that Members shall notify the enterprises referred to in paragraph 1 whether or not imports or exports have in fact taken place.

4

Any Member which has reason to believe that another Member has not adequately met its notification obligation may raise the matter with the Member concerned. If the matter is not satisfactorily resolved it may make a counter-notification to the Council for Trade in Goods, for consideration by the working party set up under paragraph 5, simultaneously informing the Member concerned.

5

A working party shall be set up, on behalf of the Council for Trade in Goods, to review notifications and counter-notifications. In the light of this review and without prejudice to paragraph 4(c) of Article XVII, the Council for Trade in Goods may make recommendations with regard to the adequacy of notifications and the need for further information. The working party shall also review, in the light of the notifications received, the adequacy of the above-mentioned questionnaire on state trading and the coverage of state trading enterprises notified under paragraph I. It shall also develop an illustrative list showing the kinds of relationships between governments and enterprises, and the kinds of activities, engaged in by these enterprises, which may be relevant for the purposes of Article XVII. It is understood that the Secretariat will provide a general background paper for the working party on the operations of state trading enterprises as they relate to international trade. Membership of the working party shall be open to all Members indicating their wish to serve on it. It shall meet within a year of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement and thereafter at least once a year. It shall report annually to the Council for Trade in Goods.7

Understanding on the balance-of-payments provisions of the General Agreement on tariffs and Trade 1994

Members,

Recognizing the provisions of Articles XII and XVIII:B of GATT 1994 and of the Declaration on Trade Measures Taken for Balance-of-Payments Purposes adopted on 28 November 1979 (BISD 26S/205-209, referred to in this Understanding as the "1979 Declaration") and in order to clarify such provisions8;

Hereby agree as follows:

Application of Measures

1

Members confirm their commitment to announce publicly, as soon as possible, time-schedules for the removal of restrictive import measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes. It is understood that such time-schedules may be modified as appropriate to take into account changes in the balance-of-payments situation. Whenever a time-schedule is not publicly announced by a Member, that Member shall provide justification as to the reasons therefor.

2

Members confirm their commitment to give preference to those measures which have the least disruptive effect on trade. Such measures (referred to in this Understanding as "price-based measures") shall be understood to include import surcharges, import deposit requirements or other equivalent trade measures with an impact on the price of imported goods. It is understood that, notwithstanding the provisions of Article II, price-based measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes may be applied by a Member in excess of the duties inscribed in the Schedule of that Member. Furthermore, that Member shall indicate the amount by which the price-based measure exceeds the bound duty clearly and separately under the notification procedures of this Understanding.

3

Members shall seek to avoid the imposition of new quantitative restrictions for balance-of-payments purposes unless, because of a critical balance-of-payments situation, price-based measures cannot arrest a sharp deterioration in the external payments position. In those cases in which a Member applies quantitative restrictions, it shall provide justification as to the reasons why price-based measures are not an adequate instrument to deal with the balance-of-payments situation. A Member maintaining quantitative restrictions shall indicate in successive consultations the progress made in significantly reducing the incidence and restrictive effect of such measures. It is understood that not more than one type of restrictive import measure taken for balance-of-payments purposes may be applied on the same product.

4

Members confirm that restrictive import measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes may only be applied to control the general level of imports and may not exceed what is necessary to address the balance-of-payments situation. In order to minimize any incidental protective effects, a Member shall administer restrictions in a transparent manner. The authorities of the importing Member shall provide adequate justification as to the criteria used to determine which products are subject to restriction. As provided in paragraph 3 of Article XII and paragraph 10 of Article XVIII, Members may, in the case of certain essential products, exclude or limit the application of surcharges applied across the board or other measures applied for balance-of-payments purposes. The term "essential products" shall be understood to mean products which meet basic consumption needs or which contribute to the Member's effort to improve its balance-of-payments situation, such as capital goods or inputs needed for production. In the administration of quantitative restrictions, a Member shall use discretionary licensing only when unavoidable and shall phase it out progressively. Appropriate justification shall be provided as to the criteria used to determine allowable import quantities or values.

Procedures for Balance-of-Payments Consultations

5

The Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions (referred to in this Understanding as the "Committee") shall carry out consultations in order to review all restrictive import measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes. The membership of the Committee is open to all Members indicating their wish to serve on it. The Committee shall follow the procedures for consultations on balance-of-payments restrictions approved on 28 April 1970 (BISD 18S/48-53, referred to in this Understanding as "full consultation procedures"), subject to the provisions set out below.

6

A Member applying new restrictions or raising the general level of its existing restrictions by a substantial intensification of the measures shall enter into consultations with the Committee within four months of the adoption of such measures. The Member adopting such measures may request that a consultation be held under paragraph 4(a) of Article XII or paragraph 12(a) of Article XVIII as appropriate. If no such request has been made, the Chairman of the Committee shall invite the Member to hold such a consultation. Factors that may be examined in the consultation would include, inter alia, the introduction of new types of restrictive measures for balance-of-payments purposes, or an increase in the level or product coverage of restrictions.

7

All restrictions applied for balance-of-payments purposes shall be subject to periodic review in the Committee under paragraph 4(b) of Article XII or under paragraph 12(b) of Article XVIII, subject to the possibility of altering the periodicity of consultations in agreement with the consulting Member or pursuant to any specific review procedure that may be recommended by the General Council.

8

Consultations may be held under the simplified procedures approved on 19 December 1972 (BISD 20S/47-49, referred to in this Understanding as "simplified consultation procedures") in the case of least-developed country Members or in the case of developing country Members which are pursuing liberalization efforts in conformity with the schedule presented to the Committee in previous consultations. Simplified consultation procedures may also be used when the Trade Policy Review of a developing country Member is scheduled for the same calendar year as the date fixed for the consultations. In such cases the decision as to whether full consultation procedures should be used will be made on the basis of the factors enumerated in paragraph 8 of the 1979 Declaration. Except in the case of least-developed country Members, no more than two successive consultations may be held under simplified consultation procedures.

Notification and Documentation

9

A Member shall notify to the General Council the introduction of or any changes in the application of restrictive import measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes, as well as any modifications in time-schedules for the removal of such measures as announced under paragraph 1. Significant changes shall be notified to the General Council prior to or not later than 30 days after their announcement. On a yearly basis, each Member shall make available to the Secretariat a consolidated notification, including all changes in laws, regulations, policy statements or public notices, for examination by Members. Notifications shall include full information, as far as possible, at the tariff-line level, on the type of measures applied, the criteria used for their administration, product coverage and trade flows affected.

10

At the request of any Member, notifications may be reviewed by the Committee. Such reviews would be limited to the clarification of specific issues raised by a notification or examination of whether a consultation under paragraph 4(a) of Article XII or paragraph 12(a) of Article XVIII is required. Members which have reasons to believe that a restrictive import measure applied by another Member was taken for balance-of-payments purposes may bring the matter to the attention of the Committee. The Chairman of the Committee shall request information on the measure and make it available to all Members. Without prejudice to the right of any member of the Committee to seek appropriate clarifications in the course of consultations, questions may be submitted in advance for consideration by the consulting Member.

11

The consulting Member shall prepare a Basic Document for the consultations which, in addition to any other information considered to be relevant, should include: a) an overview of the balance-of-payments situation and prospects, including a consideration of the internal and external factors having a bearing on the balance-of-payments situation and the domestic policy measures taken in order to restore equilibrium on a sound and lasting basis; b) a full description of the restrictions applied for balance-of-payments purposes, their legal basis and steps taken to reduce incidental protective effects; c) measures taken since the last consultation to liberalize import restrictions, in the light of the conclusions of the Committee; d) a plan for the elimination and progressive relaxation of remaining restrictions. References may be made, when relevant, to the information provided in other notifications or reports made to the WTO. Under simplified consultation procedures, the consulting Member shall submit a written statement containing essential information on the elements covered by the Basic Document.

12

The Secretariat shall, with a view to facilitating the consultations in the Committee, prepare a factual background paper dealing with the different aspects of the plan for consultations. In the case of developing country Members, the Secretariat document shall include relevant background and analytical material on the incidence of the external trading environment on the balance-of-payments situation and prospects of the consulting Member. The technical assistance services of the Secretariat shall, at the request of a developing country Member, assist in preparing the documentation for the consultations.

Conclusions of Balance-of-Payments Consultations

13

The Committee shall report on its consultations to the General Council. When full consultation procedures have been used, the report should indicate the Committee's conclusions on the different elements of the plan for consultations, as well as the facts and reasons on which they are based. The Committee shall endeavour to include in its conclusions proposals for recommendations aimed at promoting the implementation of Articles XII and XVIII:B, the 1979 Declaration and this Understanding. In those cases in which a time-schedule has been presented for the removal of restrictive measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes, the General Council may recommend that, in adhering to such a time schedule, a Member shall be deemed to be in compliance with its GATT 1994 obligations. Whenever the General Council has made specific recommendations, the rights and obligations of Members shall be assessed in the light of such recommendations. In the absence of specific proposals for recommendations by the General Council, the Committee's conclusions should record the different views expressed in the Committee. When simplified consultation procedures have been used, the report shall include a summary of the main elements discussed in the Committee and a decision on whether full consultation procedures are required.

Understanding on the interpretation of Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

Members,

Having regard to the provisions of Article XXIV of GATT 1994;

Recognizing that customs unions and free trade areas have greatly increased in number and importance since the establishment of GATT 1947 and today cover a significant proportion of world trade;

Recognizing the contribution to the expansion of world trade that may be made by closer integration between the economies of the parties to such agreements;

Recognizing also that such contribution is increased if the elimination between the constituent territories of duties and other restrictive regulations of commerce extends to all trade, and diminished if any major sector of trade is excluded;

Reaffirming that the purpose of such agreements should be to facilitate trade between the constituent territories and not to raise barriers to the trade of other Members with such territories; and that in their formation or enlargement the parties to them should to the greatest possible extent avoid creating adverse effects on the trade of other Members;

Convinced also of the need to reinforce the effectiveness of the role of the Council for Trade in Goods in reviewing agreements notified under Article XXIV, by clarifying the criteria and procedures for the assessment of new or enlarged agreements, and improving the transparency of all Article XXIV agreements;

Recognizing the need for a common understanding of the obligations of Members under paragraph 12 of Article XXIV;

Hereby agree as follows:

1

Customs unions, free-trade areas, and interim agreements leading to the formation of a customs union or free-trade area, to be consistent with Article XXIV, must satisfy, inter alia, the provisions of paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 of that Article.

Article XXIV:5

2

The evaluation under paragraph 5(a) of Article XXIV of the general incidence of the duties and other regulations of commerce applicable before and after the formation of a customs union shall in respect of duties and charges be based upon an overall assessment of weighted average tariff rates and of customs duties collected. This assessment shall be based on import statistics for a previous representative period to be supplied by the customs union, on a tariff-line basis and in values and quantities, broken down by WTO country of origin. The Secretariat shall compute the weighted average tariff rates and customs duties collected in accordance with the methodology used in the assessment of tariff offers in the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. For this purpose, the duties and charges to be taken into consideration shall be the applied rates of duty. It is recognized that for the purpose of the overall assessment of the incidence of other regulations of commerce for which quantification and aggregation are difficult, the examination of individual measures, regulations, products covered and trade flows affected may be required.

3

The "reasonable length of time" referred to in paragraph 5(c) of Article XXIV should exceed 10 years only in exceptional cases. In cases where Members parties to an interim agreement believe that 10 years would be insufficient they shall provide a full explanation to the Council for Trade in Goods of the need for a longer period.

Article XXIV:6

4

Paragraph 6 of Article XXIV establishes the procedure to be followed when a Member forming a customs union proposes to increase a bound rate of duty. In this regard Members reaffirm that the procedure set forth in Article XXVIII, as elaborated in the guidelines adopted on 10 November 1980 (BISD 27S/26-28) and in the Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXVIII of GATT 1994, must be commenced before tariff concessions are modified or withdrawn upon the formation of a customs union or an interim agreement leading to the formation of a customs union.

5

These negotiations will be entered into in good faith with a view to achieving mutually satisfactory compensatory adjustment. In such negotiations, as required by paragraph 6 of Article XXIV, due account shall be taken of reductions of duties on the same tariff line made by other constituents of the customs union upon its formation. Should such reductions not be sufficient to provide the necessary compensatory adjustment, the customs union would offer compensation, which may take the form of reductions of duties on other tariff lines. Such an offer shall be taken into consideration by the Members having negotiating rights in the binding being modified or withdrawn. Should the compensatory adjustment remain unacceptable, negotiations should be continued. Where, despite such efforts, agreement in negotiations on compensatory adjustment under Article XXVIII as elaborated by the Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXVIII of GATT 1994 cannot be reached within a reasonable period from the initiation of negotiations, the customs union shall, nevertheless, be free to modify or withdraw the concessions; affected Members shall then be free to withdraw substantially equivalent concessions in accordance with Article XXVIII.

6

GATT 1994 imposes no obligation on Members benefiting from a reduction of duties consequent upon the formation of a customs union, or an interim agreement leading to the formation of a customs union, to provide compensatory adjustment to its constituents.

Review of Customs Unions and Free-Trade Areas

7

All notifications made under paragraph 7(a) of Article XXIV shall be examined by a working party in the light of the relevant provisions of GATT 1994 and of paragraph 1 of this Understanding. The working party shall submit a report to the Council for Trade in Goods on its findings in this regard. The Council for Trade in Goods may make such recommendations to Members as it deems appropriate.

8

In regard to interim agreements, the working party may in its report make appropriate recommendations on the proposed time-frame and on measures required to complete the formation of the customs union or free-trade area. It may if necessary provide for further review of the agreement.

9

Members parties to an interim agreement shall notify substantial changes in the plan and schedule included in that agreement to the Council for Trade in Goods and, if so requested, the Council shall examine the changes.

10

Should an interim agreement notified under paragraph 7(a) of Article XXIV not include a plan and schedule, contrary to paragraph 5(c) of Article XXIV, the working party shall in its report recommend such a plan and schedule. The parties shall not maintain or put into force, as the case may be, such agreement if they are not prepared to modify it in accordance with these recommendations. Provision shall be made for subsequent review of the implementation of the recommendations.

11

Customs unions and constituents of free-trade areas shall report periodically to the Council for Trade in Goods, as envisaged by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947 in their instruction to the GATT 1947 Council concerning reports on regional agreements (BISD 18S/38), on the operation of the relevant agreement. Any significant changes and/or developments in the agreements should be reported as they occur.

Dispute Settlement

12

The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding may be invoked with respect to any matters arising from the application of those provisions of Article XXIV relating to customs unions, free-trade areas or interim agreements leading to the formation of a customs union or free-trade area.

Article XXIV:12

13

Each Member is fully responsible under GATT 1994 for the observance of all provisions of GATT 1994, and shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to it to ensure such observance by regional and local governments and authorities within its territory.

14

The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding may be invoked in respect of measures affecting its observance taken by regional or local governments or authorities within the territory of a Member. When the Dispute Settlement Body has ruled that a provision of GATT 1994 has not been observed, the responsible Member shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to it to ensure its observance. The provisions relating to compensation and suspension of concessions or other obligations apply in cases where it has not been possible to secure such observance.

15

Each Member undertakes to accord sympathetic consideration to and afford adequate opportunity for consultation regarding any representations made by another Member concerning measures affecting the operation of GATT 1994 taken within the territory of the former.

Understanding in respect of waivers of obligations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

Members hereby agree as follows:

1

A request for a waiver or for an extension of an existing waiver shall describe the measures which the Member proposes to take, the specific policy objectives which the Member seeks to pursue and the reasons which prevent the Member from achieving its policy objectives by measures consistent with its obligations under GATT 1994.

2

Any waiver in effect on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall terminate, unless extended in accordance with the procedures above and those of Article IX of the WTO Agreement, on the date of its expiry or two years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, whichever is earlier.

3

Any Member considering that a benefit accruing to it under GATT 1994 is being nullified or impaired as a result of:

  • a. the failure of the Member to whom a waiver was granted to observe the terms or conditions of the waiver, or

  • b. the application of a measure consistent with the terms and conditions of the waiver

may invoke the provisions of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding.

Understanding on the interpretation of article XXVIII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

Members hereby agree as follows:

1

For the purposes of modification or withdrawal of a concession, the Member which has the highest ratio of exports affected by the concession (i.e. exports of the product to the market of the Member modifying or withdrawing the concession) to its total exports shall be deemed to have a principal supplying interest if it does not already have an initial negotiating right or a principal supplying interest as provided for in paragraph 1 of Article XXVIII. It is however agreed that this paragraph will be reviewed by the Council for Trade in Goods five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with a view to deciding whether this criterion has worked satisfactorily in securing a redistribution of negotiating rights in favour of small and medium-sized exporting Members. If this is not the case, consideration will be given to possible improvements, including, in the light of the availability of adequate data, the adoption of a criterion based on the ratio of exports affected by the concession to exports to all markets of the product in question.

2

Where a Member considers that it has a principal supplying interest in terms of paragraph 1, it should communicate its claim in writing, with supporting evidence, to the Member proposing to modify or withdraw a concession, and at the same time inform the Secretariat. Paragraph 4 of the ''Procedures for Negotiations under Article XXVIII" adopted on 10 November 1980 (BISD 27S/26-28) shall apply in these cases.

3

In the determination of which Members have a principal supplying interest (whether as provided for in paragraph 1 above or in paragraph 1 of Article XXVIII) or substantial interest, only trade in the affected product which has taken place on an MFN basis shall be taken into consideration. However, trade in the affected product which has taken place under non-contractual preferences shall also be taken into account if the trade in question has ceased to benefit from such preferential treatment, thus becoming MFN trade, at the time of the negotiation for the modification or withdrawal of the concession, or will do so by the conclusion of that negotiation.

4

When a tariff concession is modified or withdrawn on a new product (i.e. a product for which three years' trade statistics are not available) the Member possessing initial negotiating rights on the tariff line where the product is or was formerly classified shall be deemed to have an initial negotiating right in the concession in question. The determination of principal supplying and substantial interests and the calculation of compensation shall take into account, inter alia, production capacity and investment in the affected product in the exporting Member and estimates of export growth, as well as forecasts of demand for the product in the importing Member. For the purposes of this paragraph, "new product" is understood to include a tariff item created by means of a breakout from an existing tariff line.

5

Where a Member considers that it has a principal supplying or a substantial interest in terms of paragraph 4, it should communicate its claim in writing, with supporting evidence, to the Member proposing to modify or withdraw a concession, and at the same time inform the Secretariat. Paragraph 4 of the above-mentioned "Procedures for Negotiations under Article XXVIII" shall apply in these cases.

6

When an unlimited tariff concession is replaced by a tariff rate quota, the amount of compensation provided should exceed the amount of the trade actually affected by the modification of the concession. The basis for the calculation of compensation should be the amount by which future trade prospects exceed the level of the quota. It is understood that the calculation of future trade prospects should be based on the greater of: 1

  • a) the average annual trade in the most recent representative three-year period, increased by the average annual growth rate of imports in that same period, or by 10 per cent, whichever is the greater; or

  • b) trade in the most recent year increased by 10 per cent.

In no case shall a Member's liability for compensation exceed that which would be entailed by complete withdrawal of the concession.

7

Any Member having a principal supplying interest, whether as provided for in paragraph 1 above or in paragraph 1 of Article XXVIII, in a concession which is modified or withdrawn shall be accorded an initial negotiating right in the compensatory concessions, unless another form of compensation is agreed by the Members concerned.

Marrakesh protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

Members,

Having carried out negotiations within the framework of GATT 1947, pursuant to the Ministerial Declaration on the Uruguay Round,

Hereby agree as follows:

1

The schedule annexed to this Protocol relating to a Member shall become a Schedule to GATT 1994 relating to that Member on the day on which the WTO Agreement enters into force for that Member. Any schedule submitted in accordance with the Ministerial Decision on measures in favour of least-developed countries shall be deemed to be annexed to this Protocol.

2

The tariff reductions agreed upon by each Member shall be implemented in five equal rate reductions, except as may be otherwise specified in a Member's Schedule. The first such reduction shall be made effective on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, each successive reduction shall be made effective on 1 January of each of the following years, and the final rate shall become effective no later than the date four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, except as may be otherwise specified in that Member's Schedule. Unless otherwise specified in its Schedule, a Member that accepts the WTO Agreement after its entry into force shall, on the date that Agreement enters into force for it, make effective all rate reductions that have already taken place together with the reductions which it would under the preceding sentence have been obligated to make effective on 1 January of the year following, and shall make effective all remaining rate reductions on the schedule specified in the previous sentence. The reduced rate should in each stage be rounded off to the first decimal. For agricultural products, as defined in Article 2 of the Agreement on Agriculture, the staging of reductions shall be implemented as specified in the relevant parts of the schedules.

3

The implementation of the concessions and commitments contained in the schedules annexed to this Protocol shall, upon request, be subject to multilateral examination by the Members. This would be without prejudice to the rights and obligations of Members under Agreements in Annex 1A of the WTO Agreement.

4

After the schedule annexed to this Protocol relating to a Member has become a Schedule to GATT 1994 pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 1, such Member shall be free at any time to withhold or to withdraw in whole or in part the concession in such Schedule with respect to any product for which the principal supplier is any other Uruguay Round participant the schedule of which has not yet become a Schedule to GATT 1994. Such action can, however, only be taken after written notice of any such withholding or withdrawal of a concession has been given to the Council for Trade in Goods and after consultations have been held, upon request, with any Member, the relevant schedule relating to which has become a Schedule to GATT 1994 and which has a substantial interest in the product involved. Any concessions so withheld or withdrawn shall be applied on and after the day on which the schedule of the Member which has the principal supplying interest becomes a Schedule to GATT 1994.

5

  • a) Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 4 of the Agreement on Agriculture, for the purpose of the reference in paragraphs 1b) and 1c) of Article II of GATT 1994 to the date of that Agreement, the applicable date in respect of each product which is the subject of a concession provided for in a schedule of concessions annexed to this Protocol shall be the date of this Protocol.

  • b) For the purpose of the reference in paragraph 6a) of Article II of GATT 1994 to the date of that Agreement, the applicable date in respect of a schedule of concessions annexed to this Protocol shall be the date of this Protocol.

6

In cases of modification or withdrawal of concessions relating to non-tariff measures as contained in Part III of the schedules, the provisions of Article XXVIII of GATT 1994 and the "Procedures for Negotiations under Article XXVIII" adopted on 10 November 1980 (BISD 27S/26-28) shall apply. This would be without prejudice to the rights and obligations of Members under GATT 1994.

7

In each case in which a schedule annexed to this Protocol results for any product in treatment less favourable than was provided for such product in the Schedules of GATT 1947 prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, the Member to whom the schedule relates shall be deemed to have taken appropriate action as would have been otherwise necessary under the relevant provisions of Article XXVIII of GATT 1947 or 1994. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply only to Egypt, Peru, South Africa and Uruguay.

8

The Schedules annexed hereto are authentic in the English, French or Spanish language as specified in each Schedule.

9

The date of this Protocol is 15 April 1994

Agreement on Agriculture

Members,

Having decided to establish a basis for initiating a process of reform of trade in agriculture in line with the objectives of the negotiations as set out in the Punta del Este Declaration;

Recalling that their long-term objective as agreed at the Mid-Term Review of the Uruguay Round "is to establish a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system and that a reform process should be initiated through the negotiation of commitments on support and protection and through the establishment of strengthened and more operationally effective GATT rules and disciplines";

Recalling further that "the above-mentioned long-term objective is to provide for substantial progressive reductions in agricultural support and protection sustained over an agreed period of time, resulting in correcting and preventing restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets";

Committed to achieving specific binding commitments in each of the following areas: market access; domestic support; export competition; and to reaching an agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary issues;

Having agreed that in implementing their commitments on market access, developed country Members would take fully into account the particular needs and conditions of developing country Members by providing for a greater improvement of opportunities and terms of access for agricultural products of particular interest to these Members, including the fullest liberalization of trade in tropical agricultural products as agreed at the Mid-Term Review, and for products of particular importance to the diversification of production from the growing of illicit narcotic crops;

Noting that commitments under the reform programme should be made in an equitable way among all Members, having regard to non-trade concerns, including food security and the need to protect the environment; having regard to the agreement that special and differential treatment for developing countries is an integral element of the negotiations, and taking into account the possible negative effects of the implementation of the reform programme on least-developed and net food-importing developing countries;

Hereby agree as follows:

PART I

Article 1. Definition of Terms

In this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:

  • a) "Aggregate Measurement of Support" and "AMS" mean the annual level of support, expressed in monetary terms, provided for an agricultural product in favour of the producers of the basic agricultural product or non-product-specific support provided in favour of agricultural producers in general, other than support provided under programmes that qualify as exempt from reduction under Annex 2 to this Agreement, which is:

    • i) with respect to support provided during the base period, specified in the relevant tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of a Member's Schedule; and

    • ii) with respect to support provided during any year of the implementation period and thereafter, calculated in accordance with the provisions of Annex 3 of this Agreement and taking into account the constituent data and methodology used in the tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of the Member's Schedule;

  • b) "basic agricultural product" in relation to domestic support commitments is defined as the product as close as practicable to the point of first sale as specified in a Member's Schedule and in the related supporting material;

  • c) "budgetary outlays" or "outlays" includes revenue foregone;

  • d) "Equivalent Measurement of Support" means the annual level of support, expressed in monetary terms, provided to producers of a basic agricultural product through the application of one or more measures, the calculation of which in accordance with the AMS methodology is impracticable, other than support provided under programmes that qualify as exempt from reduction under Annex 2 to this Agreement, and which is:

    • i) with respect to support provided during the base period, specified in the relevant tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of a Member's Schedule; and

    • ii) with respect to support provided during any year of the implementation period and thereafter, calculated in accordance with the provisions of Annex 4 of this Agreement and taking into account the constituent data and methodology used in the tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of the Member's Schedule;

  • e) "export subsidies" refers to subsidies contingent upon export performance, including the export subsidies listed in Article 9 of this Agreement;

  • f) "implementation period" means the six-year period commencing in the year 1995, except that, for the purposes of Article 13, it means the nine-year period commencing in 1995;

  • g) "market access concessions" includes all market access commitments undertaken pursuant to this Agreement;

  • h) "Total Aggregate Measurement of Support" and "Total AMS" mean the sum of all domestic support provided in favour of agricultural producers, calculated as the sum of all aggregate measurements of support for basic agricultural products, all non-product-specific aggregate measurements of support and all equivalent measurements of support for agricultural products, and which is:

    • i) with respect to support provided during the base period (i.e. the "Base Total AMS") and the maximum support permitted to be provided during any year of the implementation period or thereafter (i.e. the "Annual and Final Bound Commitment Levels"), as specified in Part IV of a Member's Schedule; and

    • ii) with respect to the level of support actually provided during any year of the implementation period and thereafter (i.e. the "Current Total AMS"), calculated in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, including Article 6, and with the constituent data and methodology used in the tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of the Member's Schedule;

  • i) "year" in paragraph (f) above and in relation to the specific commitments of a Member refers to the calendar, financial or marketing year specified in the Schedule relating to that Member.

Article 2. Product Coverage

This Agreement applies to the products listed in Annex 1 to this Agreement, hereinafter referred to as agricultural products.

PART II

Article 3. Incorporation of Concessions and Commitments

  • 1 The domestic support and export subsidy commitments in Part IV of each Member's Schedule constitute commitments limiting subsidization and are hereby made an integral part of GATT 1994.

  • 2 Subject to the provisions of Article 6, a Member shall not provide support in favour of domestic producers in excess of the commitment levels specified in Section I of Part IV of its Schedule.

  • 3 Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2(b) and 4 of Article 9, a Member shall not provide export subsidies listed in paragraph 1 of Article 9 in respect of the agricultural products or groups of products specified in Section II of Part IV of its Schedule in excess of the budgetary outlay and quantity commitment levels specified therein and shall not provide such subsidies in respect of any agricultural product not specified in that Section of its Schedule.

PART III

Article 4. Market Access

  • 1 Market access concessions contained in Schedules relate to bindings and reductions of tariffs, and to other market access commitments as specified therein.

  • 2 Members shall not maintain, resort to, or revert to any measures of the kind which have been required to be converted into ordinary customs duties9, except as otherwise provided for in Article 5 and Annex 5.

Article 5. Special Safeguard Provisions

  • 1 Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1(b) of Article II of GATT 1994, any Member may take recourse to the provisions of paragraphs 4 and 5 below in connection with the importation of an agricultural product, in respect of which measures referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4 of this Agreement have been converted into an ordinary customs duty and which is designated in its Schedule with the symbol "SSG" as being the subject of a concession in respect of which the provisions of this Article may be invoked, if:

    • a) the volume of imports of that product entering the customs territory of the Member granting the concession during any year exceeds a trigger level which relates to the existing market access opportunity as set out in paragraph 4; or, but not concurrently:

    • b) the price at which imports of that product may enter the customs territory of the Member granting the concession, as determined on the basis of the c.i.f. import price of the shipment concerned expressed in terms of its domestic currency, falls below a trigger price equal to the average 1986 to 1988 reference price10for the product concerned.

  • 2 Imports under current and minimum access commitments established as part of a concession referred to in paragraph 1 above shall be counted for the purpose of determining the volume of imports required for invoking the provisions of subparagraph 1a) and paragraph 4, but imports under such commitments shall not be affected by any additional duty imposed under either subparagraph 1a) and paragraph 4 or subparagraph 1b) and paragraph 5 below.

  • 3 Any supplies of the product in question which were en route on the basis of a contract settled before the additional duty is imposed under subparagraph 1a) and paragraph 4 shall be exempted from any such additional duty, provided that they may be counted in the volume of imports of the product in question during the following year for the purposes of triggering the provisions of subparagraph 1a) in that year.

  • 4 Any additional duty imposed under subparagraph 1a) shall only be maintained until the end of the year in which it has been imposed, and may only be levied at a level which shall not exceed one third of the level of the ordinary customs duty in effect in the year in which the action is taken. The trigger level shall be set according to the following schedule based on market access opportunities defined as imports as a percentage of the corresponding domestic consumption11during the three preceding years for which data are available:

    • a) where such market access opportunities for a product are less than or equal to 10 per cent, the base trigger level shall equal 125 per cent;

    • b) where such market access opportunities for a product are greater than 10 per cent but less than or equal to 30 per cent, the base trigger level shall equal 110 per cent;

    • c) where such market access opportunities for a product are greater than 30 per cent, the base trigger level shall equal 105 per cent.

    In all cases the additional duty may be imposed in any year where the absolute volume of imports of the product concerned entering the customs territory of the Member granting the concession exceeds the sum of (x) the base trigger level set out above multiplied by the average quantity of imports during the three preceding years for which data are available and (y) the absolute volume change in domestic consumption of the product concerned in the most recent year for which data are available compared to the preceding year, provided that the trigger level shall not be less than 105 per cent of the average quantity of imports in (x) above.

  • 5 The additional duty imposed under subparagraph 1b) shall be set according to the following schedule:

    • a) if the difference between the c.i.f. import price of the shipment expressed in terms of the domestic currency (hereinafter referred to as the "import price") and the trigger price as defined under that subparagraph is less than or equal to 10 per cent of the trigger price, no additional duty shall be imposed;

    • b) if the difference between the import price and the trigger price (hereinafter referred to as the "difference") is greater than 10 per cent but less than or equal to 40 per cent of the trigger price, the additional duty shall equal 30 per cent of the amount by which the difference exceeds 10 per cent;

    • c) if the difference is greater than 40 per cent but less than or equal to 60 per cent of the trigger price, the additional duty shall equal 50 per cent of the amount by which the difference exceeds 40 per cent, plus the additional duty allowed under b);

    • d) if the difference is greater than 60 per cent but less than or equal to 75 per cent, the additional duty shall equal 70 per cent of the amount by which the difference exceeds 60 per cent of the trigger price, plus the additional duties allowed under b) and c);

    • e) if the difference is greater than 75 per cent of the trigger price, the additional duty shall equal 90 per cent of the amount by which the difference exceeds 75 per cent, plus the additional duties allowed under b), c) and d).

  • 6 For perishable and seasonal products, the conditions set out above shall be applied in such a manner as to take account of the specific characteristics of such products. In particular, shorter time periods under subparagraph 1a) and paragraph 4 may be used in reference to the corresponding periods in the base period and different reference prices for different periods may be used under subparagraph 1b).

  • 7 The operation of the special safeguard shall be carried out in a transparent manner. Any Member taking action under subparagraph 1a) above shall give notice in writing, including relevant data, to the Committee on Agriculture as far in advance as may be practicable and in any event within 10 days of the implementation of such action. In cases where changes in consumption volumes must be allocated to individual tariff lines subject to action under paragraph 4, relevant data shall include the information and methods used to allocate these changes. A Member taking action under paragraph 4 shall afford any interested Members the opportunity to consult with it in respect of the conditions of application of such action. Any Member taking action under subparagraph 1b) above shall give notice in writing, including relevant data, to the Committee on Agriculture within 10 days of the implementation of the first such action or, for perishable and seasonal products, the first action in any period. Members undertake, as far as practicable, not to take recourse to the provisions of subparagraph 1b) where the volume of imports of the products concerned are declining. In either case a Member taking such action shall afford any interested Members the opportunity to consult with it in respect of the conditions of application of such action.

  • 8 Where measures are taken in conformity with paragraphs 1 through 7 above, Members undertake not to have recourse, in respect of such measures, to the provisions of paragraphs 1a) and 3 of Article XIX of GATT 1994 or paragraph 2 of Article 8 of the Agreement on Safeguards.

  • 9 The provisions of this Article shall remain in force for the duration of the reform process as determined under Article 20.

PART IV

Article 6. Domestic Support Commitments

  • 1 The domestic support reduction commitments of each Member contained in Part IV of its Schedule shall apply to all of its domestic support measures in favour of agricultural producers with the exception of domestic measures which are not subject to reduction in terms of the criteria set out in this Article and in Annex 2 to this Agreement. The commitments are expressed in terms of Total Aggregate Measurement of Support and "Annual and Final Bound Commitment Levels".

  • 2 In accordance with the Mid-Term Review Agreement that government measures of assistance, whether direct or indirect, to encourage agricultural and rural development are an integral part of the development programmes of developing countries, investment subsidies which are generally available to agriculture in developing country Members and agricultural input subsidies generally available to low-income or resource-poor producers in developing country Members shall be exempt from domestic support reduction commitments that would otherwise be applicable to such measures, as shall domestic support to producers in developing country Members to encourage diversification from growing illicit narcotic crops. Domestic support meeting the criteria of this paragraph shall not be required to be included in a Member's calculation of its Current Total AMS.

  • 3 A Member shall be considered to be in compliance with its domestic support reduction commitments in any year in which its domestic support in favour of agricultural producers expressed in terms of Current Total AMS does not exceed the corresponding annual or final bound commitment level specified in Part IV of the Member's Schedule.

  • 4

    • a) A Member shall not be required to include in the calculation of its Current Total AMS and shall not be required to reduce:

      • i) product-specific domestic support which would otherwise be required to be included in a Member's calculation of its Current AMS where such support does not exceed 5 per cent of that Member's total value of production of a basic agricultural product during the relevant year; and

      • ii) non-product-specific domestic support which would otherwise be required to be included in a Member's calculation of its Current AMS where such support does not exceed 5 per cent of the value of that Member's total agricultural production.

    • b) For developing country Members, the de minimis percentage under this paragraph shall be 10 per cent.

  • 5

    • a) Direct payments under production-limiting programmes shall not be subject to the commitment to reduce domestic support if:

      • i) such payments are based on fixed area and yields; or

      • ii) such payments are made on 85 per cent or less of the base level of production; or

      • iii) livestock payments are made on a fixed number of head.

    • b) The exemption from the reduction commitment for direct payments meeting the above criteria shall be reflected by the exclusion of the value of those direct payments in a Member's calculation of its Current Total AMS.

Article 7. General Disciplines on Domestic Support

  • 1 Each Member shall ensure that any domestic support measures in favour of agricultural producers which are not subject to reduction commitments because they qualify under the criteria set out in Annex 2 to this Agreement are maintained in conformity therewith.

  • 2

    • a) Any domestic support measure in favour of agricultural producers, including any modification to such measure, and any measure that is subsequently introduced that cannot be shown to satisfy the criteria in Annex 2 to this Agreement or to be exempt from reduction by reason of any other provision of this Agreement shall be included in the Member's calculation of its Current Total AMS.

    • b) Where no Total AMS commitment exists in Part IV of a Member's Schedule, the Member shall not provide support to agricultural producers in excess of the relevant de minimis level set out in paragraph 4 of Article 6.

PART V

Article 8. Export Competition Commitments

Each Member undertakes not to provide export subsidies otherwise than in conformity with this Agreement and with the commitments as specified in that Member's Schedule.

Article 9. Export Subsidy Commitments

  • 1 The following export subsidies are subject to reduction commitments under this Agreement:

    • a) the provision by governments or their agencies of direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind, to a firm, to an industry, to producers of an agricultural product, to a cooperative or other association of such producers, or to a marketing board, contingent on export performance;

    • b) the sale or disposal for export by governments or their agencies of non-commercial stocks of agricultural products at a price lower than the comparable price charged for the like product to buyers in the domestic market;

    • c) payments on the export of an agricultural product that are financed by virtue of governmental action, whether or not a charge on the public account is involved, including payments that are financed from the proceeds of a levy imposed on the agricultural product concerned or on an agricultural product from which the exported product is derived;

    • d) the provision of subsidies to reduce the costs of marketing exports of agricultural products (other than widely available export promotion and advisory services) including handling, upgrading and other processing costs, and the costs of international transport and freight;

    • e) internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, provided or mandated by governments, on terms more favourable than for domestic shipments;

    • f) subsidies on agricultural products contingent on their incorporation in exported products.

  • 2

    • a) Except as provided in subparagraph b), the export subsidy commitment levels for each year of the implementation period, as specified in a Member's Schedule, represent with respect to the export subsidies listed in paragraph 1 of this Article:

      • i) in the case of budgetary outlay reduction commitments, the maximum level of expenditure for such subsidies that may be allocated or incurred in that year in respect of the agricultural product, or group of products, concerned; and

      • ii) in the case of export quantity reduction commitments, the maximum quantity of an agricultural product, or group of products, in respect of which such export subsidies may be granted in that year.

    • b) In any of the second through fifth years of the implementation period, a Member may provide export subsidies listed in paragraph 1 above in a given year in excess of the corresponding annual commitment levels in respect of the products or groups of products specified in Part IV of the Member's Schedule, provided that:

      • i) the cumulative amounts of budgetary outlays for such subsidies, from the beginning of the implementation period through the year in question, does not exceed the cumulative amounts that would have resulted from full compliance with the relevant annual outlay commitment levels specified in the Member's Schedule by more than 3 per cent of the base period level of such budgetary outlays;

      • ii) the cumulative quantities exported with the benefit of such export subsidies, from the beginning of the implementation period through the year in question, does not exceed the cumulative quantities that would have resulted from full compliance with the relevant annual quantity commitment levels specified in the Member's Schedule by more than 1.75 per cent of the base period quantities;

      • iii) the total cumulative amounts of budgetary outlays for such export subsidies and the quantities benefiting from such export subsidies over the entire implementation period are no greater than the totals that would have resulted from full compliance with the relevant annual commitment levels specified in the Member's Schedule; and

      • iv) the Member's budgetary outlays for export subsidies and the quantities benefiting from such subsidies, at the conclusion of the implementation period, are no greater than 64 per cent and 79 per cent of the 1986-1990 base period levels, respectively. For developing country Members these percentages shall be 76 and 86 per cent, respectively.

  • 3 Commitments relating to limitations on the extension of the scope of export subsidization are as specified in Schedules.

  • 4 During the implementation period, developing country Members shall not be required to undertake commitments in respect of the export subsidies listed in subparagraphs (d) and (e) of paragraph 1 above, provided that these are not applied in a manner that would circumvent reduction commitments.

Article 10. Prevention of Circumvention of Export Subsidy Commitments

  • 1 Export subsidies not listed in paragraph 1 of Article 9 shall not be applied in a manner which results in, or which threatens to lead to, circumvention of export subsidy commitments; nor shall non-commercial transactions be used to circumvent such commitments.

  • 2 Members undertake to work toward the development of internationally agreed disciplines to govern the provision of export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes and, after agreement on such disciplines, to provide export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes only in conformity therewith.

  • 3 Any Member which claims that any quantity exported in excess of a reduction commitment level is not subsidized must establish that no export subsidy, whether listed in Article 9 or not, has been granted in respect of the quantity of exports in question.

  • 4 Members donors of international food aid shall ensure:

    • a) that the provision of international food aid is not tied directly or indirectly to commercial exports of agricultural products to recipient countries;

    • b) that international food aid transactions, including bilateral food aid which is monetized, shall be carried out in accordance with the FAO "Principles of Surplus Disposal and Consultative Obligations", including, where appropriate, the system of Usual Marketing Requirements (UMRs); and

    • c) that such aid shall be provided to the extent possible in fully grant form or on terms no less concessional than those provided for in Article IV of the Food Aid Convention 1986.

Article 11. Incorporated Products

In no case may the per-unit subsidy paid on an incorporated agricultural primary product exceed the per-unit export subsidy that would be payable on exports of the primary product as such.

PART VI

Article 12. Disciplines on Export Prohibitions and Restrictions

  • 1 Where any Member institutes any new export prohibition or restriction on foodstuffs in accordance with paragraph 2a) of Article XI of GATT 1994, the Member shall observe the following provisions:

    • a) the Member instituting the export prohibition or restriction shall give due consideration to the effects of such prohibition or restriction on importing Members' food security;

    • b) before any Member institutes an export prohibition or restriction, it shall give notice in writing, as far in advance as practicable, to the Committee on Agriculture comprising such information as the nature and the duration of such measure, and shall consult, upon request, with any other Member having a substantial interest as an importer with respect to any matter related to the measure in question. The Member instituting such export prohibition or restriction shall provide, upon request, such a Member with necessary information.

  • 2 The provisions of this Article shall not apply to any developing country Member, unless the measure is taken by a developing country Member which is a net-food exporter of the specific foodstuff concerned.

PART VII

Article 13. Due Restraint

During the implementation period, notwithstanding the provisions of GATT 1994 and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (referred to in this Article as the "Subsidies Agreement"):

  • a) domestic support measures that conform fully to the provisions of Annex 2 to this Agreement shall be:

    • i) non-actionable subsidies for purposes of countervailing duties12;

    • ii) exempt from actions based on Article XVI of GATT 1994 and Part III of the Subsidies Agreement; and

    • iii) exempt from actions based on non-violation nullification or impairment of the benefits of tariff concessions accruing to another Member under Article II of GATT 1994, in the sense of paragraph 1(b) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994;

  • b) domestic support measures that conform fully to the provisions of Article 6 of this Agreement including direct payments that conform to the requirements of paragraph 5 thereof, as reflected in each Member's Schedule, as well as domestic support within de minimis levels and in conformity with paragraph 2 of Article 6, shall be:

    • i) exempt from the imposition of countervailing duties unless a determination of injury or threat thereof is made in accordance with Article VI of GATT 1994 and Part V of the Subsidies Agreement, and due restraint shall be shown in initiating any countervailing duty investigations;

    • ii) exempt from actions based on paragraph 1 of Article XVI of GATT 1994 or Articles 5 and 6 of the Subsidies Agreement, provided that such measures do not grant support to a specific commodity in excess of that decided during the 1992 marketing year; and

    • iii) exempt from actions based on non-violation nullification or impairment of the benefits of tariff concessions accruing to another Member under Article II of GATT 1994, in the sense of paragraph 1(b) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994, provided that such measures do not grant support to a specific commodity in excess of that decided during the 1992 marketing year;

  • c) export subsidies that conform fully to the provisions of Part V of this Agreement, as reflected in each Member's Schedule, shall be:

    • i) subject to countervailing duties only upon a determination of injury or threat thereof based on volume, effect on prices, or consequent impact in accordance with Article VI of GATT 1994 and Part V of the Subsidies Agreement, and due restraint shall be shown in initiating any countervailing duty investigations; and

    • ii) exempt from actions based on Article XVI of GATT 1994 or Articles 3, 5 and 6 of the Subsidies Agreement.

PART VIII

Article 14. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

Members agree to give effect to the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

PART IX

Article 15. Special and Differential Treatment

  • 1 In keeping with the recognition that differential and more favourable treatment for developing country Members is an integral part of the negotiation, special and differential treatment in respect of commitments shall be provided as set out in the relevant provisions of this Agreement and embodied in the Schedules of concessions and commitments.

  • 2 Developing country Members shall have the flexibility to implement reduction commitments over a period of up to 10 years. Least-developed country Members shall not be required to undertake reduction commitments.

PART X

Article 16. Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries

  • 1 Developed country Members shall take such action as is provided for within the framework of the Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries.

  • 2 The Committee on Agriculture shall monitor, as appropriate, the follow-up to this Decision.

PART XI

Article 17. Committee on Agriculture

A Committee on Agriculture is hereby established.

Article 18. Review of the Implementation of Commitments

  • 1 Progress in the implementation of commitments negotiated under the Uruguay Round reform programme shall be reviewed by the Committee on Agriculture.

  • 2 The review process shall be undertaken on the basis of notifications submitted by Members in relation to such matters and at such intervals as shall be determined, as well as on the basis of such documentation as the Secretariat may be requested to prepare in order to facilitate the review process.

  • 3 In addition to the notifications to be submitted under paragraph 2, any new domestic support measure, or modification of an existing measure, for which exemption from reduction is claimed shall be notified promptly. This notification shall contain details of the new or modified measure and its conformity with the agreed criteria as set out either in Article 6 or in Annex 2.

  • 4 In the review process Members shall give due consideration to the influence of excessive rates of inflation on the ability of any Member to abide by its domestic support commitments.

  • 5 Members agree to consult annually in the Committee on Agriculture with respect to their participation in the normal growth of world trade in agricultural products within the framework of the commitments on export subsidies under this Agreement.

  • 6 The review process shall provide an opportunity for Members to raise any matter relevant to the implementation of commitments under the reform programme as set out in this Agreement.

  • 7 Any Member may bring to the attention of the Committee on Agriculture any measure which it considers ought to have been notified by another Member.

Article 19. Consultation and Dispute Settlement

The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding, shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement.

PART XII

Article 20. Continuation of the Reform Process

Recognizing that the long-term objective of substantial progressive reductions in support and protection resulting in fundamental reform is an ongoing process, Members agree that negotiations for continuing the process will be initiated one year before the end of the implementation period, taking into account:

  • a) the experience to that date from implementing the reduction commitments;

  • b) the effects of the reduction commitments on world trade in agriculture;

  • c) non-trade concerns, special and differential treatment to developing country Members, and the objective to establish a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system, and the other objectives and concerns mentioned in the preamble to this Agreement; and

  • d) what further commitments are necessary to achieve the above mentioned long-term objectives.

PART XIII

Article 21. Final Provisions

  • 1 The provisions of GATT 1994 and of other Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement shall apply subject to the provisions of this Agreement.

  • 2 The Annexes to this Agreement are hereby made an integral part of this Agreement.

Annex 1. PRODUCT COVERAGE

1

This Agreement shall cover the following products:

  • (i) HS Chapters 1 to 24 less fish and fish products, plus13

  • (ii)

    HS Code

    2905.43

    (manifold)

    HS Code

    2905.44

    (sorbitol)

    HS Heading

    33.01

    (essential oils)

    HS Headings

    35.01 to 35.05

    (albuminoidal substances, modified starches, glues)

    HS Code

    3809.10

    (finishing agents)

    HS Code

    3823.60

    (sorbitol n.e.p.)

    HS Headings

    41.01 to 41.03

    (hides and skins)

    HS Heading

    43.01

    (raw furskins)

    HS Headings

    50.01 to 50.03

    (raw silk and silk waste)

    HS Headings

    51.01 to 51.03

    (wool and animal hair)

    HS Headings

    52.01 to 52.03

    (raw cotton, waste and cotton carded or combed)

    HS Heading

    53.01

    (raw flax)

    HS Heading

    53.02

    (raw hemp)

2

The foregoing shall not limit the product coverage of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

Annex 2. DOMESTIC SUPPORT: THE BASIS FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE REDUCTION COMMITMENTS

1

Domestic support measures for which exemption from the reduction commitments is claimed shall meet the fundamental requirement that they have no, or at most minimal, trade-distorting effects or effects on production. Accordingly, all measures for which exemption is claimed shall conform to the following basic criteria:

  • a) the support, in question shall be provided through a publicly-funded government programme (including government revenue foregone) not involving transfers from consumers; and,

  • b) the support in question shall not have the effect of providing price support to producers; plus policy-specific criteria and conditions as set out below.

Government Service Programmes

2. General services

Policies in this category involve expenditures (or revenue foregone) in relation to programmes which provide services or benefits to agriculture or the rural community. They shall not involve direct payments to producers or processors. Such programmes, which include but are not restricted to the following list, shall meet the general criteria in paragraph 1 above and policy-specific conditions where set out below:

  • a) research, including general research, research in connection with environmental programmes, and research programmes relating to particular products;

  • b) pest and disease control, including general and product-specific pest and disease control measures, such as early-warning systems, quarantine and eradication;

  • c) training services, including both general and specialist training facilities;

  • d) extension and advisory services, including the provision of means to facilitate the transfer of information and the results of research to producers and consumers;

  • e) inspection services, including general inspection services and the inspection of particular products for health, safety, grading or standardization purposes;

  • f) marketing and promotion services, including market information, advice and promotion relating to particular products but excluding expenditure for unspecified purposes that could be used by sellers to reduce their selling price or confer a direct economic benefit to purchasers; and

  • g) infrastructural services, including: electricity reticulation, roads and other means of transport, market and port facilities, water supply facilities, dams and drainage schemes, and infrastructural works associated with environmental programmes. In all cases the expenditure shall be directed to the provision or construction of capital works only, and shall exclude the subsidized provision of on-farm facilities other than for the reticulation of generally available public utilities. It shall not include subsidies to inputs or operating costs, or preferential user charges.

3. Public stockholding for food security purposes14

Expenditures (or revenue foregone) in relation to the accumulation and holding of stocks of products which form an integral part of a food security programme identified in national legislation. This may include government aid to private storage of products as part of such a programme.

The volume and accumulation of such stocks shall correspond to predetermined targets related solely to food security. The process of stock accumulation and disposal shall be financially transparent. Food purchases by the government shall be made at current market prices and sales from food security stocks shall be made at no less than the current domestic market price for the product and quality in question.

4. Domestic food aid15

Expenditures (or revenue foregone) in relation to the provision of domestic food aid to sections of the population in need.

Eligibility to receive the food aid shall be subject to clearly-defined criteria related to nutritional objectives. Such aid shall be in the form of direct provision of food to those concerned or the provision of means to allow eligible recipients to buy food either at market or at subsidized prices. Food purchases by the government shall be made at current market prices and the financing and administration of the aid shall be transparent.

5. Direct payments to producers

Support provided through direct payments (or revenue foregone, including payments in kind) to producers for which exemption from reduction commitments is claimed shall meet the basic criteria set out in paragraph 1 above, plus specific criteria applying to individual types of direct payment as set out in paragraphs 6 through 13 below. Where exemption from reduction is claimed for any existing or new type of direct payment other than those specified in paragraphs 6 through 13, it shall conform to criteria (b) through (e) in paragraph 6, in addition to the general criteria set out in paragraph 1.

6. Decoupled income support

  • a) Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by clearly-defined criteria such as income, status as a producer or landowner, factor use or production level in a defined and fixed base period.

  • b) The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the type or volume of production (including livestock units) undertaken by the producer in any year after the base period.

  • c) The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the prices, domestic or international, applying to any production undertaken in any year after the base period.

  • d) The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the factors of production employed in any year after the base period.

  • e) No production shall be required in order to receive such payments.

7. Government financial participation in income insurance and income safety-net programmes

  • a) Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by an income loss, taking into account only income derived from agriculture, which exceeds 30 per cent of average gross income or the equivalent in net income terms (excluding any payments from the same or similar schemes) in the preceding three-year period or a three-year average based on the preceding five-year period, excluding the highest and the lowest entry. Any producer meeting this condition shall be eligible to receive the payments.

  • b) The amount of such payments shall compensate for less than 70 per cent of the producer's income loss in the year the producer becomes eligible to receive this assistance.

  • c) The amount of any such payments shall relate solely to income; it shall not relate to the type or volume of production (including livestock units) undertaken by the producer; or to the prices, domestic or international, applying to such production; or to the factors of production employed.

  • d) Where a producer receives in the same year payments under this paragraph and under paragraph 8 (relief from natural disasters), the total of such payments shall be less than 100 per cent of the producer's total loss.

8. Payments (made either directly or by way of government financial participation in crop insurance schemes) for relief from natural disasters

  • a) Eligibility for such payments shall arise only following a formal recognition by government authorities that a natural or like disaster (including disease outbreaks, pest infestations, nuclear accidents, and war on the territory of the Member concerned) has occurred or is occurring; and shall be determined by a production loss which exceeds 30 per cent of the average of production in the preceding three-year period or a three-year average based on the preceding five-year period, excluding the highest and the lowest entry.

  • b) Payments made following a disaster shall be applied only in respect of losses of income, livestock (including payments in connection with the veterinary treatment of animals), land or other production factors due to the natural disaster in question.

  • c) Payments shall compensate for not more than the total cost of replacing such losses and shall not require or specify the type or quantity of future production.

  • d) Payments made during a disaster shall not exceed the level required to prevent or alleviate further loss as defined in criterion (b) above.

  • e) Where a producer receives in the same year payments under this paragraph and under paragraph 7 (income insurance and income safety-net programmes), the total of such payments shall be less than 100 per cent of the producer's total loss.

9. Structural adjustment assistance provided through producer retirement programmes

  • a) Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by reference to clearly defined criteria in programmes designed to facilitate the retirement of persons engaged in marketable agricultural production, or their movement to non-agricultural activities.

  • b) Payments shall be conditional upon the total and permanent retirement of the recipients from marketable agricultural production.

10. Structural adjustment assistance provided through resource retirement programmes

  • a) Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by reference to clearly defined criteria in programmes designed to remove land or other resources, including livestock, from marketable agricultural production.

  • b) Payments shall be conditional upon the retirement of land from marketable agricultural production for a minimum of three years, and in the case of livestock on its slaughter or definitive permanent disposal.

  • c) Payments shall not require or specify any alternative use for such land or other resources which involves the production of marketable agricultural products.

  • d) Payments shall not be related to either the type or quantity of production or to the prices, domestic or international, applying to production undertaken using the land or other resources remaining in production.

11. Structural adjustment assistance provided through investment aids

  • a) Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by reference to clearly-defined criteria in government programmes designed to assist the financial or physical restructuring of a producer's operations in response to objectively demonstrated structural disadvantages. Eligibility for such programmes may also be based on a clearly-defined government programme for the reprivatization of agricultural land.

  • b) The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the type or volume of production (including livestock units) undertaken by the producer in any year after the base period other than as provided for under criterion (e) below.

  • c) The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the prices, domestic or international, applying to any production undertaken in any year after the base period.

  • d) The payments shall be given only for the period of time necessary for the realization of the investment in respect of which they are provided.

  • e) The payments shall not mandate or in any way designate the agricultural products to be produced by the recipients except to require them not to produce a particular product.

  • f) The payments shall be limited to the amount required to compensate for the structural disadvantage.

12. Payments under environmental programmes

  • a) Eligibility for such payments shall be determined as part of a clearly-defined government environmental or conservation programme and be dependent on the fulfilment of specific conditions under the government programme, including conditions related to production methods or inputs.

  • b) The amount of payment shall be limited to the extra costs or loss of income involved in complying with the government programme.

13. Payments under regional assistance programmes

  • a) Eligibility for such payments shall be limited to producers in disadvantaged regions. Each such region must be a clearly designated contiguous geographical area with a definable economic and administrative identity, considered as disadvantaged on the basis of neutral and objective criteria clearly spelt out in law or regulation and indicating that the region's difficulties arise out of more than temporary circumstances.

  • b) The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the type or volume of production (including livestock units) undertaken by the producer in any year after the base period other than to reduce that production.

  • c) The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the prices, domestic or international, applying to any production undertaken in any year after the base period.

  • d) Payments shall be available only to producers in eligible regions, but generally available to all producers within such regions.

  • e) Where related to production factors, payments shall be made at a degressive rate above a threshold level of the factor concerned.

  • f) The payments shall be limited to the extra costs or loss of income involved in undertaking agricultural production in the prescribed area.

Annex 3. DOMESTIC SUPPORT: CALCULATION OF AGGREGATE MEASUREMENT OF SUPPORT

1

Subject to the provisions of Article 6, an Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) shall be calculated on a product-specific basis for each basic agricultural product receiving market price support, nonexempt direct payments, or any other subsidy not exempted from the reduction commitment ("other non-exempt policies"). Support which is non-product specific shall be totalled into one non-product-specific AMS in total monetary terms.

2

Subsidies under paragraph 1 shall include both budgetary outlays and revenue foregone by governments or their agents.

3

Support at both the national and sub-national level shall be included.

4

Specific agricultural levies or fees paid by producers shall be deducted from the AMS.

5

The AMS calculated as outlined below for the base period shall constitute the base level for the implementation of the reduction commitment on domestic support.

6

For each basic agricultural product, a specific AMS shall be established, expressed in total monetary value terms.

7

The AMS shall be calculated as close as practicable to the point of first sale of the basic agricultural product concerned. Measures directed at agricultural processors shall be included to the extent that such measures benefit the producers of the basic agricultural products.

8

Market price support: market price support shall be calculated using the gap between a fixed external reference price and the applied administered price multiplied by the quantity of production eligible to receive the applied administered price. Budgetary payments made to maintain this gap, such as buying-in or storage costs, shall not be included in the AMS.

9

The fixed external reference price shall be based on the years 1986 to 1988 and shall generally be the average f.o.b. unit value for the basic agricultural product concerned in a net exporting country and the average c.i.f. unit value for the basic agricultural product concerned in a net importing country in the base period. The fixed reference price may be adjusted for quality differences as necessary.

10

Non-exempt direct payments: non-exempt direct payments which are dependent on a price gap shall be calculated either using the gap between the fixed reference price and the applied administered price multiplied by the quantity of production eligible to receive the administered price, or using budgetary outlays.

11

The fixed reference price shall be based on the years 1986 to 1988 and shall generally be the actual price used for determining payment rates.

12

Non-exempt direct payments which are based on factors other than price shall be measured using budgetary outlays.

13

Other non-exempt measures, including input subsidies and other measures such as marketing-cost reduction measures: the value of such measures shall be measured using government budgetary outlays or, where the use of budgetary outlays does not reflect the full extent of the subsidy concerned, the basis for calculating the subsidy shall be the gap between the price of the subsidized good or service and a representative market price for a similar good or service multiplied by the quantity of the good or service.

Annex 4. DOMESTIC SUPPORT: CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT MEASUREMENT OF SUPPORT

1

Subject to the provisions of Article 6, equivalent measurements of support shall be calculated in respect of all basic agricultural products where market price support as defined in Annex 3 exists but for which calculation of this component of the AMS is not practicable. For such products the base level for implementation of the domestic support reduction commitments shall consist of a market price support component expressed in terms of equivalent measurements of support under paragraph 2 below, as well as any non-exempt direct payments and other non-exempt support, which shall be evaluated as provided for under paragraph 3 below. Support at both national and sub-national level shall be included.

2

The equivalent measurements of support provided for in paragraph 1 shall be calculated on a product-specific basis for all basic agricultural products as close as practicable to the point of first sale receiving market price support and for which the calculation of the market price support component of the AMS is not practicable. For those basic agricultural products, equivalent measurements of market price support shall be made using the applied administered price and the quantity of production eligible to receive that price or, where this is not practicable, on budgetary outlays used to maintain the producer price.

3

Where basic agricultural products falling under paragraph 1 are the subject of non-exempt direct payments or any other product-specific subsidy not exempted from the reduction commitment, the basis for equivalent measurements of support concerning these measures shall be calculations as for the corresponding AMS components (specified in paragraphs 10 through 13 of Annex 3).

4

Equivalent measurements of support shall be calculated on the amount of subsidy as close as practicable to the point of first sale of the basic agricultural product concerned. Measures directed at agricultural processors shall be included to the extent that such measures benefit the producers of the basic agricultural products. Specific agricultural levies or fees paid by producers shall reduce the equivalent measurements of support by a corresponding amount.

Annex 5. SPECIAL TREATMENT WITH RESPECT TO PARAGRAPH 2 OF ARTICLE 4

Section A

1

The provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 4 shall not apply with effect from the entry into force of the WTO Agreement to any primary agricultural product and its worked and/or prepared products ("designated products") in respect of which the following conditions are complied with (hereinafter referred to as "special treatment"):

  • a) imports of the designated products comprised less than 3 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period 1986-1988 ("the base period");

  • b) no export subsidies have been provided since the beginning of the base period for the designated products;

  • c) effective production-restricting measures are applied to the primary agricultural product;

  • d) such products are designated with the symbol "ST-Annex 5" in Section I-B of Part I of a Member's Schedule annexed to the Marrakesh Protocol, as being subject to special treatment reflecting factors of non-trade concerns, such as food security and environmental protection; and

  • e) minimum access opportunities in respect of the designated products correspond, as specified in Section I-B of Part I of the Schedule of the Member concerned, to 4 per cent of base period domestic consumption of the designated products from the beginning of the first year of the implementation period and, thereafter, are increased by 0.8 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period per year for the remainder of the implementation period.

2

At the beginning of any year of the implementation period a Member may cease to apply special treatment in respect of the designated products by complying with the provisions of paragraph 6. In such a case, the Member concerned shall maintain the minimum access opportunities already in effect at such time and increase the minimum access opportunities by 0.4 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period per year for the remainder of the implementation period. Thereafter, the level of minimum access opportunities resulting from this formula in the final year of the implementation period shall be maintained in the Schedule of the Member concerned.

3

Any negotiation on the question of whether there can be a continuation of the special treatment as set out in paragraph 1 after the end of the implementation period shall be completed within the time-frame of the implementation period itself as a part of the negotiations set out in Article 20 of this Agreement, taking into account the factors of non-trade concerns.

4

If it is agreed as a result of the negotiation referred to in paragraph 3 that a Member may continue to apply the special treatment, such Member shall confer additional and acceptable concessions as determined in that negotiation.

5

Where the special treatment is not to be continued at the end of the implementation period, the Member concerned shall implement the provisions of paragraph 6. In such a case, after the end of the implementation period the minimum access opportunities for the designated products shall be maintained at the level of 8 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period in the Schedule of the Member concerned.

6

Border measures other than ordinary customs duties maintained in respect of the designated products shall become subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 4 with effect from the beginning of the year in which the special treatment ceases to apply. Such products shall be subject to ordinary customs duties, which shall be bound in the Schedule of the Member concerned and applied, from the beginning of the year in which special treatment ceases and thereafter, at such rates as would have been applicable had a reduction of at least 15 per cent been implemented over the implementation period in equal annual installments. These duties shall be established on the basis of tariff equivalents to be calculated in accordance with the guidelines prescribed in the attachment hereto.

Section B

7

The provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 4 shall also not apply with effect from the entry into force of the WTO Agreement to a primary agricultural product that is the predominant staple in the traditional diet of a developing country Member and in respect of which the following conditions, in addition to those specified in paragraph 1(a) through 1(d), as they apply to the products concerned, are complied with:

  • a) minimum access opportunities in respect of the products concerned, as specified in Section I-B of Part I of the Schedule of the developing country Member concerned, correspond to 1 per cent of base period domestic consumption of the products concerned from the beginning of the first year of the implementation period and are increased in equal annual installments to 2 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period at the beginning of the fifth year of the implementation period. From the beginning of the sixth year of the implementation period, minimum access opportunities in respect of the products concerned correspond to 2 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period and are increased in equal annual installments to 4 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period until the beginning of the 10th year. Thereafter, the level of minimum access opportunities resulting from this formula in the 10th year shall be maintained in the Schedule of the developing country Member concerned

  • b) appropriate market access opportunities have been provided for in other products under this Agreement.

8

Any negotiation on the question of whether there can be a continuation of the special treatment as set out in paragraph 7 after the end of the 10th year following the beginning of the implementation period shall be initiated and completed within the time-frame of the 10th year itself following the beginning of the implementation period.

9

If it is agreed as a result of the negotiation referred to in paragraph 8 that a Member may continue to apply the special treatment, such Member shall confer additional and acceptable concessions as determined in that negotiation.

10

In the event that special treatment under paragraph 7 is not to be continued beyond the 10th year following the beginning of the implementation period, the products concerned shall be subject to ordinary customs duties, established on the basis of a tariff equivalent to be calculated in accordance with the guidelines prescribed in the attachment hereto, which shall be bound in the Schedule of the Member concerned. In other respects, the provisions of paragraph 6 shall apply as modified by the relevant special and differential treatment accorded to developing country Members under this Agreement.

Attachment to Annex 5

Guidelines for the Calculation of Tariff Equivalents for the Specific Purpose Specified in Paragraphs 6 and 10 of this Annex

1

The calculation of the tariff equivalents, whether expressed as ad valorem or specific rates, shall be made using the actual difference between internal and external prices in a transparent manner. Data used shall be for the years 1986 to 1988. Tariff equivalents:

  • a) shall primarily be established at the four-digit level of the HS;

  • b) shall be established at the six-digit or a more detailed level of the HS wherever appropriate;

  • c) shall generally be established for worked and/or prepared products by multiplying the specific tariff equivalent(s) for the primary agricultural product(s) by the proportion(s) in value terms or in physical terms as appropriate of the primary agricultural product(s) in the worked and/or prepared products, and take account, where necessary, of any additional elements currently providing protection to industry.

2

External prices shall be, in general, actual average c.i.f. unit values for the importing country. Where average c.i.f. unit values are not available or appropriate, external prices shall be either:

  • a) appropriate average c.i.f. unit values of a near country; or

  • b) estimated from average f.o.b. unit values of (an) appropriate major exporter(s) adjusted by adding an estimate of insurance, freight and other relevant costs to the importing country.

3

The external prices shall generally be converted to domestic currencies using the annual average market exchange rate for the same period as the price data.

4

The internal price shall generally be a representative wholesale price ruling in the domestic market or an estimate of that price where adequate data is not available.

5

The initial tariff equivalents may be adjusted, where necessary, to take account of differences in quality or variety using an appropriate coefficient.

6

Where a tariff equivalent resulting from these guidelines is negative or lower than the current bound rate, the initial tariff equivalent may be established at the current bound rate or on the basis of national offers for that product.

7

Where an adjustment is made to the level of a tariff equivalent which would have resulted from the above guidelines, the Member concerned shall afford, on request, full opportunities for consultation with a view to negotiating appropriate solutions.

Agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures

Members,

Reaffirming that no Member should be prevented from adopting or enforcing measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, subject to the requirement that these measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between Members where the same conditions prevail or a disguised restriction on international trade;

Desiring to improve the human health, animal health and phytosanitary situation in all Members;

Noting that sanitary and phytosanitary measures are often applied on the basis of bilateral agreements or protocols;

Desiring the establishment of a multilateral framework of rules and disciplines to guide the development, adoption and enforcement of sanitary and phytosanitary measures in order to minimize their negative effects on trade;

Recognizing the important contribution that international standards, guidelines and recommendations can make in this regard;

Desiring to further the use of harmonized sanitary and phytosanitary measures between Members, on the basis of international standards, guidelines and recommendations developed by the relevant international organizations, including the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Office of Epizootics, and the relevant international and regional organizations operating within the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention, without requiring Members to change their appropriate level of protection of human, animal or plant life or health;

Recognizing that developing country Members may encounter special difficulties in complying with the sanitary or phytosanitary measures of importing Members, and as a consequence in access to markets, and also in the formulation and application of sanitary or phytosanitary measures in their own territories, and desiring to assist them in their endeavours in this regard;

Desiring therefore to elaborate rules for the application of the provisions of GATT 1994 which relate to the use of sanitary or phytosanitary measures, in particular the provisions of Article XXb)16;

Hereby agree as follows:

Article 1. General Provisions

  • 1 This Agreement applies to all sanitary and phytosanitary measures which may, directly or indirectly, affect international trade. Such measures shall be developed and applied in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

  • 2 For the purposes of this Agreement, the definitions provided in Annex A shall apply.

  • 3 The annexes are an integral part of this Agreement.

  • 4 Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the rights of Members under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade with respect to measures not within the scope of this Agreement.

Article 2. Basic Rights and Obligations

  • 1 Members have the right to take sanitary and phytosanitary measures necessary for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement.

  • 2 Members shall ensure that any sanitary or phytosanitary measure is applied only to the extent necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, is based on scientific principles and is not maintained without sufficient scientific evidence, except as provided for in paragraph 7 of Article 5.

  • 3 Members shall ensure that their sanitary and phytosanitary measures do not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate between Members where identical or similar conditions prevail, including between their own territory and that of other Members. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures shall not be applied in a manner which would constitute a disguised restriction on international trade.

  • 4 Sanitary or phytosanitary measures which conform to the relevant provisions of this Agreement shall be presumed to be in accordance with the obligations of the Members under the provisions of GATT 1994 which relate to the use of sanitary or phytosanitary measures, in particular the provisions of Article XX(b).

Article 3. Harmonization

  • 1 To harmonize sanitary and phytosanitary measures on as wide a basis as possible, Members shall base their sanitary or phytosanitary measures on international standards, guidelines or recommendations, where they exist, except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement, and in particular in paragraph 3.

  • 2 Sanitary or phytosanitary measures which conform to international standards, guidelines or recommendations shall be deemed to be necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, and presumed to be consistent with the relevant provisions of this Agreement and of GATT 1994.

  • 3 Members may introduce or maintain sanitary or phytosanitary measures which result in a higher level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection than would be achieved by measures based on the relevant international standards, guidelines or recommendations, if there is a scientific justification, or as a consequence of the level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection a Member determines to be appropriate in accordance with the relevant provisions of paragraphs 1 through 8 of Article 5.17 Notwithstanding the above, all measures which result in a level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection different from that which would be achieved by measures based on international standards, guidelines or recommendations shall not be inconsistent with any other provision of this Agreement.

  • 4 Members shall play a full part, within the limits of their resources, in the relevant international organizations and their subsidiary bodies, in particular the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Office of Epizootics, and the international and regional organizations operating within the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention, to promote within these organizations the development and periodic review of standards, guidelines and recommendations with respect to all aspects of sanitary and phytosanitary measures.

  • 5 The Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures provided for in paragraphs 1 and 4 of Article 12 (referred to in this Agreement as the “Committee”) shall develop a procedure to monitor the process of international harmonization and coordinate efforts in this regard with the relevant international organizations.

Article 4. Equivalence

  • 1 Members shall accept the sanitary or phytosanitary measures of other Members as equivalent, even if these measures differ from their own or from those used by other Members trading in the same product, if the exporting Member objectively demonstrates to the importing Member that its measures achieve the importing Member's appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection. For this purpose, reasonable access shall be given, upon request, to the importing Member for inspection, testing and other relevant procedures.

  • 2 Members shall, upon request, enter into consultations with the aim of achieving bilateral and multilateral agreements on recognition of the equivalence of specified sanitary or phytosanitary measures.

Article 5. Assessment of Risk and Determination of the Appropriate Level of Sanitary or Phytosanitary Protection

  • 1 Members shall ensure that their sanitary or phytosanitary measures are based on an assessment, as appropriate to the circumstances, of the risks to human, animal or plant life or health, taking into account risk assessment techniques developed by the relevant international organizations.

  • 2 In the assessment of risks, Members shall take into account available scientific evidence; relevant processes and production methods; relevant inspection, sampling and testing methods; prevalence of specific diseases or pests; existence of pest- or disease-free areas; relevant ecological and environmental conditions; and quarantine or other treatment.

  • 3 In assessing the risk to animal or plant life or health and determining the measure to be applied for achieving the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection from such risk, Members shall take into account as relevant economic factors: the potential damage in terms of loss of production or sales in the event of the entry, establishment or spread of a pest or disease; the costs of control or eradication in the territory of the importing Member; and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative approaches to limiting risks.

  • 4 Members should, when determining the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection, take into account the objective of minimizing negative trade effects.

  • 5 With the objective of achieving consistency in the application of the concept of appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection against risks to human life or health, or to animal and plant life or health, each Member shall avoid arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions in the levels it considers to be appropriate in different situations, if such distinctions result in discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Members shall cooperate in the Committee, in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of Article 12, to develop guidelines to further the practical implementation of this provision. In developing the guidelines, the Committee shall take into account all relevant factors, including the exceptional character of human health risks to which people voluntarily expose themselves.

  • 6 Without prejudice to paragraph 2 of Article 3, when establishing or maintaining sanitary or phytosanitary measures to achieve the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection, Members shall ensure that such measures are not more trade-restrictive than required to achieve their appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection, taking into account technical and economic feasibility.18

  • 7 In cases where relevant scientific evidence is insufficient, a Member may provisionally adopt sanitary or phytosanitary measures on the basis of available pertinent information, including that from the relevant international organizations as well as from sanitary or phytosanitary measures applied by other Members. In such circumstances, Members shall seek to obtain the additional information necessary for a more objective assessment of risk and review the sanitary or phytosanitary measure accordingly within a reasonable period of time.

  • 8 When a Member has reason to believe that a specific sanitary or phytosanitary measure introduced or maintained by another Member is constraining, or has the potential to constrain, its exports and the measure is not based on the relevant international standards, guidelines or recommendations, or such standards, guidelines or recommendations do not exist, an explanation of the reasons for such sanitary or phytosanitary measure may be requested and shall be provided by the Member maintaining the measure.

Article 6. Adaptation to Regional Conditions, Including Pest- or Disease-Free Areas and Areas of Low Pest or Disease Prevalence

  • 1 Members shall ensure that their sanitary or phytosanitary measures are adapted to the sanitary or phytosanitary characteristics of the area - whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries - from which the product originated and to which the product is destined. In assessing the sanitary or phytosanitary characteristics of a region, Members shall take into account,inter alia,the level of prevalence of specific diseases or pests, the existence of eradication or control programmes, and appropriate criteria or guidelines which may be developed by the relevant international organizations.

  • 2 Members shall, in particular, recognize the concepts of pest- or disease-free areas and areas of low pest or disease prevalence. Determination of such areas shall be based on factors such as geography, ecosystems, epidemiological surveillance, and the effectiveness of sanitary or phytosanitary controls.

  • 3 Exporting Members claiming that areas within their territories are pest- or disease-free areas or areas of low pest or disease prevalence shall provide the necessary evidence thereof in order to objectively demonstrate to the importing Member that such areas are, and are likely to remain, pest- or disease-free areas or areas of low pest or disease prevalence, respectively. For this purpose, reasonable access shall be given, upon request, to the importing Member for inspection, testing and other relevant procedures.

Article 7. Transparency

Members shall notify changes in their sanitary or phytosanitary measures and shall provide information on their sanitary or phytosanitary measures in accordance with the provisions of Annex B.

Article 8. Control, Inspection and Approval Procedures

Members shall observe the provisions of Annex C in the operation of control, inspection and approval procedures, including national systems for approving the use of additives or for establishing tolerances for contaminants in foods, beverages or feedstuffs, and otherwise ensure that their procedures are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement.

Article 9. Technical Assistance

  • 1 Members agree to facilitate the provision of technical assistance to other Members, especially developing country Members, either bilaterally or through the appropriate international organizations. Such assistance may be,inter alia,in the areas of processing technologies, research and infrastructure, including in the establishment of national regulatory bodies, and may take the form of advice, credits, donations and grants, including for the purpose of seeking technical expertise, training and equipment to allow such countries to adjust to, and comply with, sanitary or phytosanitary measures necessary to achieve the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection in their export markets.

  • 2 Where substantial investments are required in order for an exporting developing country Member to fulfil the sanitary or phytosanitary requirements of an importing Member, the latter shall consider providing such technical assistance as will permit the developing country Member to maintain and expand its market access opportunities for the product involved.

Article 10. Special and Differential Treatment

  • 1 In the preparation and application of sanitary or phytosanitary measures, Members shall take account of the special needs of developing country Members, and in particular of the least-developed country Members.

  • 2 Where the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection allows scope for the phased introduction of new sanitary or phytosanitary measures, longer time-frames for compliance should be accorded on products of interest to developing country Members so as to maintain opportunities for their exports.

  • 3 With a view to ensuring that developing country Members are able to comply with the provisions of this Agreement, the Committee is enabled to grant to such countries, upon request, specified, time-limited exceptions in whole or in part from obligations under this Agreement, taking into account their financial, trade and development needs.

  • 4 Members should encourage and facilitate the active participation of developing country Members in the relevant international organizations.

Article 11. Consultations and Dispute Settlement

  • 1 The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically provided herein.

  • 2 In a dispute under this Agreement involving scientific or technical issues, a panel should seek advice from experts chosen by the panel in consultation with the parties to the dispute. To this end, the panel may, when it deems it appropriate, establish an advisory technical experts group, or consult the relevant international organizations, at the request of either party to the dispute or on its own initiative.

  • 3 Nothing in this Agreement shall impair the rights of Members under other international agreements, including the right to resort to the good offices or dispute settlement mechanisms of other international organizations or established under any international agreement.

Article 12. Administration

  • 1 A Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures is hereby established to provide a regular forum for consultations. It shall carry out the functions necessary to implement the provisions of this Agreement and the furtherance of its objectives, in particular with respect to harmonization. The Committee shall reach its decisions by consensus.

  • 2 The Committee shall encourage and facilitate ad hoc consultations or negotiations among Members on specific sanitary or phytosanitary issues. The Committee shall encourage the use of international standards, guidelines or recommendations by all Members and, in this regard, shall sponsor technical consultation and study with the objective of increasing coordination and integration between international and national systems and approaches for approving the use of food additives or for establishing tolerances for contaminants in foods, beverages or feedstuffs.

  • 3 The Committee shall maintain close contact with the relevant international organizations in the field of sanitary and phytosanitary protection, especially with the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Office of Epizootics, and the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention, with the objective of securing the best available scientific and technical advice for the administration of this Agreement and in order to ensure that unnecessary duplication of effort is avoided.

  • 4 The Committee shall develop a procedure to monitor the process of international harmonization and the use of international standards, guidelines or recommendations. For this purpose, the Committee should, in conjunction with the relevant international organizations, establish a list of international standards, guidelines or recommendations relating to sanitary or phytosanitary measures which the Committee determines to have a major trade impact. The list should include an indication by Members of those international standards, guidelines or recommendations which they apply as conditions for import or on the basis of which imported products conforming to these standards can enjoy access to their markets. For those cases in which a Member does not apply an international standard, guideline or recommendation as a condition for import, the Member should provide an indication of the reason therefor, and, in particular, whether it considers that the standard is not stringent enough to provide the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection. If a Member revises its position, following its indication of the use of a standard, guideline or recommendation as a condition for import, it should provide an explanation for its change and so inform the Secretariat as well as the relevant international organizations, unless such notification and explanation is given according to the procedures of Annex B.

  • 5 In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, the Committee may decide, as appropriate, to use the information generated by the procedures, particularly for notification, which are in operation in the relevant international organizations.

  • 6 The Committee may, on the basis of an initiative from one of the Members, through appropriate channels invite the relevant international organizations or their subsidiary bodies to examine specific matters with respect to a particular standard, guideline or recommendation, including the basis of explanations for non-use given according to paragraph 4.

  • 7 The Committee shall review the operation and implementation of this Agreement three years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, and thereafter as the need arises. Where appropriate, the Committee may submit to the Council for Trade in Goods proposals to amend the text of this Agreement having regard,inter alia,to the experience gained in its implementation.

Article 13. Implementation

Members are fully responsible under this Agreement for the observance of all obligations set forth herein. Members shall formulate and implement positive measures and mechanisms in support of the observance of the provisions of this Agreement by other than central government bodies. Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that non-governmental entities within their territories, as well as regional bodies in which relevant entities within their territories are members, comply with the relevant provisions of this Agreement. In addition, Members shall not take measures which have the effect of, directly or indirectly, requiring or encouraging such regional or non-governmental entities, or local governmental bodies, to act in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement. Members shall ensure that they rely on the services of non-governmental entities for implementing sanitary or phytosanitary measures only if these entities comply with the provisions of this Agreement.

Article 14. Final Provisions

The least-developed country Members may delay application of the provisions of this Agreement for a period of five years following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with respect to their sanitary or phytosanitary measures affecting importation or imported products. Other developing country Members may delay application of the provisions of this Agreement, other than paragraph 8 of Article 5 and Article 7, for two years following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with respect to their existing sanitary or phytosanitary measures affecting importation or imported products, where such application is prevented by a lack of technical expertise, technical infrastructure or resources

Annex A. DEFINITIONS19

1. Sanitary or phytosanitary measure

- Any measure applied:

  • a) to protect animal or plant life or health within the territory of the Member from risks arising from the entry, establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease-carrying organisms or disease-causing organisms;

  • b) to protect human or animal life or health within the territory of the Member from risks arising from additives, contaminants, toxins or disease-causing organisms in foods, beverages or feedstuffs;

  • c) to protect human life or health within the territory of the Member from risks arising from diseases carried by animals, plants or products thereof, or from the entry, establishment or spread of pests; or

  • d) to prevent or limit other damage within the territory of the Member from the entry, establishment or spread of pests.

Sanitary or phytosanitary measures include all relevant laws, decrees, regulations, requirements and procedures including,inter alia,end product criteria; processes and production methods; testing, inspection, certification and approval procedures; quarantine treatments including relevant requirements associated with the transport of animals or plants, or with the materials necessary for their survival during transport; provisions on relevant statistical methods, sampling procedures and methods of risk assessment; and packaging and labelling requirements directly related to food safety.

2. Harmonization

- The establishment, recognition and application of common sanitary and phytosanitary measures by different Members.

3. International standards, guidelines and recommendations

  • a) for food safety, the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission relating to food additives, veterinary drug and pesticide residues, contaminants, methods of analysis and sampling, and codes and guidelines of hygienic practice;

  • b) for animal health and zoonoses, the standards, guidelines and recommendations developed under the auspices of the International Office of Epizootics;

  • c) for plant health, the international standards, guidelines and recommendations developed under the auspices of the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention in cooperation with regional organizations operating within the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention; and

  • d) for matters not covered by the above organizations, appropriate standards, guidelines and recommendations promulgated by other relevant international organizations open for membership to all Members, as identified by the Committee.

4. Risk assessment

- The evaluation of the likelihood of entry, establishment or spread of a pest or disease within the territory of an importing Member according to the sanitary or phytosanitary measures which might be applied, and of the associated potential biological and economic consequences; or the evaluation of the potential for adverse effects on human or animal health arising from the presence of additives, contaminants, toxins or disease-causing organisms in food, beverages or feedstuffs.

5. Appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection

-The level of protection deemed appropriate by the Member establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory.

NOTE: Many Members otherwise refer to this concept as the "acceptable level of risk".

6. Pest or disease-free area

- An area, whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries, as identified by the competent authorities, in which a specific pest or disease does not occur.

NOTE: A pest- or disease-free area may surround, be surrounded by, or be adjacent to an area - whether within part of a country or in a geographic region which includes parts of or all of several countries - in which a specific pest or disease is known to occur but is subject to regional control measures such as the establishment of protection, surveillance and buffer zones which will confine or eradicate the pest or disease in question.

7. Area of low pest or disease prevalence

- An area, whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries, as identified by the competent authorities, in which a specific pest or disease occurs at low levels and which is subject to effective surveillance, control or eradication measures.

Annex B. TRANSPARENCY OF SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY REGULATIONS

Publication of regulations

1

Members shall ensure that all sanitary and phytosanitary regulations20which have been adopted are published promptly in such a manner as to enable interested Members to become acquainted with them.

2

Except in urgent circumstances, Members shall allow a reasonable interval between the publication of a sanitary or phytosanitary regulation and its entry into force in order to allow time for producers in exporting Members, and particularly in developing country Members, to adapt their products and methods of production to the requirements of the importing Member.

Enquiry points

3

Each Member shall ensure that one enquiry point exists which is responsible for the provision of answers to all reasonable questions from interested Members as well as for the provision of relevant documents regarding:

  • a) any sanitary or phytosanitary regulations adopted or proposed within its territory;

  • b) any control and inspection procedures, production and quarantine treatment, pesticide tolerance and food additive approval procedures, which are operated within its territory;

  • c) risk assessment procedures, factors taken into consideration, as well as the determination of the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection;

  • d) the membership and participation of the Member, or of relevant bodies within its territory, in international and regional sanitary and phytosanitary organizations and systems, as well as in bilateral and multilateral agreements and arrangements within the scope of this Agreement, and the texts of such agreements and arrangements.

4

Members shall ensure that where copies of documents are requested by interested Members, they are supplied at the same price (if any), apart from the cost of delivery, as to the nationals21of the Member concerned.

Notification procedures

5

Whenever an international standard, guideline or recommendation does not exist or the content of a proposed sanitary or phytosanitary regulation is not substantially the same as the content of an international standard, guideline or recommendation, and if the regulation may have a significant effect on trade of other Members, Members shall:

  • a) publish a notice at an early stage in such a manner as to enable interested Members to become acquainted with the proposal to introduce a particular regulation;

  • b) notify other Members, through the Secretariat, of the products to be covered by the regulation together with a brief indication of the objective and rationale of the proposed regulation. Such notifications shall take place at an early stage, when amendments can still be introduced and comments taken into account;

  • c) provide upon request to other Members copies of the proposed regulation and, whenever possible, identify the parts which in substance deviate from international standards, guidelines or recommendations;

  • d) without discrimination, allow reasonable time for other Members to make comments in writing, discuss these comments upon request, and take the comments and the results of the discussions into account.

6

However, where urgent problems of health protection arise or threaten to arise for a Member, that Member may omit such of the steps enumerated in paragraph 5 of this Annex as it finds necessary, provided that the Member:

  • a) immediately notifies other Members, through the Secretariat, of the particular regulation and the products covered, with a brief indication of the objective and the rationale of the regulation, including the nature of the urgent problem(s);

  • b) provides, upon request, copies of the regulation to other Members;

  • c) allows other Members to make comments in writing, discusses these comments upon request, and takes the comments and the results of the discussions into account.

7

Notifications to the Secretariat shall be in English, French or Spanish.

8

Developed country Members shall, if requested by other Members, provide copies of the documents or, in case of voluminous documents, summaries of the documents covered by a specific notification in English, French or Spanish.

9

The Secretariat shall promptly circulate copies of the notification to all Members and interested international organizations and draw the attention of developing country Members to any notifications relating to products of particular interest to them.

10

10. Members shall designate a single central government authority as responsible for the implementation, on the national level, of the provisions concerning notification procedures according to paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 of this Annex.

General reservations

11

Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring:

  • a) the provision of particulars or copies of drafts or the publication of texts other than in the language of the Member except as stated in paragraph 8 of this Annex; or

  • b) Members to disclose confidential information which would impede enforcement of sanitary or phytosanitary legislation or which would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises.

Annex C. CONTROL, INSPECTION AND APPROVAL PROCEDURES22

1

Members shall ensure, with respect to any procedure to check and ensure the fulfilment of sanitary or phytosanitary measures, that:

  • a) such procedures are undertaken and completed without undue delay and in no less favourable manner for imported products than for like domestic products;

  • b) the standard processing period of each procedure is published or that the anticipated processing period is communicated to the applicant upon request; when receiving an application, the competent body promptly examines the completeness of the documentation and informs the applicant in a precise and complete manner of all deficiencies; the competent body transmits as soon as possible the results of the procedure in a precise and complete manner to the applicant so that corrective action may be taken if necessary; even when the application has deficiencies, the competent body proceeds as far as practicable with the procedure if the applicant so requests; and that upon request, the applicant is informed of the stage of the procedure, with any delay being explained;

  • c) information requirements are limited to what is necessary for appropriate control, inspection and approval procedures, including for approval of the use of additives or for the establishment of tolerances for contaminants in food, beverages or feedstuffs;

  • d) the confidentiality of information about imported products arising from or supplied in connection with control, inspection and approval is respected in a way no less favourable than for domestic products and in such a manner that legitimate commercial interests are protected;

  • e) any requirements for control, inspection and approval of individual specimens of a product are limited to what is reasonable and necessary;

  • f) any fees imposed for the procedures on imported products are equitable in relation to any fees charged on like domestic products or products originating in any other Member and should be no higher than the actual cost of the service;

  • g) the same criteria should be used in the siting of facilities used in the procedures and the selection of samples of imported products as for domestic products so as to minimize the inconvenience to applicants, importers, exporters or their agents;

  • h) whenever specifications of a product are changed subsequent to its control and inspection in light of the applicable regulations, the procedure for the modified product is limited to what is necessary to determine whether adequate confidence exists that the product still meets the regulations concerned; and

  • i) a procedure exists to review complaints concerning the operation of such procedures and to take corrective action when a complaint is justified.

Where an importing Member operates a system for the approval of the use of food additives or for the establishment of tolerances for contaminants in food, beverages or feedstuffs which prohibits or restricts access to its domestic markets for products based on the absence of an approval, the importing Member shall consider the use of a relevant international standard as the basis for access until a final determination is made.

2

Where a sanitary or phytosanitary measure specifies control at the level of production, the Member in whose territory the production takes place shall provide the necessary assistance to facilitate such control and the work of the controlling authorities.

3

Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent Members from carrying out reasonable inspection within their own territories.

Agreement on textiles and clothing

Members,

Recalling that Ministers agreed at Punta del Este that "negotiations in the area of textiles and clothing shall aim to formulate modalities that would permit the eventual integration of this sector into GATT on the basis of strengthened GATT rules and disciplines, thereby also contributing to the objective of further liberalization of trade";

Recalling also that in the April 1989 Decision of the Trade Negotiations Committee it was agreed that the process of integration should commence following the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and should be progressive in character;

Recalling further that it was agreed that special treatment should be accorded to the least-developed country Members;

Hereby agree as follows:

Article 1

  • 1 This Agreement sets out provisions to be applied by Members during a transition period for the integration of the textiles and clothing sector into GATT 1994.

  • 2 Members agree to use the provisions of paragraph 18 of Article 2 and paragraph 6(b) of Article 6 in such a way as to permit meaningful increases in access possibilities for small suppliers and the development of commercially significant trading opportunities for new entrants in the field of textiles and clothing trade.23

  • 3 Members shall have due regard to the situation of those Members which have not accepted the Protocols extending the Arrangement Regarding International Trade in Textiles (referred to in this Agreement as the "MFA") since 1986 and, to the extent possible, shall afford them special treatment in applying the provisions of this Agreement.

  • 4 Members agree that the particular interests of the cotton-producing exporting Members should, in consultation with them, be reflected in the implementation of the provisions of this Agreement.

  • 5 In order to facilitate the integration of the textiles and clothing sector into GATT 1994, Members should allow for continuous autonomous industrial adjustment and increased competition in their markets.

  • 6 Unless otherwise provided in this Agreement, its provisions shall not affect the rights and obligations of Members under the provisions of the WTO Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements.

  • 7 The textile and clothing products to which this Agreement applies are set out in the Annex.

Article 2

  • 1 All quantitative restrictions within bilateral agreements maintained under Article 4 or notified under Article 7 or 8 of the MFA in force on the day before the entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall, within 60 days following such entry into force, be notified in detail, including the restraint levels, growth rates and flexibility provisions, by the Members maintaining such restrictions to the Textiles Monitoring Body provided for in Article 8 (referred to in this Agreement as the "TMB"). Members agree that as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, all such restrictions maintained between GATT 1947 contracting parties, and in place on the day before such entry into force, shall be governed by the provisions of this Agreement.

  • 2 The TMB shall circulate these notifications to all Members for their information. It is open to any Member to bring to the attention of the TMB, within 60 days of the circulation of the notifications, any observations it deems appropriate with regard to such notifications. Such observations shall be circulated to the other Members for their information. The TMB may make recommendations, as appropriate, to the Members concerned.

  • 3 When the 12-month period of restrictions to be notified under paragraph 1 does not coincide with the 12-month period immediately preceding the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, the Members concerned should mutually agree on arrangements to bring the period of restrictions into line with the agreement year24, and to establish notional base levels of such restrictions in order to implement the provisions of this Article. Concerned Members agree to enter into consultations promptly upon request with a view to reaching such mutual agreement. Any such arrangements shall take into account, inter alia, seasonal patterns of shipments in recent years. The results of these consultations shall be notified to the TMB, which shall make such recommendations as it deems appropriate to the Members concerned.

  • 4 The restrictions notified under paragraph 1 shall be deemed to constitute the totality of such restrictions applied by the respective Members on the day before the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. No new restrictions in terms of products or Members shall be introduced except under the provisions of this Agreement or relevant GATT 1994 provisions.25Restrictions not notified within 60 days of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall be terminated forthwith.

  • 5 Any unilateral measure taken under Article 3 of the MFA prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement may remain in effect for the duration specified therein, but not exceeding 12 months, if it has been reviewed by the Textiles Surveillance Body (referred to in this Agreement as the "TSB") established under the MFA. Should the TSB not have had the opportunity to review any such unilateral measure, it shall be reviewed by the TMB in accordance with the rules and procedures governing Article 3 measures under the MFA. Any measure applied under an MFA Article 4 agreement prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement that is the subject of a dispute which the TSB has not had the opportunity to review shall also be reviewed by the TMB in accordance with the MFA rules and procedures applicable for such a review.

  • 6 On the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, each Member shall integrate into GATT 1994 products which accounted for not less than 16 per cent of the total volume of the Member's 1990 imports of the products in the Annex, in terms of HS lines or categories. The products to be integrated shall encompass products from each of the following four groups: tops and yarns, fabrics, made-up textile products, and clothing.

  • 7 Full details of the actions to be taken pursuant to paragraph 6 shall be notified by the Members concerned according to the following:

    • a) Members maintaining restrictions falling under paragraph 1 undertake, notwithstanding the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, to notify such details to the GATT Secretariat not later than the date determined by the Ministerial Decision of 15 April 1994. The GATT Secretariat shall promptly circulate these notifications to the other participants for information. These notifications will be made available to the TMB, when established, for the purposes of paragraph 21;

    • b) Members which have, pursuant to paragraph 1 of Article 6, retained the right to use the provisions of Article 6, shall notify such details to the TMB not later than 60 days following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, or, in the case of those Members covered by paragraph 3 of Article 1, not later than at the end of the 12th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect. The TMB shall circulate these notifications to the other Members for information and review them as provided in paragraph 21.

  • 8 The remaining products, i.e. the products not integrated into GATT 1994 under paragraph 6, shall be integrated, in terms of HS lines or categories, in three stages, as follows:

    • a) on the first day of the 37th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, products which accounted for not less than 17 per cent of the total volume of the Member's 1990 imports of the products in the Annex. The products to be integrated by the Members shall encompass products from each of the following four groups: tops and yarns, fabrics, made-up textile products, and clothing;

    • b) on the first day of the 85th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, products which accounted for not less than 18 per cent of the total volume of the Member's 1990 imports of the products in the Annex. The products to be integrated by the Members shall encompass products from each of the following four groups: tops and yarns, fabrics, made-up textile products, and clothing;

    • c) on the first day of the 121st month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, the textiles and clothing sector shall stand integrated into GATT 1994, all restrictions under this Agreement having been eliminated.

  • 9 Members which have notified, pursuant to paragraph 1 of Article 6, their intention not to retain the right to use the provisions of Article 6 shall, for the purposes of this Agreement, be deemed to have integrated their textiles and clothing products into GATT 1994. Such Members shall, therefore, be exempted from complying with the provisions of paragraphs 6 to 8 and 11.

  • 10 Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent a Member which has submitted an integration programme pursuant to paragraph 6 or 8 from integrating products into GATT 1994 earlier than provided for in such a programme. However, any such integration of products shall take effect at the beginning of an agreement year, and details shall be notified to the TMB at least three months prior thereto for circulation to all Members.

  • 11 The respective programmes of integration, in pursuance of paragraph 8, shall be notified in detail to the TMB at least 12 months before their coming into effect, and circulated by the TMB to all Members.

  • 12 The base levels of the restrictions on the remaining products, mentioned in paragraph 8, shall be the restraint levels referred to in paragraph 1.

  • 13 During Stage 1 of this Agreement (from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement to the 36th month that it is in effect, inclusive) the level of each restriction under MFA bilateral agreements in force for the 12-month period prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall be increased annually by not less than the growth rate established for the respective restrictions, increased by 16 per cent.

  • 14 Except where the Council for Trade in Goods or the Dispute Settlement Body decides otherwise under paragraph 12 of Article 8, the level of each remaining restriction shall be increased annually during subsequent stages of this Agreement by not less than the following:

    • a) for Stage 2 (from the 37th to the 84th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, inclusive), the growth rate for the respective restrictions during Stage 1, increased by 25 per cent;

    • b) for Stage 3 (from the 85th to the 120th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, inclusive), the growth rate for the respective restrictions during Stage 2, increased by 27 per cent.

  • 15 Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent a Member from eliminating any restriction maintained pursuant to this Article, effective at the beginning of any agreement year during the transition period, provided the exporting Member concerned and the TMB are notified at least three months prior to the elimination coming into effect. The period for prior notification may be shortened to 30 days with the agreement of the restrained Member. The TMB shall circulate such notifications to all Members. In considering the elimination of restrictions as envisaged in this paragraph, the Members concerned shall take into account the treatment of similar exports from other Members.

  • 16 Flexibility provisions, i.e. swing, carryover and carry forward, applicable to all restrictions maintained pursuant to this Article, shall be the same as those provided for in MFA bilateral agreements for the 12-month period prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. No quantitative limits shall be placed or maintained on the combined use of swing, carryover and carry forward.

  • 17 Administrative arrangements, as deemed necessary in relation to the implementation of any provision of this Article, shall be a matter for agreement between the Members concerned. Any such arrangements shall be notified to the TMB.

  • 18 As regards those Members whose exports are subject to restrictions on the day before the entry into force of the WTO Agreement and whose restrictions represent 1.2 per cent or less of the total volume of the restrictions applied by an importing Member as of 31 December 1991 and notified under this Article, meaningful improvement in access for their exports shall be provided, at the entry into force of the WTO Agreement and for the duration of this Agreement, through advancement by one stage of the growth rates set out in paragraphs 13 and 14, or through at least equivalent changes as may be mutually agreed with respect to a different mix of base levels, growth and flexibility provisions. Such improvements shall be notified to the TMB.

  • 19 In any case, during the duration of this Agreement, in which a safeguard measure is initiated by a Member under Article XIX of GATT 1994 in respect of a particular product during a period of one year immediately following the integration of that product into GATT 1994 in accordance with the provisions of this Article, the provisions of Article XIX, as interpreted by the Agreement on Safeguards, will apply, save as set out in paragraph 20.

  • 20 Where such a measure is applied using non-tariff means, the importing Member concerned shall apply the measure in a manner as set forth in paragraph 2(d) of Article XIII of GATT 1994 at the request of any exporting Member whose exports of such products were subject to restrictions under this Agreement at any time in the one-year period immediately prior to the initiation of the safeguard measure. The exporting Member concerned shall administer such a measure. The applicable level shall not reduce the relevant exports below the level of a recent representative period, which shall normally be the average of exports from the Member concerned in the last three representative years for which statistics are available. Furthermore, when the safeguard measure is applied for more than one year, the applicable level shall be progressively liberalized at regular intervals during the period of application. In such cases the exporting Member concerned shall not exercise the right of suspending substantially equivalent concessions or other obligations under paragraph 3(a) of Article XIX of GATT 1994.

  • 21 The TMB shall keep under review the implementation of this Article. It shall, at the request of any Member, review any particular matter with reference to the implementation of the provisions of this Article. It shall make appropriate recommendations or findings within 30 days to the Member or Members concerned, after inviting the participation of such Members.

Article 3

  • 1 Within 60 days following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, Members maintaining restrictions26on textile and clothing products (other than restrictions maintained under the MFA and covered by the provisions of Article 2), whether consistent with GATT 1994 or not, shall a) notify them in detail to the TMB, or b) provide to the TMB notifications with respect to them which have been submitted to any other WTO body. The notifications should, wherever applicable, provide information with respect to any GATT 1994 justification for the restrictions, including GATT 1994 provisions on which they are based.

  • 2 Members maintaining restrictions falling under paragraph 1, except those justified under a GATT 1994 provision, shall either:

    • a) bring them into conformity with GATT 1994 within one year following the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, and notify this action to the TMB for its information; or

    • b) phase them out progressively according to a programme to be presented to the TMB by the Member maintaining the restrictions not later than six months after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement. This programme shall provide for all restrictions to be phased out within a period not exceeding the duration of this Agreement. The TMB may make recommendations to the Member concerned with respect to such a programme.

  • 3 During the duration of this Agreement, Members shall provide to the TMB, for its information, notifications submitted to any other WTO bodies with respect to any new restrictions or changes in existing restrictions on textile and clothing products, taken under any GATT 1994 provision, within 60 days of their coming into effect.

  • 4 It shall be open to any Member to make reverse notifications to the TMB, for its information, in regard to the GATT 1994 justification, or in regard to any restrictions that may not have been notified under the provisions of this Article. Actions with respect to such notifications may be pursued by any Member under relevant GATT 1994 provisions or procedures in the appropriate WTO body.

  • 5 The TMB shall circulate the notifications made pursuant to this Article to all Members for their information.

Article 4

  • 1 Restrictions referred to in Article 2, and those applied under Article 6, shall be administered by the exporting Members. Importing Members shall not be obliged to accept shipments in excess of the restrictions notified under Article 2, or of restrictions applied pursuant to Article 6.

  • 2 Members agree that the introduction of changes, such as changes in practices, rules, procedures and categorization of textile and clothing products, including those changes relating to the Harmonized System, in the implementation or administration of those restrictions notified or applied under this Agreement should not: upset the balance of rights and obligations between the Members concerned under this Agreement; adversely affect the access available to a Member; impede the full utilization of such access; or disrupt trade under this Agreement.

  • 3 If a product which constitutes only part of a restriction is notified for integration pursuant to the provisions of Article 2, Members agree that any change in the level of that restriction shall not upset the balance of rights and obligations between the Members concerned under this Agreement.

  • 4 When changes mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 3 are necessary, however, Members agree that the Member initiating such changes shall inform and, wherever possible, initiate consultations with the affected Member or Members prior to the implementation of such changes, with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable solution regarding appropriate and equitable adjustment. Members further agree that where consultation prior to implementation is not feasible, the Member initiating such changes will, at the request of the affected Member, consult, within 60 days if possible, with the Members concerned with a view to reaching a mutually satisfactory solution regarding appropriate and equitable adjustments. If a mutually satisfactory solution is not reached, any Member involved may refer the matter to the TMB for recommendations as provided in Article 8. Should the TSB not have had the opportunity to review a dispute concerning such changes introduced prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, it shall be reviewed by the TMB in accordance with the rules and procedures of the MFA applicable for such a review.

Article 5

  • 1 Members agree that circumvention by transshipment, re-routing, false declaration concerning country or place of origin, and falsification of official documents, frustrates the implementation of this Agreement to integrate the textiles and clothing sector into GATT 1994. Accordingly, Members should establish the necessary legal provisions and/or administrative procedures to address and take action against such circumvention. Members further agree that, consistent with their domestic laws and procedures, they will cooperate fully to address problems arising from circumvention.

  • 2 Should any Member believe that this Agreement is being circumvented by transshipment, re-routing, false declaration concerning country or place of origin, or falsification of official documents, and that no, or inadequate, measures are being applied to address and/or to take action against such circumvention, that Member should consult with the Member or Members concerned with a view to seeking a mutually satisfactory solution. Such consultations should be held promptly, and within 30 days when possible. If a mutually satisfactory solution is not reached, the matter may be referred by any Member involved to the TMB for recommendations.

  • 3 Members agree to take necessary action, consistent with their domestic laws and procedures, to prevent, to investigate and, where appropriate, to take legal and/or administrative action against circumvention practices within their territory. Members agree to cooperate fully, consistent with their domestic laws and procedures, in instances of circumvention or alleged circumvention of this Agreement, to establish the relevant facts in the places of import, export and, where applicable, transshipment. It is agreed that such cooperation, consistent with domestic laws and procedures, will include: investigation of circumvention practices which increase restrained exports to the Member maintaining such restraints; exchange of documents, correspondence, reports and other relevant information to the extent available; and facilitation of plant visits and contacts, upon request and on a case-by-case basis. Members should endeavour to clarify the circumstances of any such instances of circumvention or alleged circumvention, including the respective roles of the exporters or importers involved.

  • 4 Where, as a result of investigation, there is sufficient evidence that circumvention has occurred (e.g. where evidence is available concerning the country or place of true origin, and the circumstances of such circumvention), Members agree that appropriate action, to the extent necessary to address the problem, should be taken. Such action may include the denial of entry of goods or, where goods have entered, having due regard to the actual circumstances and the involvement of the country or place of true origin, the adjustment of charges to restraint levels to reflect the true country or place of origin. Also, where there is evidence of the involvement of the territories of the Members through which the goods have been transshipped, such action may include the introduction of restraints with respect to such Members. Any such actions, together with their timing and scope, may be taken after consultations held with a view to arriving at a mutually satisfactory solution between the concerned Members and shall be notified to the TMB with full justification. The Members concerned may agree on other remedies in consultation. Any such agreement shall also be notified to the TMB, and the TMB may make such recommendations to the Members concerned as it deems appropriate. If a mutually satisfactory solution is not reached, any Member concerned may refer the matter to the TMB for prompt review and recommendations.

  • 5 Members note that some cases of circumvention may involve shipments transiting through countries or places with no changes or alterations made to the goods contained in such shipments in the places of transit. They note that it may not be generally practicable for such places of transit to exercise control over such shipments.

  • 6 Members agree that false declaration concerning fibre content, quantities, description or classification of merchandise also frustrates the objective of this Agreement. Where there is evidence that any such false declaration has been made for purposes of circumvention, Members agree that appropriate measures, consistent with domestic laws and procedures, should be taken against the exporters or importers involved. Should any Member believe that this Agreement is being circumvented by such false declaration and that no, or inadequate, administrative measures are being applied to address and/or to take action against such circumvention, that Member should consult promptly with the Member involved with a view to seeking a mutually satisfactory solution. If such a solution is not reached, the matter may be referred by any Member involved to the TMB for recommendations. This provision is not intended to prevent Members from making technical adjustments when inadvertent errors in declarations have been made.

Article 6

  • 1 Members recognize that during the transition period it may be necessary to apply a specific transitional safeguard mechanism (referred to in this Agreement as "transitional safeguard"). The transitional safeguard may be applied by any Member to products covered by the Annex, except those integrated into GATT 1994 under the provisions of Article 2. Members not maintaining restrictions falling under Article 2 shall notify the TMB within 60 days following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, as to whether or not they wish to retain the right to use the provisions of this Article. Members which have not accepted the Protocols extending the MFA since 1986 shall make such notification within 6 months following the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. The transitional safeguard should be applied as sparingly as possible, consistently with the provisions of this Article and the effective implementation of the integration process under this Agreement.

  • 2 Safeguard action may be taken under this Article when, on the basis of a determination by a Member27it is demonstrated that a particular product is being imported into its territory in such increased quantities as to cause serious damage, or actual threat thereof, to the domestic industry producing like and/or directly competitive products. Serious damage or actual threat thereof must demonstrably be caused by such increased quantities in total imports of that product and not by such other factors as technological changes or changes in consumer preference.

  • 3 In making a determination of serious damage, or actual threat thereof, as referred to in paragraph 2, the Member shall examine the effect of those imports on the state of the particular industry, as reflected in changes in such relevant economic variables as output, productivity, utilization of capacity, inventories, market share, exports, wages, employment, domestic prices, profits and investment; none of which, either alone or combined with other factors, can necessarily give decisive guidance.

  • 4 Any measure invoked pursuant to the provisions of this Article shall be applied on a Member-by-Member basis. The Member or Members to whom serious damage, or actual threat thereof, referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3, is attributed, shall be determined on the basis of a sharp and substantial increase in imports, actual or imminent28, from such a Member or Members individually, and on the basis of the level of imports as compared with imports from other sources, market share, and import and domestic prices at a comparable stage of commercial transaction; none of these factors, either alone or combined with other factors, can necessarily give decisive guidance. Such safeguard measure shall not be applied to the exports of any Member whose exports of the particular product are already under restraint under this Agreement.

  • 5 The period of validity of a determination of serious damage or actual threat thereof for the purpose of invoking safeguard action shall not exceed 90 days from the date of initial notification as set forth in paragraph 7.

  • 6 In the application of the transitional safeguard, particular account shall be taken of the interests of exporting Members as set out below:

    • a) least-developed country Members shall be accorded treatment significantly more favourable than that provided to the other groups of Members referred to in this paragraph, preferably in all its elements but, at least, on overall terms;

    • b) Members whose total volume of textile and clothing exports is small in comparison with the total volume of exports of other Members and who account for only a small percentage of total imports of that product into the importing Member shall be accorded differential and more favourable treatment in the fixing of the economic terms provided in paragraphs 8, 13 and 14. For those suppliers, due account will be taken, pursuant to paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 1, of the future possibilities for the development of their trade and the need to allow commercial quantities of imports from them;

    • c) with respect to wool products from wool-producing developing country Members whose economy and textiles and clothing trade are dependent on the wool sector, whose total textile and clothing exports consist almost exclusively of wool products, and whose volume of textiles and clothing trade is comparatively small in the markets of the importing Members, special consideration shall be given to the export needs of such Members when considering quota levels, growth rates and flexibility;

    • d) more favourable treatment shall be accorded to re-imports by a Member of textile and clothing products which that Member has exported to another Member for processing and subsequent re-importation, as defined by the laws and practices of the importing Member, and subject to satisfactory control and certification procedures, when these products are imported from a Member for which this type of trade represents a significant proportion of its total exports of textiles and clothing.

  • 7 The Member proposing to take safeguard action shall seek consultations with the Member or Members which would be affected by such action. The request for consultations shall be accompanied by specific and relevant factual information, as up-to-date as possible, particularly in regard to: (a) the factors, referred to in paragraph 3, on which the Member invoking the action has based its determination of the existence of serious damage or actual threat thereof; and (b) the factors, referred to in paragraph 4, on the basis of which it proposes to invoke the safeguard action with respect to the Member or Members concerned. In respect of requests made under this paragraph, the information shall be related, as closely as possible, to identifiable segments of production and to the reference period set out in paragraph 8. The Member invoking the action shall also indicate the specific level at which imports of' the product in question from the Member or Members concerned arc proposed to be restrained; such level shall not be lower than the level referred to in paragraph 8. The Member seeking consultations shall, at the same time, communicate to the Chairman of the TMB the request for consultations, including all the relevant factual data outlined in paragraphs 3 and 4, together with the proposed restraint level. The Chairman shall inform the members of the TMB of the request for consultations, indicating the requesting Member, the product in question and the Member having received the request. The Member or Members concerned shall respond to this request promptly and the consultations shall be held without delay and normally be completed within 60 days of the date on which the request was received.

  • 8 If, in the consultations, there is mutual understanding that the situation calls for restraint on the exports of the particular product from the Member or Members concerned, the level of such restraint shall be fixed at a level not lower than the actual level of exports or imports from the Member concerned during the 12-month period terminating two months preceding the month in which the request for consultation was made.

  • 9 Details of the agreed restraint measure shall be communicated to the TMB within 60 days from the date of conclusion of the agreement. The TMB shall determine whether the agreement is justified in accordance with the provisions of this Article. In order to make its determination, the TMB shall have available to it the factual data provided to the Chairman of the TMB, referred to in paragraph 7, as well as any other relevant information provided by the Members concerned. The TMB may make such recommendations as it deems appropriate to the Members concerned.

  • 10 If, however, after the expiry of the period of 60 days from the date on which the request for consultations was received, there has been no agreement between the Members, the Member which proposed to take safeguard action may apply the restraint by date of import or date of export, in accordance with the provisions of this Article, within 30 days following the 60-day period for consultations, and at the same time refer the matter to the TMB. It shall be open to either Member to refer the matter to the TMB before the expiry of the period of 60 days. In either case, the TMB shall promptly conduct an examination of the matter, including the determination of serious damage, or actual threat thereof, and its causes, and make appropriate recommendations to the Members concerned within 30 days. In order to conduct such examination, the TMB shall have available to it the factual data provided to the Chairman of the TMB, referred to in paragraph 7, as well as any other relevant information provided by the Members concerned.

  • 11 In highly unusual and critical circumstances, where delay would cause damage which would be difficult to repair, action under paragraph 10 may be taken provisionally on the condition that the request for consultations and notification to the TMB shall be effected within no more than five working days after taking the action. In the case that consultations do not produce agreement, the TMB shall be notified at the conclusion of consultations, but in any case no later than 60 days from the date of the implementation of the action. The TMB shall promptly conduct an examination of the matter, and make appropriate recommendations to the Members concerned within 30 days. In the case that consultations do produce agreement, Members shall notify the TMB upon conclusion but, in any case, no later than 90 days from the date of the implementation of the action. The TMB may make such recommendations as it deems appropriate to the Members concerned.

  • 12 A Member may maintain measures invoked pursuant to the provisions of this Article: (a) for up to three years without extension, or (b) until the product is integrated into GATT 1994, whichever comes first.

  • 13 Should the restraint measure remain in force for a period exceeding one year, the level for subsequent years shall be the level specified for the first year increased by a growth rate of not less than 6 per cent per annum, unless otherwise justified to the TMB. The restraint level for the product concerned may be exceeded in either year of any two subsequent years by carry forward and/or carryover of 10 per cent of which carry forward shall not represent more than 5 per cent. No quantitative limits shall be placed on the combined use of carryover, carry forward and the provision of paragraph 14.

  • 14 When more than one product from another Member is placed under restraint under this Article by a Member, the level of restraint agreed, pursuant to the provisions of this Article, for each of these products may be exceeded by 7 per cent, provided that the total exports subject to restraint do not exceed the total of the levels for all products so restrained under this Article, on the basis of agreed common units. Where the periods of application of restraints of these products do not coincide with each other, this provision shall be applied to any overlapping period on a pro rata basis.

  • 15 If a safeguard action is applied under this Article to a product for which a restraint was previously in place under the MFA during the 12-month period prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, or pursuant to the provisions of Article 2 or 6, the level of the new restraint shall be the level provided for in paragraph 8 unless the new restraint comes into force within one year of:

    • a) the date of notification referred to in paragraph 15 of Article 2 for the elimination of the previous restraint; or

    • b) the date of removal of the previous restraint put in place pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of the MFA in which case the level shall not be less than the higher of (i) the level of restraint for the last 12-month period during which the product was under restraint, or (ii) the level of restraint provided for in paragraph 8.

  • 16 When a Member which is not maintaining a restraint under Article 2 decides to apply a restraint pursuant to the provisions of this Article, it shall establish appropriate arrangements which: (a) take full account of such factors as established tariff classification and quantitative units based on normal commercial practices in export and import transactions, both as regards fibre composition and in terms of competing for the same segment of its domestic market, and (b) avoid over-categorization. The request for consultations referred to in paragraphs 7 or 11 shall include full information on such arrangements.

Article 7

  • 1 As part of the integration process and with reference to the specific commitments undertaken by the Members as a result of the Uruguay Round, all Members shall take such actions as may be necessary to abide by GATT 1994 rules and disciplines so as to:

    • a) achieve improved access to markets for textile and clothing products through such measures as tariff reductions and bindings, reduction or elimination of non-tariff barriers, and facilitation of customs, administrative and licensing formalities;

    • b) ensure the application of policies relating to fair and equitable trading conditions as regards textiles and clothing in such areas as dumping and anti-dumping rules and procedures, subsidies and countervailing measures, and protection of intellectual property rights; and

    • c) avoid discrimination against imports in the textiles and clothing sector when taking measures for general trade policy reasons. Such actions shall be without prejudice to the rights and obligations of Members under GATT 1994.

  • 2 Members shall notify to the TMB the actions referred to in paragraph 1 which have a bearing on the implementation of this Agreement. To the extent that these have been notified to other WTO bodies, a summary, with reference to the original notification, shall be sufficient to fulfil the requirements under this paragraph. It shall be open to any Member to make reverse notifications to the TMB.

  • 3 Where any Member considers that another Member has not taken the actions referred to in paragraph 1, and that the balance of rights and obligations under this Agreement has been upset, that Member may bring the matter before the relevant WTO bodies and inform the TMB. Any subsequent findings or conclusions by the WTO bodies concerned shall form a part of the TMB's comprehensive report.

Article 8

  • 1 In order to supervise the implementation of this Agreement, to examine all measures taken under this Agreement and their conformity therewith, and to take the actions specifically required of it by this Agreement, the Textiles Monitoring Body ("TMB") is hereby established. The TMB shall consist of a Chairman and 10 members. Its membership shall be balanced and broadly representative of the Members and shall provide for rotation of its members at appropriate intervals. The members shall be appointed by Members designated by the Council for Trade in Goods to serve on the TMB, discharging their function on an ad personam basis.

  • 2 The TMB shall develop its own working procedures. It is understood, however, that consensus within the TMB does not require the assent or concurrence of members appointed by Members involved in an unresolved issue under review by the TMB.

  • 3 The TMB shall be considered as a standing body and shall meet as necessary to carry out the functions required of it under this Agreement. It shall rely on notifications and information supplied by the Members under the relevant Articles of this Agreement, supplemented by any additional information or necessary details they may submit or it may decide to seek from them. It may also rely on notifications to and reports from other WTO bodies and from such other sources as it may deem appropriate.

  • 4 Members shall afford to each other adequate opportunity for consultations with respect to any matters affecting the operation of this Agreement.

  • 5 In the absence of any mutually agreed solution in the bilateral consultations provided for in this Agreement, the TMB shall, at the request of either Member, and following a thorough and prompt consideration of the matter, make recommendations to the Members concerned.

  • 6 At the request of any Member, the TMB shall review promptly any particular matter which that Member considers to be detrimental to its interests under this Agreement and where consultations between it and the Member or Members concerned have failed to produce a mutually satisfactory solution. On such matters, the TMB may make such observations as it deems appropriate to the Members concerned and for the purposes of the review provided for in paragraph 11.

  • 7 Before formulating its recommendations or observations, the TMB shall invite participation of such Members as may be directly affected by the matter in question.

  • 8 Whenever the TMB is called upon to make recommendations or findings, it shall do so, preferably within a period of 30 days, unless a different time period is specified in this Agreement. All such recommendations or findings shall be communicated to the Members directly concerned. All such recommendations or findings shall also be communicated to the Council for Trade in Goods for its information.

  • 9 The Members shall endeavour to accept in full the recommendations of the TMB, which shall exercise proper surveillance of the implementation of such recommendations.

  • 10 If a Member considers itself unable to conform with the recommendations of the TMB, it shall provide the TMB with the reasons therefor not later than one month after receipt of such recommendations. Following thorough consideration of the reasons given, the TMB shall issue any further recommendations it considers appropriate forthwith. If, after such further recommendations, the matter remains unresolved, either Member may bring the matter before the Dispute Settlement Body and invoke paragraph 2 of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 and the relevant provisions of the Dispute Settlement Understanding.

  • 11 In order to oversee the implementation of this Agreement, the Council for Trade in Goods shall conduct a major review before the end of each stage of the integration process. To assist in this review, the TMB shall, at least five months before the end of each stage, transmit to the Council for Trade in Goods a comprehensive report on the implementation of this Agreement during the stage under review, in particular in matters with regard to the integration process, the application of the transitional safeguard mechanism, and relating to the application of GATT 1994 rules and disciplines as defined in Articles 2, 3, 6 and 7 respectively. The TMB's comprehensive report may include any recommendation as deemed appropriate by the TMB to the Council for Trade in Goods.

  • 12 In the light of its review the Council for Trade in Goods shall by consensus take such decisions as it deems appropriate to ensure that the balance of rights and obligations embodied in this Agreement is not being impaired. For the resolution of any disputes that may arise with respect to matters referred to in Article 7, the Dispute Settlement Body may authorize, without prejudice to the final date set out under Article 9, an adjustment to paragraph 14 of Article 2, for the stage subsequent to the review, with respect to any Member found not to be complying with its obligations under this Agreement.

Article 9

This Agreement and all restrictions thereunder shall stand terminated on the first day of the 121st month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, on which date the textiles and clothing sector shall be fully integrated into GATT 1994. There shall be no extension of this Agreement.

Annex LIST OF PRODUCTS COVERED BY THIS AGREEMENT

1

This Annex lists textile and clothing products defined by Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) codes at the six-digit level.

2

Actions under the safeguard provisions in Article 6 will be taken with respect to particular textile and clothing products and not on the basis of the HS lines per se.

3

Actions under the safeguard provisions in Article 6 of this Agreement shall not apply to:

  • a) developing country Members' exports of handloom fabrics of the cottage industry, or hand-made cottage industry products made of such handloom fabrics, or traditional folklore handicraft textile and clothing products, provided that such products are properly certified under arrangements established between the Members concerned;

  • b) historically traded textile products which were internationally traded in commercially significant quantities prior to 1982, such as bags, sacks, carpetbacking, cordage, luggage, mats, mattings and carpets typically made from fibres such as jute, coir, sisal, abaca, maguey and henequen;

  • c) products made of pure silk.

    For such products, the provisions of Article XIX of GATT 1994, as interpreted by the Agreement on Safeguards, shall be applicable.

Products within Section XI (Textiles and Textile Articles) of the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) Nomenclature

HS No. Product Description
Ch. 50 Silk

5004.00

Silk yarn (other than yarn spun from silk waste) not put up for retail sale

5005.00

Yarn spun from silk waste, not put up for retail sale

5006.00

Silk yarn&yarn spun from silk waste, put up f retail sale; silk-worm gut

5007.10

Woven fabrics of noil silk

5007.20

Woven fabrics of silk/silk waste, other than noil silk, 85%/more of such fibres

5007.90

Woven fabrics of silk, nes

Ch. 51 Wool, fine/coarse animal hair, horsehair yarn & fabric

5105.10

Carded wool

5105.21

Combed wool in fragments

5105.29

Wool tops and other combed wool, other than combed wool in fragments

5105.30

Fine animal hair, carded or combed

5106.10

Yarn of carded wool, > ∕ = 85% by weight of wool, nt put up for retail sale

5106.20

Yarn of carded, wool, < 85% by weight of wool, not put up for retail sale

5107.10

Yarn of combed wool, > ∕ = 85% by weight of wool, not put up for retail sale

5107.20

Yarn of combed wool, < 85% by weight of wool, not put up for retail sale

5108.10

Yarn of carded fine animal hair, not put up for retail sale

5108.20

Yarn of combed fine animal hair, not put up for retail sale

5109.10

Yarn of wool/of fine animal hair, > ∕ = 85% by weight of such fibres, put up

5109.90

Yarn of wool/of fine animal hair, < 85% by weight of such fibres, put up

5110.00

Yarn of coarse animal hair or of horsehair

5111.11

Woven fabrics of carded wool/fine animal hair, > ∕ = 85% by weight, < ∕ = 300 g/m2

5111.19

Woven fabrics of carded wool/fine animal hair, > ∕ = 85% by weight, > 300 g/m2

5111.20

Woven fabric of carded wool/fine animal hair, > ∕ = 85% by wt, mixd w m-m fi

5111.30

Woven fabric of carded wool/fine animal hair,>/=85% by wt, mixd w m-m fib

5111.90

Woven fabrics of carded wool/fine animal hair, > ∕ = 85% by weight, nes

5112.11

Woven fabric of combed wool/fine animal hair, > ∕ = 85% by weight, < ∕ = 200 g/m2

5112.19

Woven fabrics of combed wool/fine animal hair, > ∕ = 85% by weight, > 200 g/m2

5112.20

Woven fabrics of combed wool/fine animal hair, < 85% by wt, mixd w m-m fil

5112.30

Woven fabrics of combed wool/fine animal hair, < 85% by wt, mixd w m-m fib

5112.90

Woven fabrics of combed wool/fine animal hair, < 85% by weight, nes

5113.00

Woven fabrics of coarse animal hair or of horsehair

Ch. 52 Cotton

5204.11

Cotton sewing thread > ∕ = 85% by weight of cotton, not put up for retail sale

5204.19

Cotton sewing thread, < 85% by weight of cotton, not put up for retail sale

5204.20

Cotton sewing thread, put up for retail sale

5205.11

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,single, uncombed, > ∕ = 714.29 dtex, nt put up

5205.12

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,single, uncombed, 714.29 > dtex > ∕ = 232.56, not put up

5205.13

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,single, uncombed, 232.56 > dtex > ∕ = 192.31, not put up

5205.14

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,single, uncombed, 192.31 > dtex > ∕ = 125, not put up

5205.15

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,single, uncombed, < 125 dtex, nt put up f retail sale

5205.21

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%, single, combed, > ∕ = 714.29, not put up

5205.22

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,single, combed, 714.29 > dtex > ∕ = 232.56, not put up

5205.23

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%, single, combed, 232.56 > dtex > ∕ = 192.31, not put up

5205.24

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%, single, combed, 192.31 > dtex > ∕ = 125, not put up

5205.25

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,single, combed, < 125 dtex, not put up for retail sale

5205.31

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%, multi, uncombed, > ∕ = 714.29 dtex, not put up, nes

5205.32

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,multi, uncombed, 714.29 > dtex > ∕ = 232.56, not put up, nes

5205.33

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,multi, uncombed, 232.56 > dtex > /= 192.31, not put up, nes

5205.34

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,multi, uncombed, 192.31 > dtex > /= 125, nt put up, nes

5205.35

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,multi, uncombed, <125 dtex, not put up, nes

5205.41

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%, multiple, combed,>/=714.29 dtex, not put up, nes

5205.42

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,multi, combed, 714.29 > dtex > /= 232.56, nt put up, nes

5205.43

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,multi, combed, 232.56 > dtex > /= 192.31, nt put up, nes

5205.44

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%,multiple, combed, 192.31 > dtex > /= 125, not put up, nes

5205.45

Cotton yarn, > ∕ = 85%, multiple, combed, <125 dtex, not put up, nes

5206.11

Cotton yarn, < 85%, single, uncombed, > ∕ = 714.29, not put up

5206.12

Cotton yarn, < 85%, single, uncombed, 714.29 > dtex > /= 232.56, nt put up

5206.13

Cotton yarn, < 85%, single, uncombed, 232.56 > dtex > /= 192.31, not put up

5206.14

Cotton yarn, < 85%, single, uncombed, 192.31 > dtex > /= 125, nt put up

5206.15

Cotton yarn,< 85%,single, uncombed, < 125 dtex, not put up for retail sale

5206.21

Cotton yarn, < 85%, single, combed,>/=714.29 dtex, nt put up

5206.22

Cotton yarn, < 85%, single, combed, 714.29 > dtex > /= 232.56, not put up

5206.23

Cotton yarn, < 85%, single, combed, 232.56 > dtex > /= 192.31, not put up

5206.24

Cotton yarn, < 85%, single, combed, 192.31 > dtex > ∕ = 125, not put up

5206.25

Cotton yarn,< 85%,single, combed, < 125 dtex, not put up for retail sale

5206.31

Cotton yarn, < 85%, multiple, uncombed, > ∕ = 714.29, not put up, nes

5206.32

Cotton yarn,< 85%,multiple, uncombed, 714.29 > dtex > /= 232.56, nt put up, nes

5206.33

Cotton yarn,< 85%,multiple, uncombed, 232.56 > dtex > ∕ = 192.31, nt put up, nes

5206.34

Cotton yarn,< 85%,multiple, uncombed, 192.31 > dtex > /= 125, nt put up, nes

5206.35

Cotton yarn, < 85%, multiple, uncombed, < 125 dtex, not put up, nes

5206.41

Cotton yarn, < 85%, multiple, combed, > / = 714.29, nt put up, nes

5206.42

Cotton yarn, < 85%,multiple, combed, 714.29 > dtex > /=232.56, nt put up, nes

5206.43

Cotton yarn, < 85%,multiple, combed, 232.56 > dtex > /= 192.31, nt put up, nes

5206.44

Cotton yarn, < 85%,multiple, combed, 192.31 > dtex > / = 125, nt put up, nes

5206.45

Cotton yarn, < 85%, multiple, combed, < 125 dtex, not put up, nes

5207.10

Cotton yarn (other than sewing thread) > / = 85% by weight of cotton, put up

5207.90

Cotton yarn (other than sewg thread) < 85% by wt of cotton, put up f retl sale

5208.11

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, not more than 100 g/m2. unbleached

5208.12

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, > 100 g/m2 to 200 g/m2, unbleached

5208.13

Twill weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, unbleached

5208.19

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, unbleached, nes

5208.21

Plain weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, not more than 100 g/m2, bleached

5208.22

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, > 100 g/m2 to 200 g/m2, bleached

5208.23

Twill weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, bleached

5208.29

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, bleached, nes

5208.31

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, not more than 100 g/m2, dyed

5208.32

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, > 100g/m = to 200g/m2, dyed

5208.33

Twill weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, dyed

5208.39

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, dyed, nes

5208.41

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, not more than 100 g/m2, yarn dyed

5208.42

Plain weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, > 100 g/m2 to 200 g/m2, yarn dyed

5208.43

Twill weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed

5208.49

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed, nes

5208.51

Plain weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, not more than 100 g/m2, printed

5208.52

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, > 100 g/m2

to 200 g/m2, printed

5208.53

Twill weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, printed

5208.59

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, not more than 200 g/m2, printed, nes

5209.11

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, unbleached

5209.12

Twill weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, unbleached

5209.19

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2 , unbleached, nes

5209.21

Plain weave cotton fabric, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, bleached

5209.22

Twill weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, bleached

5209.29

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, bleached, nes

5209.31

Plain weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, dyed

5209.32

Twill weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, dyed

5209.39

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, dyed, nes

5209.41

Plain weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed

5209.42

Denim fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2

5209.43

Twill weave cotton fab, other than denim, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed

5209.49

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed, nes

5209.51

Plain weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, printed

5209.52

Twill weave cotton fabrics, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, printed

5209.59

Woven fabrics of cotton, > / = 85%, more than 200 g/m2, printed, nes

5210.11

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, unbl

5210.12

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, unbl

5210.19

Woven fab of cotton, < 85% mixd with m-m fib, < / = 200 g/m2, unbl, nes

5210.21

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, bl

5210.22

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, bl

5210.29

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixd with m-m fib, < / = 200 g/m2, bl, nes

5210.31

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, dyd

5210.32

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, dyd

5210.39

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixd with m-m fib, < / = 200 g/m2, dyed, nes

5210.41

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, nt mor thn 200g/m2, yarn dyd

5210.42

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, nt mor thn 200g/m2, yarn dyd

5210.49

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixed w m-m fib, < / = 200g/m2, yarn dyed, nes

5210.51

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, nt more thn 200 g/m2, printd

5210.52

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, nt more thn 200g/m2, printd

5210.59

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixed with m-m fib, < / = 200g/m2, printed, nes

5211.11

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more thn 200 g/m2, unbleachd

5211.12

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixed with m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, unbl

5211.19

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more thn 200g/m2, unbl, nes

5211.21

Plain weave colton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, bleachd

5211.22

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, bleachd

5211.29

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, bl, nes

5211.31

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixed with m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, dyed

5211.32

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixed with m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, dyed

5211.39

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, dyd, nes

5211.41

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyd

5211.42

Denim fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixed with m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2

5211.43

Twill weave cotton fab, other than denim, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, > 200g/m2, yarn dyd

5211.49

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixd with m-m fib, > 200 g/m2, yarn dyed, nes

5211.51

Plain weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, printd

5211.52

Twill weave cotton fab, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, printd

5211.59

Woven fabrics of cotton, < 85% mixd w m-m fib, mor thn 200g/m2, printd, nes

5212.11

Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing not more than 200 g/m2, unbleached, nes

5212.12

Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing not more than 200 g/m2, bleached, nes

5212.13

Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing not more than 200 g/m2, dyed, nes

5212.14

Woven fabrics of cotton, < / = 200g/m2 , of yarns of different colours, nes

5212.15

Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing not more than 200 g/m2, printed, nes

5212.21

Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing more than 200 g/m2 , unbleached, nes

5212.22

Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing more than 200 g/m2, bleached, nes

5212.23

Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing more than 200 g/m2 , dyed, nes

5212.24

Woven fabrics of cotton, > 200 g/m2 , of yarns of different colours, nes

5212.25

Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing more than 200 g/m2 , printed, nes

Ch. 53 Other vegetable textile fibres; paper yarn & woven fab

5306.10

Flax yarn, single

5306.20

Flax yarn, multile (folded) or cabled

5307.10

Yarn of jute or of other textile bast fibres, single

5307.20

Yarn of jute or of oth textile bast fibres, multiple (folded) or cabled

5308.20

True hemp yarn

5308.90

Yarn of other vegetable textile fibres

5309.11

Woven fabrics, containg 85% or more by weight of flax, unbleached or bl

5309.19

Woven fabrics, containing 85% or more by weight of flax, other than unbl or bl

5309.21

Woven fabrics of flax, containg < 85% by weight of flax, unbleached or bl

5309.29

Woven fabrics of flax, containing < 85% by weight of flax, other than unbl or bl

5310.10

Woven fabrics of jute or of other textile bast fibres, unbleached

5310.90

Woven fabrics of jute or of other textile bast fibres, other than unbleached

5311.00

Woven fabrics of oth vegetable textile fibres; woven fab of paper yarn

Ch. 54 Man-made filaments

5401.10

Sewing thread of synthetic filaments

5401.20

Sewing thread of artificial filaments

5402.10

High tenacity yarn (other than sewg thread), nylon/oth polyamides fi, nt put up

5402.20

High tenacity yarn (other than sewg thread), of polyester filaments, not put up

5402.31

Texturd yarn nes, of nylon/oth polyamides fi, < ∕ = 50 tex/ s.y.,not put up

5402.32

Texturd yarn nes, of nylon/oth polyamides fi, > 50 tex ∕s.y.,not put up

5402.33

Textured yarn nes, of polyester filaments, not put up for retail sale

5402.39

Textured yarn of synthetic filaments, nes, not put up

5402.41

Yarn of nylon or other ρolyamides fi, single, untwisted, nes, not put up

5402.42

Yarn of polyester filaments, partially oriented, single, nes, not put up

5402.43

Yarn of polyester filaments, single, untwisted, nes, not put up

5402.49

Yarn of synthetic filaments, single, untwisted, nes, not put up

5402.51

Yarn of nylon or other polyamides fi, single, > 50 turns ∕ m, not put up

5402.52

Yarn of polyester filaments, single, > 50 turns per metre, not put up

5402.59

Yarn of synthetic filaments, single, > 50 turns per metre, nes, not put up

5402.61

Yarn of nylon or other polyamides fi, multiple, nes, not put up

5402.62

Yarn of polyester filaments, multiple, nes, not put up

5402.69

Yarn of synthetic filaments, multiple, nes, not put up

5403.10

High tenacity yarn (other than sewg thread), of viscose rayon filamt, nt put up

5403.20

Textured yarn nes, of artificial filaments, not put up for retail sale

5403.31

Yarn of viscose rayon filaments, single, untwisted, nes, not put up

5403.32

Yarn of viscose rayon filaments, single, > 120 turns per m, nes, nt put up

5403.33

Yarn of cellulose acetate filaments, single, nes, not put up

5403.39

Yarn of artificial filaments, single, nes, not put up

5403.41

Yarn of viscose rayon filaments, multiple, nes, not put up

5403.42

Yarn of cellulose acetate filaments, multiple, nes, not put up

5403.49

Yarn of artificial filaments, multiple, nes, not put up

5404.10

Synthetic mono, > / = 67 dtex, no cross sectional dimension exceeds 1 mm

5404.90

Strip&the like of syn tex material of an apparent width nt exceedg 5mm

5405.00

Artificial mono, 67 dtex, cross-sect > 1 mm; strip of arti tex mat w < / = 5 mm

5406.10

Yarn of synthetic filament (other than sewing thread), put up for retail sale

5406.20

Yarn of artificial filament (other than sewing thread), put up for retail sale

5407.10

Woven fab of high tenacity fi yarns of nylon oth polyamides/polyesters

5407.20

Woven fab obtaind from strip/the like of synthetic textile materials

5407.30

Fabrics specif in Note 9 Section XI (layers of parallel syn tex yarn)

5407.41

Woven fab, > / = 85% of nylon/other polyamides filaments, unbl or bl, nes

5407.42

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of nylon/other polyamides filaments, dyed, nes

5407.43

Woven fab, > / = 85% of nylon/other polyamides filaments, yarn dyed, nes

5407.44

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of nylon/other polyamides filaments, printed, nes

5407.51

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of textured polyester filaments, unbl or bl, nes

5407.52

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of textured polyester filaments, dyed, nes

5407.53

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of textured polyester filaments, yarn dyed, nes

5407.54

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of textured polyester filaments, printed, nes

5407.60

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of non-textured polyester filaments, nes

5407.71

Woven fab, > / = 85% of synthetic filaments, unbleached or bleached, nes

5407.72

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of synthetic filaments, dyed, nes

5407.73

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of synthetic filaments, yarn dyed, nes

5407.74

Woven fabrics, > / = 85% of synthetic filaments, printed, nes

5407.81

Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, < 85% mixd w cotton, unbl o bl, nes

5407.82

Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, < 85% mixed with cotton, dyed, nes

5407.83

Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, < 85% mixd w cotton, yarn dyd, nes

5407.84

Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, < 85% mixd with cotton, printed, nes

5407.91

Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, unbleached or bleached, nes

5407.92

Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, dyed, nes

5407.93

Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, yarn dyed, nes

5407.94

Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, printed, nes

5408.10

Woven fabrics of high tenacity filament yarns of viscose rayon

5408.21

Woven fab, > / = 85% of artificial fi o strip of art tex mat, unbl/bl, nes

5408.22

Woven fab, > / = 85% of artificial fi or strip of art tex mat, dyed, nes

5408.23

Woven fab, > / = 85% of artificial fi or strip of art tex mat, y dyed, nes

5408.24

Woven fab, > / = 85% of artificial fi or strip of art tex mat, printd, nes

5408.31

Woven fabrics of artificial filaments, unbleached or bleached, nes

5408.32

Woven fabrics of artificial filaments, dyed, nes

5408.33

Woven fabrics of artificial filaments, yarn dyed, nes

5408.34

Woven fabrics of artificial filaments, printed, nes

Ch. 55 Man-made staple fibres

5501.10

Filament tow of nylon or other polyamides

5501.20

Filament tow of polyesters

5501.30

Filament tow of acrylic or modacrylic

5501.90

Synthetic filament tow, nes

5502.00

Artificial filament tow

5503.10

Staple fibres of nylon or other polyamides, not carded or combed

5503.20

Staple fibres of polyesters, not carded or combed

5503.30

Staple fibres of acrylic or modacrylic, not carded or combed

5503.40

Staple fibres of polypropylene, not carded or combed

5503.90

Synthetic staple fibres, not carded or combed, nes

5504.10

Staple fibres of viscose, not carded or combed

5504.90

Artificial staple fibres, other than viscose, not carded or combed

5505.10

Waste of synthetic fibres

5505.20

Waste of artificial fibres

5506.10

Staple fibres of nylon or other polyamides, carded or combed

5506.20

Staple fibres of polyesters, carded or combed

5506.30

Staple fibres of acrylic or modacrylic, carded or combed

5506.90

Synthetic staple fibres, carded or combed, nes

5507.00

Artificial staple fibres, carded or combed

5508.10

Sewing thread of synthetic staple fibres

5508.20

Sewing thread of artificial staple fibres

5509.11

Yarn, > / = 85% nylon or other polyamides staple fibres, single, not put up

5509.12

Yarn, > / = 85% nylon or other polyamides staple fibres, mufti, not put up, nes

5509.21

Yarn, > / = 85% of polyester staple fibres, single, not put up

5509.22

Yarn, > / = 85% of polyester staple fibres, multiple, not put up, nes

5509.31

Yarn, > / = 85% of acrylic or modacrylic staple fibres, single, not put up

5509.32

Yarn, > / = 85% acrylic/modacrylic staple fibres, multiple, not put up, nes

5509.41

Yarn, > / = 85% of other synthetic staple fibres, single, not put up

5509.42

Yarn, > / = 85% of other synthetic staple fibres, multiple, not put up, nes

5509.51

Yarn of polyester staple fibres mixd w/ arti staple fib, not put up, nes

5509.52

Yarn of polyester staple fib mixd w wool/fine animal hair, nt put up, nes

5509.53

Yarn of polyester staple fibres mixed with cotton, not put up, nes

5509.59

Yarn of polyester staple fibres, not put up, nes

5509.61

Yarn of acrylic staple fib mixd w wool/fine animal hair, not put up, nes

5509.62

Yarn of acrylic staple fibres mixed with cotton, not put up, nes

5509.69

Yarn of acrylic staple fibres, not put up, nes

5509.91

Yarn of oth synthetic staple fibres mixed w/wool/fine animal hair, nes

5509.92

Yarn of other synthetic staple fibres mixed with cotton, not put up, nes

5509.99

Yarn of other synthetic staple fibres, not put up, nes

5510.11

Yarn, > / = 85% of artificial staple fibres, single, not put up

5510.12

Yarn, > / = 85% of artificial staple fibres, multiple, not put up, nes

5510.20

Yarn of artificl staple fib mixd vv wool/fine animal hair, not put up, nes

5510.30

Yarn of artificial staple fibres mixed with cotton, not put up, nes

5510.90

Yarn of artificial staple fibres, not put up, nes

5511.10

Yarn, > / = 85% of synthetic staple fibres, other than sewing thread, put up

5511.20

Yarn, < 85% of synthetic staple fibres, put up for retail sale, nes

5511.30

Yarn of artificial fibres (other than sewing thread), put up for retail sale

5512.11

Woven fabrics, containing > / = 85% of polyester staple fibres, unbl or bl

5512.19

Woven fabrics, containg > / = 85% of polyester staple fibres, other than unbl or bl

5512.21

Woven fabrics, containg > / = 85% of acrylic staple fibres, unbleached or bl

5512.29

Woven fabrics, containing > / = 85% of acrylic staple fibres, other than unbl or bl

5512.91

Woven fabrics, containing > ∕ = 85% of oth synthetic staple fibres, unbl/bl

5512.99

Woven fabrics, containg > ∕ = 85% of other synthetic staple fib, other than unbl/bl

5513.11

Plain weave polyest stapl fib fab, < 85%,mixd w/cottn, < ∕ = 170g/m2, unbl/bl

5513.12

Twill weave polyest stapl fib fab, < 85%, mixd w/cottn, < ∕ = 170g/m2, unbl/bl

5513.13

Woven fab of polyest staple fib, < 85% mixd w/cot, < ∕ = 170g/m2, unbl/bl, nes

5513.19

Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, < 85%, mixd w/cot, < /= 170g/m2, unbl/bl

5513.21

Plain weave polyester staple fib fab, < 85%, mixd w/cotton, < /= 170g/m2, dyd

5513.22

Twill weave polyest staple fib fab, < 85%, mixd w/cotton, < /= 170g/m2, dyd

5513.23

Woven fab of polyester staple fib, < 85%, mixd w/cot, < /= 170 g/m2, dyd, nes

5513.29

Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, < 85% mixd w/cotton, < ∕ = 170g/m2, dyed

5513.31

Plain weave polyest stapl fib fab, < 85% m¡xd w/cot, < ∕ = 170g/m2, yarn dyd

5513.32

Twill weave polyest stapl fib fab, < 85% mixd w/cot, < ∕ = 170g/m2, yarn dyd

5513.33

Woven fab of polyest staple fib, < 85% mixd w/cot, < ∕ = 170 g/m2, dyd nes

5513.39

Woven fab of oth syn staple fib, < 85% mixd w/cot, < ∕ = 170g/m2, yarn dyd

5513.41

Plain weave polyester stapl fib fab, < 85%, mixd w/cot, < /= 170g/m2, printd

5513.42

Twill weave polyest staple fib fab, < 85%, mixd w/cot, < /= 170g/m2, printd

5513.43

Woven fab of polyester staple fib, < 85%, mixd w/cot, < /= 170g/m2, ptd, nes

5513.49

Woven fab of oth syn staple fib, < 85%, mixed w/cot, < /= 170g/m2, printed

5514.11

Plain weave polyest staple fib fab, < 85%, mixd w/cotton, > 170g/m2, unbl/bl

5514.12

Twill weave polyest stapl fib fab, < 85%, mixd w/cotton, > 170g/m2, unbl/bl

5514.13

Woven fab of polyester staple fib, < 85% mixd w/cot, > 170g/m2, unbl/bl, nes

5514.19

Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, < 85%, mixed w/cot, > 170 g/m2, unbl/bl

5514.21

Plain weave polyester staple fibre fab, < 85%, mixd w/cotton, > 170g/m2, dyd

5514.22

Twill weave polyester staple fibre fab, < 85%, mixd w/cotton, > 170g/m2, dyd

5514.23

Woven fabrics of polyester staple fib, < 85%, mixed w/cot, > 170 g/m2, dyed

5514.29

Woven fabrics of oth synthetic staple fib, < 85%, mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, dyd

5514.31

Plain weave polyester staple fib fab, < 85% mixd w/cot, > 170g/m2, yarn dyd

5514.32

Twill weave polyester staple fib fab, < 85% mixd w/cot, > 170g/m2, yarn dyd

5514.33

Woven fab of polyester stapl fib, < 85% mixd w/cot, > 170g/m2, yarn dyd nes

5514.39

Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, < 85% mixd w/cot, > 170 g/m2, yarn dyd

5514.41

Plain weave polyester staple fibre fab, < 85%, mixd w/cot, > 170g/m2, printd

5514.42

Twill weave polyester staple fibre fab, < 85%, mixd w/cot, > 170g/m2 , printd

5514.43

Woven fab of polyester staple fibres < 85%, mixd w/cot, > 170g/m2, ptd, nes

5514.49

Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, < 85%, mixed w/cot, > 170 g/m2, printed

5515.11

Woven fab of polyester staple fib mixd w viscose rayon staple fib, nes

5515.12

Woven fabrics of polyester staple fibres mixd w manmade filaments, nes

5515.13

Woven fab of polyester staple fibres mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, nes

5515.19

Woven fabrics of polyester staple fibres, nes

5515.21

Woven fabrics of acrylic staple fibres, mixd w man-made filaments, nes

5515.22

Woven fab of acrylic staple fibres, mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, nes

5515.29

Woven fabrics of acrylic or modacrylic staple fibres, nes

5515.91

Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, mixed with manmade filaments, nes

5515.92

Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, mixd w/wool o fine animal hair, nes

5515.99

Woven fabrics of synthetic staple fibres, nes

5516.11

Woven fabrics, containg > / = 85% of artificial staple fibres, unbleached/bl

5516.12

Woven fabrics, containing > ∕ = 85% of artificial staple fibres, dyed

5516.13

Woven fabrics, containing > ∕ = 85% of artificial staple fib, yarn dyed

5516.14

Woven fabrics, containing > ∕ = 85% of artificial staple fibres, printed

5516.21

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, < 85%,mixd w man-made fi, unbl/bl

5516.22

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, < 85%,mixd with man-made fi, dyd

5516.23

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, < 85%,mixd with m-m fi, yarn dyd

5516.24

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, < 85%,mixd w man-made fi, printd

5516.31

Woven fab of arti staple fib, < 85% mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, unbl/bl

5516.32

Woven fabrics of arti staple fib, < 85% mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, dyd

5516.33

Woven fab of arti staple fib, < 85% mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, yarn dyd

5516.34

Woven fab of arti staple fib, < 85% mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, printd

5516.41

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, < 85% mixd with cotton, unbl o bl

5516.42

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, < 85% mixed with cotton, dyed

5516.43

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, < 85% mixd with cotton, yarn dyd

5516.44

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, < 85% mixed with cotton, printed

5516.91

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fibres, unbleached or bleached, nes

5516.92

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fibres, dyed, nes

5516.93

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fibres, yarn dyed, nes

5516.94

Woven fabrics of artificial staple fibres, printed, nes

Ch. 56

Wadding, felt & nonwoven; yarns; twine, cordage, etc.

5601.10

Sanitary articles of waddg of textile mat i.e. sanitary towels, tampons

5601.21

Wadding of cotton and articles thereof, other than sanitary articles

5601.22

Wadding of man-made fibres and articles thereof, other than sanitary articles

5601.29

Waddg of oth textile materials&articles thereof, other than sanitary articles

5601.30

Textile flock and dust and mill neps

5602.10

Needleloom felt and stitch-bonded fibre fabrics

5602.21

Felt other than needleloom, of wool or fine animal hair, not imρreg, ctd, cov etc

5602.29

Felt other than needleloom, of other textile materials, not impreg, ctd, cov etc

5602.90

Felt of textile materials, nes

5603.00

Nonwovens, whether or not impregnated, coated, covered or laminated

5604.10

Rubber thread and cord, textile covered

5604.20

High tenacity yarn of polyest, nylon oth polyamid, viscose rayon, ctd etc

5604.90

Textile yarn, strips&the like, impreg ctd/cov with rubber o plastics, nes

5605.00

Metallisd yarn, beg textile yarn combind w metal thread, strip/powder

5606.00

Gimped yarn nes; chenille yarn; loop wale-yarn

5607.10

Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, of jute or other textile bast fibres

5607.21

Binder o baler twine, of sisal o oth textile fibres of the genus Agave

5607.29

Twine nes, cordage, ropes and cables, of sisal textile fibres

5607.30

Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, of abaca or other hard (leaf) fibres

5607.41

Binder or baler twine, of polyethylene or polypropylene

5607.49

Twine nes, cordage, ropes and cables, of polyethylene or polypropylene

5607.50

Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, of other synthetic fibres

5607.90

Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, of other materials

5608.11

Made up fishing nets, of man-made textile materials

5608.19

Knottd nettg of twine/cordage/rope, and oth made up nets of m-m tex mat

5608.90

Knottd nettg of twine/cordage/rope, nes, and made up nets of oth tex mat

5609.00

Articles of yarn, strip, twine, cordage, rope and cables, nes

Ch. 57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings

5701.10

Carpets of wool or fine animal hair, knotted

5701.90

Carpets of other textile materials, knotted

5702.10

Kelem, Schumacks, Karamanic and similar textile handwoven rugs

5702.20

Floor coverings of coconut fibres (coir)

5702.31

Carpets of wool/fine animal hair, of woven pile constructn, nt made up nes

5702.32

Carpets of man-made textile mat, of woven pile construct, nt made up, nes

5702.39

Carpets of oth textile mat, of woven pile constructn, nt made up, nes

5702.41

Carpets of wool/fine animal hair, of woven pile construction, made up, nes

5702.42

Carpets of man-made textile mat, of woven pile construction, made up, nes

5702.49

Carpets of oth textile materials, of woven pile construction, made up, nes

5702.51

Carpets of wool or fine animal hair, woven, not made up, nes

5702.52

Carpets of man-made textile materials, woven, not made up, nes

5702.59

Carpels of other textile materials, woven, not made up, nes

5702.91

Carpets of wool or fine animal hair, woven, made up, nes

5702.92

Carpets of man-made textile materials, woven, made up, nes

5702.99

Carpets of other textile materials, woven, made up, nes

5703.10

Carpets of wool or fine animal hair, tufted

5703.20

Carpets of nylon or other polyamides, tufted

5703.30

Carpets of other man-made textile materials, tufted

5703.90

Carpets of other textile materials, tufted

5704.10

Tiles of felt of textile materials, havg a max surface area of 0.3 m2

5704.90

Carpets of felt of textile materials, nes

5705.00

Carpets and other textile floor coverings, nes

Ch. 58

Special woven fab; tufted tex fab; lace; tapestries etc.

5801.10

Woven pile fabrics of wool/fine animal hair, other than terry&narrow fabrics

5801.21

Woven uncut weft pile fabrics of cotton, other than terry and narrow fabrics

5801.22

Cut corduroy fabrics of cotton, other than narrow fabrics

5801.23

Woven weft pile fabrics of cotton, nes

5801.24

Woven warp pile fab of cotton, pingl (uncut), other than terry&narrow fab

5801.25

Woven warp pile fabrics of cotton, cut, other than terry and narrow fabrics

5801.26

Chenille fabrics of cotton, other than narrow fabrics

5801.31

Woven uncut weft pile fabrics of manmade fibres, other than terry&narrow fab.

5801.32

Cut corduroy fabrics of man-made fibres, other than narrow fabrics

5801.33

Woven weft pile fabrics of man-made fibres, nes

5801.34

Woven warp pile fab of man-made fib, pingl (uncut), other than terry&nar fab

5801.35

Woven warp pile fabrics of man-made fib, cut, other than terry & narrow fabrics

5801.36

Chenille fabrics of man-made fibres, other than narrow fabrics

5801.90

Woven pile fab&chenille fab of other tex mat, other than terry&narrow fabrics

5802.11

Terry towellg & similar woven terry fab of cotton, other than narrow fab, unbl

5802.19

Terry towellg&similar woven terry fab of cotton, other than unbl&other than nar fab

5802.20

Terry towellg&sim woven terry fab of oth tex mat, otherthan narrow fabrics

5802.30

Tufted textile fabrics, other than products of heading No 57.03

5803.10

Gauze of cotton, other than narrow fabrics

5803.90

Gauze of other textile material, other than narrow fabrics

5804.10

Tulles & other net fabrics, not incl woven, knitted or crocheted fabrics

5804.21

Mechanically made lace of man-made fib, in the piece, in strips/motifs

5804.29

Mechanically made lace of oth tex mat, in the piece, instrips/in motifs

5804.30

Hand-made lace, in the piece, in strips or in motifs

5805.00

Hand-woven tapestries&needle-worked tapestries, whether or not made up

5806.10

Narrow woven pile fabrics and narrow chenille fabrics

5806.20

Narrow woven fab, cntg by wt > ∕ = 5% clastomerίc yarn/ rubber thread nes

5806.31

Narrow woven fabrics of cotton, nes

5806.32

Narrow woven fabrics of man-made fibres, nes

5806.39

Narrow woven fabrics of other textile materials, nes

5806.40

Fabrics consisting of warp w/o weft assembled by means of an adhesive

5807.10

Labels, badges and similar woven articles of textile materials

5807.90

Labels, badges and similar articles, not woven, of textile materials, nes

5808.10

Braids in the piece

5808.90

Ornamental trimmings in the piece, other than knit; tassels, pompons&sim¡lar art

5809.00

Woven fabrics of metal thread/of metallisd yarn, for apparel, etc, nes

5810.10

Embroidery without visible ground, in the piece, in strips or in motifs

5810.91

Embroidery of cotton, in the piece, in strips or in motifs, nes

5810.92

Embroidery of man-made fibres, in the piece, in strips or in motifs, nes

5810.99

Embroidery of oth textile materials, in the piece, in strips/ motifs, nes

5811.00

Quilted textile products in the piece

Ch. 59 Impregnated, coated, cover/laminated textile fabric etc.

5901.10

Textile fabrics coatd with gum, of a kind usd for outer covers of books

5901.90

Tracg cloth; prepared paintg canvas; stiffened textile fab; for hats etc

5902.10

Tire cord fabric made of nylon or other polyamides high tenacity yarns

5902.20

Tire cord fabric made of polyester high tenacity yarns

5902.90

Tire cord fabric made of viscose rayon high tenacity yarns

5903.10

Textile fab impregnatd, ctd, cov, or laminatd w polyvinyl chloride, nes

5903.20

Textile fabrics impregnated, ctd, cov, or laminated with polyurethane, nes

5903.90

Textile fabrics impregnated, ctd, cov, or laminated with plastics, nes

5904.10

Lineoleum, whether or not cut to shape

5904.91

Floor coverings, other than linoleum, with a base of needleloom felt/nonwovens

5904.92

Floor coverings, other than linoleum, with other textile base

5905.00

Textile wall coverings

5906.10

Rubberised textile adhesive tape of a width not exceeding 20 cm

5906.91

Rubberised textile knitted or crocheted fabrics, nes

5906.99

Rubberised textile fabrics, nes

5907.00

Textile fab impreg, ctd, cov nes; paintd canvas (e.g. threatrical scenery)

5908.00

Textile wicks f lamps, stoves, etc; gas mantles&knittd gas mantle fabric

5909.00

Textile hosepiping and similar textile tubing

5910.00

Transmission or conveyor belts or belting of textile material

5911.10

Textile fabrics usd f card clothing, and sim fabric f technical uses

5911.20

Textile bolting cloth, whether or not made up

5911.31

Textile fabrics used in paper-making or similar machines, < 650 g/m2

5911.32

Textile fabrics usd in paper-makg or similar mach, weighg > / = 650 g/m2

5911.40

Textile straing cloth usd in oil presses o the like, incl of human hair

5911.90

Textile products and articles for technical uses, nes

Ch. 60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics

6001.10

Long pile knitted or crocheted textile fabrics

6001.21

Looped pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of cotton

6001.22

Looped pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of man-made fibres

6001.29

Looped pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of other textile materials

6001.91

Pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of cotton, nes

6001.92

Pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of man-made fibres, nes

6001.99

Pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of other textile materials, nes

6002.10

Knittd or crochetd tex fab, w < / = 30 cm, > / = 5% of elastomeric/rubber, nes

6002.20

Knitted or crocheted textile fabrics, of a width not exceedg 30 cm, nes

6002.30

Knittd/crochetd tex fab, width > 30 cm, > / = 5% of elastomeric/rubber, nes

6002.41

Warp knitted fabrics, of wool or fine animal hair, nes

6002.42

Warp knitted fabrics, of cotton, nes

6002.43

Warp knitted fabrics, of man-made fibres, nes

6002.49

Warp knitted fabrics, of other materials, nes

6002.91

Knitted or crocheted fabrics, of wool or of fine animal hair, nes

6002.92

Knitted or crocheted fabrics, of cotton, nes

6002.93

Knitted or crocheted fabrics, of manmade fibres, nes

6002.99

Knitted or crocheted fabrics, of other materials, nes

HS No. Product Description
Ch. 61 Art of apparel & clothing access, knitted or crocheted

6101.10

Mens/boys overcoats, anoraks etc, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6101.20

Mens/boys overcoats, anoraks etc, of cotton, knitted

6101.30

Mens/boys overcoats, anoraks etc, of man-made fibres, knitted

6101.90

Mens/boys overcoats, anoraks etc, of other textile materials, knitted

6102.10

Womens/girls overcoats, anoraks etc, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6102.20

Womens/girls overcoats, anoraks etc, of cotton, knitted

6102.30

Womens/girls overcoats, anoraks etc, of man-made fibres, knitted

6102.90

Womens/girls overcoats, anoraks etc, of other textile materials, knitted

6103.11

Mens/boys suits, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6103.12

Mens/boys suits, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6103.19

Mens/boys suits, of other textile materials, knitted

6103.21

Mens/boys ensembles, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6103.22

Mens/boys ensembles, of cotton, knitted

6103.23

Mens/boys ensembles, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6103.29

Mens/boys ensembles, of other textile materials, knitted

6103.31

Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6103.32

Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of cotton, knitted

6103.33

Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6103.39

Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of other textile materials, knitted

6103.41

Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6103.42

Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of cotton, knitted

6103.43

Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6103.49

Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of other textile materials, knitted

6104.11

Womens/girls suits, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6104.12

Womens/girls suits, of cotton, knitted

6104.13

Womens/girls suits, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6104.19

Womens/girls suits, of other textile materials, knitted

6104.21

Womens/girls ensembles, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6104.22

Womens/girls ensembles, of cotton, knitted

6104.23

Womens/girls ensembles, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6104.29

Womens/girls ensembles, of other textile materials, knitted

6104.31

Womens/girls jackets, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6104.32

Womens/girls jackets, of cotton, knitted

6104.33

Womens/girls jackets, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6104.39

Womens/girls jackets, of other textile materials, knitted

6104.41

Womens/girls dresses, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6104.42

Womens/girls dresses, of cotton, knitted

6104.43

Womens/girls dresses, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6104.44

Womens/girls dresses, of artificial fibres, knitted

6104.49

Womens/girls dresses, of other textile materials, knitted

6104.51

Womens/girls skirts, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6104.52

Womens/girls skirts, of cotton, knitted

6104.53

Womens/girls skirts, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6104.59

Womens/girls skirts, of other textile materials, knitted

6104.61

Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6104.62

Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of cotton, knitted

6104.63

Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6104.69

Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of other textile materials, knitted

6105.10

Mens/boys shirts, of cotton, knitted

6105.20

Mens/boys shirts, of man-made fibres, knitted

6105.90

Mens/boys shirts, of other textile materials, knitted

6106.10

Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of cotton, knitted

6106.20

Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of man-made fibres, knitted

6106.90

Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of other materials, knitted

6107.11

Mens/boys underpants and briefs, of cotton, knitted

6107.12

Mens/boys underpants and briefs, of man-made fibres, knitted

6107.19

Mens/boys underpants and briefs, of other textile materials, knitted

6107.21

Mens/boys nightshirts and pyjamas, of cotton, knitted

6107.22

Mens/boys nightshirts and pyjamas, of man-made fibres, knitted

6107.29

Mens/boys nightshirts and pyjamas, of other textile materials, knitted

6107.91

Mens/boys bathrobes, dressing gowns etc of cotton, knitted

6107.92

Mens/boys bathrobes, dressing gowns, etc of man-made fibres, knitted

6107.99

Mens/boys bathrobes, dressg gowns, etc of oth textile materials, knitted

6108.11

Womens/girls slips and petticoats, of man-made fibres, knitted

6108.19

Womens/girls slips and petticoats, of other textile materials, knitted

6108.21

Womens/girls briefs and panties, of cotton, knitted

6108.22

Womens/girls briefs and panties, of man-made fibres, knitted

6108.29

Womens/girls briefs and panties, of other textile materials, knitted

6108.31

Womens/girls nightdresses and pyjamas, of cotton, knitted

6108.32

Womens/girls nightdresses and pyjamas, of man-made fibres, knitted

6108.39

Womens/girls nightdresses & pyjamas, of other textile materials, knitted

6108.91

Womens/girls bathrobes, dressing gowns, etc, of cotton, knitted

6108.92

Womens/girls bathrobes, dressing gowns, etc, of manmade fibres, knitted

6108.99

Women/girls bathrobes, dressg gowns, etc, of oth textile materials, knittd

6109.10

T-shirts, singlets and other vests, of cotton, knitted

6109.90

T-shirts, singlets and other vests, of other textile materials, knitted

6110.10

Pullovers, cardigans&similar article of wool or fine animal hair, knittd

6110.20

Pullovers, cardigans and similar articles of cotton, knitted

6110.30

Pullovers, cardigans and similar articles of man-made fibres, knitted

6110.90

Pullovers, cardigans&similar articles of oth textile materials, knittd

6111.10

Babies garments&clothg accessories of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6111.20

Babies garments and clothing accessories of cotton, knitted

6111.30

Babies garments and clothing accessories of synthetic fibres, knitted

6111.90

Babies garments&clothg accessories of other textile materials, knitted

6112.11

Track suits, of cotton, knitted

6112.12

Track suits, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6112.19

Track suits, of other textile materials, knitted

6112.20

Ski suits, of textile materials, knitted

6112.31

Mens/boys swimwear, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6112.39

Mens/boys swimwear, of other textile materials, knitted

6112.41

Womens/girls swimwear, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6112.49

Womens/girls swimwear, of other textile materials, knitted

6113.00

Garments made up of impreg, coatd, coverd or laminatd textile knittd fab

6114.10

Garments nes, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6114.20

Garments nes, of cotton, knitted

6114.30

Garments nes, of man-made fibres, knitted

6114.90

Garments nes, of other textile materials, knitted

6115.11

Panty hose&tights, of synthetic fibre yarns < 67 dtex / single yarn knittd

6115.12

Panty hose&tights, of synthetic fib yarns > / = 67 dtex / single yarn knittd

6115.19

Panty hose and tights, of other textile materials, knitted

6115.20

Women full-l/knee-1 hosiery, of textile yarn < 67 dtex / single yarn knittd

6115.91

Hosiery nes, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6115.92

Hosiery nes, of cotton, knitted

6115.93

Hosiery nes, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6115.99

Hosiery nes, of other textile materials, knitted

6116.10

Gloves impregnated, coated or covered with plastics or rubber, knitted

6116.91

Gloves, mittens and mitts, nes, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted

6116.92

Gloves, mittens and mitts, nes, of cotton, knitted

6116.93

Gloves, mittens and mitts, nes, of synthetic fibres, knitted

6116.99

Gloves, mittens and mitts, nes, of other textile materials, knitted

6117.10

Shawls, scarves, veils and the like, of textile materials, knitted

6117.20

Ties, bow ties and cravats, of textile materials, knitted

6117.80

Clothing accessories nes, of textile materials, knitted

6117.90

Parts of garments/of clothg accessories, of textile materials, knittd

Ch. 62 Art of apparel & clothing access, not knitted/crocheted

6201.11

Mens/boys overcoats&similar articles of wool/fine animal hair, not knit

6201.12

Mens/boys overcoats and similar articles of cotton, not knitted

6201.13

Mens/boys overcoats & similar articles of man-made fibres, not knitted

6201.19

Mens/boys overcoats&sim articles of oth textile materials, not knittd

6201.91

Mens/boys anoraks&similar articles, of wool/fine animal hair, not knittd

6201.92

Mens/boys anoraks and similar articles, of cotton, not knitted

6201.93

Mens/boys anoraks and similar articles, of man-made fibres, not knitted

6201.99

Mens/boys anoraks&similar articles, of oth textile materials, not knittd

6202.11

Womens/girls overcoats&sim articles of wool/fine animal hair nt knit

6202.12

Womens/girls overcoats and similar articles of cotton, not knitted

6202.13

Womens/girls overcoats&sim articles of man-made fibres, not knittd

6202.19

Womens/girls overcoats&similar articles of other textile mat, not knit

6202.91

Womens/girls anoraks&similar article of wool/fine animal hair, not knit

6202.92

Womens/girls anoraks and similar article of cotton, not knitted

6202.93

Womens/girls anoraks & similar article of man-made fibres, not knitted

6202.99

Womens/girls anoraks&similar article of oth textile materials, not knit

6203.11

Mens/boys suits, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted

6203.12

Mens/boys suits, of synthetic fibres, not knitted

6203.19

Mens/boys suits, of other textile materials, not knitted

6203.21

Mens/boys ensembles, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted

6203.22

Mens/boys ensembles, of cotton, not knitted

6203.23

Mens/boys ensembles, of synthetic fibres, not knitted

6203.29

Mens/boys ensembles, of other textile materials, not knitted

6203.31

Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted

6203.32

Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of cotton, not knitted

6203.33

Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of synthetic fibres, not knitted

6203.39

Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of other textile materials, not knitted

6203.41

Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted<