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Standards Forensic Toxicology (004.1)

Geldend van 12-12-2016 t/m heden

Standards Forensic Toxicology (004.1)

Version: 3.0
Date of approval: 12 December 2016
Date of effect: 12 December 2016

Part I. General Introduction to Standards

§ 1. Background to and aim of the Standards

Reporting forensic experts play a crucial role in the administration of justice. The NRGD aims to ensure justified confidence in forensic expertise for stakeholders. This confidence must be based on the demonstrable independently safeguarded quality of forensic investigators and their reports on the basis of (inter)national forensic-specific standards.

The NRGD is managed by the Board of Court Experts (hereinafter: Board). The Board’s core task is to rule on the applications for registration or repeat registration in the register of the NRGD (register). To that end the Board first defines the field of expertise. This is important in order to inform applicants, assessors and users of the register (e.g. judge, public prosecutor and attorney) about the activities an expert in the field of expertise in question engages in and about the activities that fall outside the field of expertise. The demarcation of the field of expertise is set out in Part II of these Standards.

The Board also determines the criteria on the basis of which an assessment is made for each field of expertise as to whether an application complies with the quality requirements. The generic requirements are set out in the Register of Court Experts in Criminal Cases Decree (Besluit register deskundige in strafzaken). These requirements are elaborated further for each field of expertise. This elaboration is set out in Part III of these Standards.

Furthermore the Board determines the assessment procedure. This procedure is described in Part IV of these Standards.

The NRGD has a system of periodic repeat registration. Court experts must demonstrate every five years that they still meet the requirements in force at that time. The Standards are dynamic and are being developed further in order to enhance the quality of the experts. These Standards set out the current state of the (sub-)field of expertise.

§ 2. Types of applicants

The NRGD distinguishes two types of applicants: the initial applicant and the repeat applicant. The initial applicant is a reporter who at the time of submission of the application is not yet registered in the register for the field of expertise to which the application relates. The repeat applicant is an expert who is already registered in the register for the field of expertise to which the application relates.

These two types of applicants are subdivided as follows:

Initial applicant:

  • (i) independent reporter: a reporter who has independently written and signed the required number of case reports;

  • (ii) reporter without work of his own: a reporter who has not independently written and signed the number of case reports required for registration.

    If the assessment is favourable, the reporter without work of his own will only qualify for temporary registration.

Repeat applicant:

  • (i) Repeat applicant after unconditional registration (before: full registration);

  • (ii) Repeat applicant after conditional registration (before: temporary registration).

The initial applicant is an applicant who at the time of submission of the application does not have an NRGD registration. An initial applicant could be:

  • the independently reporting expert;

  • the newly-trained expert;

  • the applicant whose earlier application has been rejected by the Board;

  • the applicant whose registration was previously stricken.

In respect of initial applicants, it is necessary to make a clear distinction between the independent reporter and the reporter without work of his own. An example of a reporter without work of his own is the newly-trained expert. This expert has completed the forensic training (reporter’s training), but has not yet been able to independently write the number of reports required for the assessment because these are written under the supervision of a tutor during the training. Another example of a reporter without work of his own is the reporter whose earlier application was rejected and who has been working (partly) under supervision following this rejection.

The Board adopts the following principle. Every applicant must draw up a List of Case Information. This list must include a specific number of cases in a period specified by the Board immediately preceding the application. If the List of Case Information includes one or more cases which have been prepared under supervision, the applicant will be qualified as a ‘reporter without work of his own’. An additional requirement applies to the applicant who was rejected earlier: the case reports included in the List of Case Information must have been drawn up after the date of the Board’s decision rejecting the earlier application (Policy Framework on Application after Rejection).1

The distinction between the various types of repeat applicants is important in the context of the assessment procedure: the documents a repeat applicant must submit, the composition of the Advisory Committee on Assessment and the assessment method.

§ 3. Justification of Standards

These Standards have been established by the Board in accordance with the Register of Court Experts in Criminal Cases Decree (Besluit register deskundige in strafzaken) and the Experts in Criminal Cases Act (Wet deskundige in strafzaken). Representatives from the various domains were consulted; users (judges, public prosecutors and lawyers) and subject matter experts in the field (professional organisations, representative associations, experts both at home and abroad). The draft of the Standards has also been published on the NRGD website for public consultation.

§ 4. Validity of Standards

The Standards are valid from the date shown on the cover. The validity runs until the moment of publication of a new version. In principle it will be checked annually as being up-to-date. This check can lead to a new version. The aim is to publish the new version no more than once a year.

§ 5. Version management and formal revision history

All changes made to the Standards lead to a new version. Newer versions of (parts of) the Standards are designated with a higher version number.

5.1. Version management

In the case of editorial changes the old version number is increased by 0.1. Editorial changes have no substantive impact. In the case of substantive changes the version number is increased by 1.

5.2. Formal revision history

The revision history starts with version 1.0 as the first formally approved version. Substantive changes made are briefly described in the revision history (Annex C). This makes it possible to trace which Standards are valid at any given moment at all times.

Part II. Demarcation of Forensic Toxicology

§ 1. Introduction

The description of the field Forensic Toxicology is stated below.

§ 2. Core activities

Toxicology describes the fate of substances in – and their potentially harmful effect on – living organisms, with the aim of assessing the risks of exposure to these substances for humans, animals and the environment, and minimising any undesirable effects. Toxicology is an interdisciplinary field of study that is shared among the medical, biological and chemical fields of science, and comprises all chemical compounds (of a biological, mineral or synthetic origin).

Toxicology has a number of subspecialties, such as:

  • Environmental or Ecotoxicology

  • Medical or Human Toxicology

Generally speaking, forensic toxicology is regarded as an area of special interest within the subspecialty of Human or Medical Toxicology.

Forensic toxicology can also be defined as the specific study of the consequences of exposure to substances on behalf of the administration of the law in the widest sense.

For a forensic toxicologist it is extremely important that he/she has an overview of the entire specialist field of toxicology. A forensic toxicologist particularly has to have a command of the principles of clinical toxicology and their application to legal questions. Moreover, knowledge and experience in the field of bio-analytical chemistry is required.

Forensic toxicology is important in criminal and civil law cases -knowledge in the field of administrative and disciplinary law is also relevant- which relate to (a) victim(s) or perpetrator(s).

The core tasks of a forensic toxicologist include consultation on the question at issue, the examination plan, the choice of analysis and the interpretation of the laboratory results.

Key questions in this context are:

  • In the event of an unnatural death: are foreign substances present, which may (partly) have contributed to the death?

  • In the event of non-deceased victims: are foreign substances present and are these detrimental to the victim's health?

  • Are substances present in the body (such as drugs, alcohol, medicines) and what effects can these have on behaviour?

§ 3. Methodology

Pre-analytical phase: choice of sample to be analysed and drawing up a bio analytical examination strategy.

Analytical phase: supervision of the bio-analytical examination by qualified analytical staff. It is of importance that the forensic-toxicological laboratory complies with verifiable quality requirements that have been set in advance, and that said laboratory has been accredited.

Post-analytical phase: the indication of the probability of the bio-analytical results clarifying the described effects. In the process all relevant facts, so far as known from the post-mortem examination, the pre-analytical and analytical phase, and other relevant facts are taken into account. The forensic toxicologist must be aware of the possibilities and limitations of the analysis techniques used.

§ 4. Boundaries of the field of expertise

When reporting as an expert registered for the field of Forensic Toxicology, the expert should be aware of the possibilities and limitations of the techniques and/or specialisations. The expert should also be aware of the pros and cons of these techniques, specialisations and/or developments.

The field of expertise of Drugs comes under that of Toxicology to the extent that it concerns the biological fate of the substance(s) and their effects on human beings.

As regards the above issues for examination, the forensic toxicologist is the first point of contact, which means the forensic toxicologist must be aware that, from the perspective of specialist subareas (for example psychopharmacology), statements can also be made with respect to, for example:

  • the relationship between concentrations of substances and certain effects (such as on behaviour)

  • possible effects of substances in general,

  • the validity of bio-analytical investigation,

  • the estimated degree of exposure,

and must be aware of his limitations compared to other areas of expertise.

§ 5. Registration

The register will state the name of the relevant expert as an expert in the field of Forensic Toxicology.

Part III. Registration requirements for Forensic Toxicology

The general (repeat) registration requirements are given below in italics in the next paragraphs in italics with a reference to Article 12 paragraph 2 in the Register of Court Experts in Criminal Cases Decree (Besluit register deskundige in strafzaken).

An expert will only be registered as an expert in criminal cases upon submission of the application if, in the opinion of the Board, the expert:

  • a. has sufficient knowledge and experience in the field of expertise to which the application relates;

  • b. has sufficient knowledge of and experience in the field of law concerned, and is sufficiently familiar with the position and the role of the expert in this field;

  • c. is able to inform the commissioning party whether, and if so, to what extent the commissioning party’s question at issue is sufficiently clear and capable of investigation in order to be able to answer it on the basis of their specific expertise;

  • d. is able, on the basis of the question at issue, to prepare and carry out an investigation plan in accordance with the applicable standards;

  • e. is able to collect, document, interpret and assess investigative materials and data in a forensic context in accordance with the applicable standards;

  • f. is able to apply the current investigative methods in a forensic context in accordance with the applicable standards

  • g. is able to give a verifiable and well-reasoned case report on the assignment and any other relevant aspects of their expertise in terms which are comprehensible to the commissioning party, both orally and in writing;

  • h. is able to complete an assignment within the stipulated or agreed period.

  • i. is able to carry out the activities as an expert independently, impartially, conscientiously, competently, and in a trustworthy manner.

§ 1. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph a

(...) has sufficient knowledge and experience in the field of expertise to which the application relates.

1.1. Initial: independent reporter

Basic requirements:

– have an academic Master’s degree (preliminary medical-biological training);

– work, for a period of at least 3 years, in a relevant specialist field at the level of a university Master's degree. For example: at hospitals, pharmacies, research laboratories and forensic institutes;

– have obtained the ERT-registration;

– be familiar with the basic concepts from the areas referred to in Annex A, and be aware of any personal limitations of knowledge in these areas;

– be able to refer matters on to examiners in certain adjacent toxicological fields of expertise, such as environmental toxicology or veterinary toxicology;

– mention membership of a relevant professional association upon application.

   
Specific requirements:

– demonstrably have interpreted and reported a minimum of 10 case reports1 in the preceding 5 years that have been subjected to collegial review;

In case the applicant is also acting as a supervisor, at least two reports on the List of Case Information should be independently prepared reports.

– have spent an average of 40 hours a year over the past 5 years on forensically relevant professional development (e.g. publications, attending conferences, running or attending courses).

1 In these instances the applicant should have played a demonstrable role in the pre-analytical and/or analytical and/or post-analytical part of the investigation (as far as applicable) involving a complex substantive interpretation. This excludes, for example, reporting a measured result without interpretation. In this sense, ‘interpretation’ does not refer to the comparison of a threshold value. In the process, all relevant facts, as far as known from the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phase, and other relevant factors are taken into account, with reference to the scientific literature. An applicant should have recent experience of interpreting and reporting cases at the time of his application for registration.

1.2. Initial: reporter without work of his own

Basic requirements:

– have an academic Master’s degree (preliminary medical-biological training);

– work, for a period of at least 3 years, in a relevant specialist field at the level of a university Master's degree. For example: at hospitals, pharmacies, research laboratories and forensic institutes;

– have obtained the ERT-registration;

– be familiar with the basic concepts from the areas referred to in Annex A, and be aware of any personal limitations of knowledge in these areas;

– be able to refer matters on to examiners in certain adjacent toxicological fields of expertise, such as environmental toxicology or veterinary toxicology;

– mention membership of a relevant professional association upon application.

   
Specific requirements:

– have concluded training on forensic reporting;

– demonstrably have interpreted and reported a minimum of 4 case reports² in the preceding 2 years that have been subjected to collegial review;

– having spent an average of 40 hours a year over the past 2 years on forensically relevant professional development (e.g. attending conferences, running or attending courses, publications).

1.3. Repeat applicant: after unconditional registration

Basic requirements:

– have an academic Master’s degree (preliminary medical-biological training);

– work, for a period of at least 3 years, in a relevant specialist field at the level of a university Master's degree. For example: at hospitals, pharmacies, research laboratories and forensic institutes;

– have obtained the ERT-registration;

– be familiar with the basic concepts from the areas referred to in Annex A, and be aware of any personal limitations of knowledge in these areas;

– be able to refer matters on to examiners in certain adjacent toxicological fields of expertise, such as environmental toxicology or veterinary toxicology;

– mention membership of a relevant professional association upon application.

   
Specific requirements:

– demonstrably have interpreted and reported a minimum of 10 case reports² in the preceding 5 years that have been subjected to collegial review;

– an average of 40 hours a year over the past 5 years on forensically relevant professional development (e.g. attending conferences, running or attending courses, publications).

1.4. Repeat applicant: after conditional registration

Basic requirements:

– have an academic Master’s degree (preliminary medical-biological training);

– work, for a period of at least 3 years, in a relevant specialist field at the level of a university Master's degree. For example: at hospitals, pharmacies, research laboratories and forensic institutes;

– have obtained the ERT-registration;

– be familiar with the basic concepts from the areas referred to in Annex A, and be aware of any personal limitations of knowledge in these areas;

– be able to refer matters on to examiners in certain adjacent toxicological fields of expertise, such as environmental toxicology or veterinary toxicology;

– mention membership of a relevant professional association upon application.

   
Specific requirements:

– demonstrably have interpreted and reported a minimum of 4 case reports in the preceding 2 years that have been subjected to collegial review;

– an average of 40 hours per year in principle during the past 2 years on professional development (e.g. attending conferences, running or attending courses, publications).

§ 2. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph b

(...) has sufficient knowledge of and experience in the field of law concerned, and is sufficiently familiar with the position and the role of the expert in this field.
  • In general an applicant should have adequate knowledge of Dutch criminal law:

    • context of criminal law:

      • Trias Politica, distinction between civil law, administrative law and criminal law.

    • criminal law procedure:

      • pre-trial investigation;

      • coercive measures;

      • stages of the proceedings;

      • actors in the criminal justice system (tasks/powers/responsibilities);

      • regulations concerning experts laid down in the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure (position and powers of commissioning party, legal position of expert, position and powers of lawyer, forms of counter-analysis, register of experts in the context of criminal law);

      • legal decision-making framework of the court in criminal cases (decision-making schedule laid down in Section 350 of the Dutch Criminal Code of Procedure), also with a view to the relevance of the commission to the expert and to the question at issue;

      • course of the criminal trial;

      • position of the expert in the court procedure.

    • substantive criminal law:

      • sanctions and grounds for exemption from criminal liability (very basic).

    • knowledge of the legal context of safeguarding the quality of the expert and the analysis/investigation:

      • position and role of the co-operating organisations in the criminal justice system in safeguarding the quality of the reports;

      • professional codes and relevant regulations in relation to the NRGD Code of Conduct.

  • In addition to the above requirements, an applicant for the field of expertise Forensic Toxicology:

    • should be familiar with the relevant Dutch Medicines Act, Opium Act, Road Traffic Act, Regulation Investigation regarding Blood and Urine, Regulation Breath Analysis and/or other legislation relating to traffic and transport and keep abreast of new legislation.

§ 3. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph c

(...) is able to inform the commissioning party whether, and if so, to what extent the commissioning party’s question at issue is sufficiently clear and capable of investigation in order to be able to answer it on the basis of their specific expertise.

§ 4. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph d

(...) is able, on the basis of the question at issue, to prepare and carry out an investigation plan in accordance with the applicable standards.

§ 5. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph e

(...) is able to collect, document, interpret and assess investigative materials and data in a forensic context in accordance with the applicable standards.

§ 6. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph f

(...) is able to apply the current investigative methods in a forensic context in accordance with the applicable standards.

§ 7. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph g

(...) is able to give a verifiable and well-reasoned case report on the assignment and any other relevant aspects of their expertise in terms which are comprehensible to the commissioning party, both orally and in writing.

An applicant should:

  • be able, on the basis of the results, to report to a non-expert about an interpretation and conclusion (both in writing and verbally) and should be able to support these with statistics where relevant;

  • if necessary, ask for more information about the case and should know the limitations of his expertise.

§ 8. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph h

(...) is able to complete an assignment within the stipulated or agreed period.

§ 9. Article 12(2) sub-paragraph i

(...) is able to carry out the activities as an expert independently, impartially, conscientiously, competently, and in a trustworthy manner.

An applicant should:

  • comply with the NRGD Code of Conduct determined by the Board of Court Experts and published on the website of the NRGD.

§ 10. Hardship clause

The Board may decide not to apply or deviate from a registration requirement if application of such requirement would produce very unreasonable results. The hardship clause may only offer a solution in certain exceptional situations. It is up to the applicant himself to submit facts and circumstances showing that a certain registration requirement is unreasonable in his specific case.

Part IV. Assessment procedure for Forensic Toxicology

§ 1. General

In all fields of expertise the assessment will be based on the written information provided, including as a minimum requirement case reports and items of evidence, supplemented in principle with an oral assessment. However, such an oral assessment will not be necessary if the applicant's expertise has already been clearly demonstrated by the written information.

The assessment will in principle be carried out on the basis of the information provided by the applicant:

  • general information as part of the application package

  • documentary evidence of competence.

An additional case report and/or information can be requested if it is felt necessary in the context of the assessment.

If it is felt necessary in the context of the assessment an additional case report and/or information, for example information about the way collegial review and/or supervision is organized at your organization, can be requested.

§ 2. Assessment procedure per type of applicant

2.1. Initial: independent reporter

Documents to be submitted:

– NRGD application form;

– Statement accompanying the application for registration with the NRGD;

– Certificate of Good Conduct;

– a clearly legible copy of a valid passport or identity card;

– a curriculum vitae (CV), preferably in English;

– copies of documents relating to the highest level of professional qualification;

– Overview Continued Professional Development Forensic Toxicology;

– certificates of education and experience (including the ERT-registration);

– List of Case Information Forensic Toxicology;

– 3 case reports selected by the applicant from the List of Case Information Forensic Toxicology. These case reports should provide a clear and broad picture of the applicant’s competencies. If possible the case reports should also contain the testimony delivered in court;

– if available:

° proof of the forms of professional development referred to in the Overview Continued Professional Development Forensic Toxicology.

   
Assessment method:

phase a. administrative, by the NRGD Bureau;

phase b. substantive, by an Advisory Committee for Assessment (ACA) made up of at least three people on the basis of the available written material, including possible supplementary written information. In principle this ACA consists of a lawyer and two professional assessors;

phase c. substantive, by the ACA specified at phase b by means of an oral assessment. This oral assessment will be waived if the applicant’s expertise has already been clearly established in phase b;

phase d. decision by the Board: registration, conditional registration or no registration.

Explanation:

If the ACA has to assess an application after an earlier rejection, a new ACA will be formed if possible. This ACA will not be allowed to inspect the advice given by the previous ACA.

2.2. Initial: reporter without work of his own

Documents to be submitted:

– NRGD application form;

– Statement accompanying the application for registration with the NRGD;

– Certificate of Good Conduct;

– a clearly legible copy of a valid passport or identity card;

– a curriculum vitae (CV), preferably in English;

– copies of documents relating to the highest level of professional qualification;

– Overview Continued Professional Development Forensic Toxicology;

– certificates of education and experience (including the ERT-registration);

– List of Case Information Forensic Toxicology;

– 3 case reports selected by the applicant from the List of Case Information Forensic Toxicology. These case reports should provide a clear and broad picture of the applicant’s competencies. If possible the case reports should also contain the testimony delivered in court;

– if available:

proof of the forms of professional development referred to in the Overview Continued Professional Development Forensic Toxicology.

   
Assessment method:

phase a. administrative, by the NRGD Bureau;

phase b. substantive, by an Advisory Committee for Assessment (ACA) made up of at least three people on the basis of the available written material, including possible supplementary written information. In principle this ACA consists of a lawyer and two professional assessors;

phase c. substantive, by the ACA specified at phase b to which one professional assessor is added, drawn from the same field of expertise as the applicant, on the basis of the available written material. This will not be necessary if the ACA unanimously gives a positive recommendation to the Board in phase b;

phase d. substantive, by the ACA specified at phase c by means of an oral assessment. This oral assessment will be waived if the applicant’s expertise has been clearly established in phase c;

phase e. decision by the Board: conditional registration or no

registration.

   

Explanation:

If the ACA has to assess an application after an earlier rejection, a new ACA will be formed if possible. This ACA will not be allowed to inspect the advice given by the previous ACA.

2.3. Repeat applicant: after unconditional registration

Documents to be submitted:

– NRGD application form;

– Certificate of Good Conduct;

– an updated curriculum vitae (CV), preferably in English;

– copies of documents relating to the highest level of professional qualification (if changed);

– Overview Continued Professional Development Forensic Toxicology;

– certificates of education and experience (including the ERT-registration);

– List of Case Information;

– 2 case reports selected by the applicant from the List of Case Information Forensic Toxicology. These case reports should provide a clear and broad picture of the applicant’s competencies. If possible the case reports should also contain the testimony delivered in court;

– if available:

proof of the forms of professional development referred to in the Overview Continued Professional Development Forensic Toxicology.

   
Assessment method:

phase a. administrative, by the NRGD Bureau;

phase b. substantive, by an Advisory Committee for Assessment (ACA) made up of at least two people on the basis of the available written material. This ACA will in principle consist of a lawyer and a professional assessor;

phase c. substantive, by the ACA specified at phase b to which one professional assessor is added, drawn from the same field of expertise as the applicant, on the basis of the available written material. This will not be necessary if the ACA unanimously gives a positive recommendation to the Board in phase b;

phase d. substantive, by the ACA specified at phase c by means of an oral assessment. This oral assessment will be waived if the applicant’s expertise has been clearly established in phase c;

phase e. decision by the Board: registration, conditional registration or no registration.

Explanation:

A new ACA will be formed if possible. This ACA will not be allowed to inspect the advice given by the previous ACA.

2.4. Repeat applicant: after conditional registration

Documents to be submitted:

– NRGD application form;

– Certificate of Good Conduct;

– an updated curriculum vitae (CV), preferably in English;

– copies of documents relating to the highest level of professional qualification (if changed);

– Overview Continued Professional Development Forensic Toxicology;

– certificates of education and experience (including the ERT-registration);

– List of Case Information Forensic Toxicology;

– 2 case reports selected by the applicant from the List of Case Information Forensic Toxicology. These case reports should provide a clear and broad picture of the applicant’s competencies. If possible the case reports should also contain the testimony delivered in court;

– if available:

– proof of the forms of professional development referred to in the Overview Continued Professional Development Forensic Toxicology.

   
Assessment method:

phase a. administrative, by the NRGD Bureau;

phase b. substantive, by an Advisory Committee for Assessment (ACA) made up of at least three people on the basis of the available written material. In principle this ACA consists of a lawyer and two professional assessors;

phase c. substantive, by the ACA specified at phase b by means of an oral assessment. This oral assessment will be waived if the applicant’s expertise has already been clearly established;

phase d. decision by the Board: registration, conditional registration or no registration.

Explanation:

A new ACA will be formed if possible. This ACA will be allowed to inspect the advice given by the previous ACA.

Annex A. Summary of conceptsin forensic toxicology

This document contains keywords of concepts of which an expert in the field of Forensic Toxicology should minimally have a basic knowledge.

1. Human biology

– Anatomy, physiology, biochemistry

2. Pathology

  • Pathophysiology and biochemical pathology

  • Clinical chemistry

  • Basics of pathological anatomy

3. Pharmacology and Toxicology

  • Pharmaco/toxicodynamics

  • Pharmaco/toxicokinetics, including the effect of dosage forms (biopharmacy)

  • Pharmaco/toxicogenetics

  • Chemical structures: structure-activity relationships, working mechanisms, metabolism of xenobiotics

  • General toxicology: acute versus chronic toxicity; carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity

  • Clinical toxicology: symptoms and therapy in the event of overdose organ toxicity, side effects, interactions, addiction and habituation, effects of drugs on behaviour, clinical chemistry (influence of poisoning on clinical-chemical parameters)

  • Pathophysiology and biochemical pathology

  • Epidemiology of acute poisoning

  • Risk assessment of possible poisonous substances

4. Post-mortem toxicology

  • Sampling, choice of material to be examined and analysed (in this context the interpretation of autopsy and necropsy/legal post-mortem results are important)

  • Post-mortem processes in bodily material (causes and effects)

5. Bio-analytical investigation

  • Method development and method specifications (quality, quantity): pre-treatment, separation and detection

  • Method validation: quality requirements

  • Quality control

  • Stability: storing, preserving

  • Certification and accreditation

  • External Quality Assurance

Annex B. NRGD glossary

Advisory Committee for Assessment

A committee appointed by the Board which advises the Board on the (repeat) applicant’s (degree of) suitability for (repeat) registration.

Applicant

Natural person submitting an application to the NRGD in order to be (re-) registered in the register.

Assessor

A member of an Advisory Committee for Assessment.

Board

The Board of Court Experts is the body as referred to in Section 51k(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure and is charged with managing the register.

Brdis

Register of Court Experts in Criminal Cases Decree (Besluit register deskundige in strafzaken).

Bureau

The NRGD Bureau that supports the Board.

Collegial review

The assessment of another person’s work for the purpose of continuous quality control of a person’s expertise. There is thereby not a hierarchical but a horizontal relationship between colleagues specialised in the same subject area. The reviewer does not sign the report.

Conditional registration

The registration of an expert for a period specified by the

Board and possibly under certain conditions which must be

met within that period. In principle the period to be specified

by the Board is two years.

Continuous professional development

All (training) activities that contribute to the ongoing development of knowledge and skills, which is desirable and necessary in order to be able to continue performing the role of court expert in a professional manner.

Independent reporter

A reporter who has independently prepared and signed the required number of case reports

Initial applicant

An applicant who makes an application to be entered in the register and does not or not yet have an NRGD registration at the time when the application is made.

Intervision

Intervision is a structured (interdisciplinary) meeting between people who are working or training in the same professional area. The subject of discussion is in any case the forensic work carried out and the associated problems. The aim is to enhance the expertise of those involved and improve quality of work. Unlike supervision, there is no hierarchical relationship between the participants.

NRGD

The Netherlands Register of Court Experts of which the Board and the Bureau form part.

Register

The national public register as referred to in Section 51 k(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, which lists the court experts which the Board deems suitable.

Registered expert

An expert who is entered in the register.

Registration

Entry in the register.

Repeat applicant

An expert who at the time of submitting a repeat application already has a NRGD registration, possibly for a conditional registration.

Reporter

An individual who issues a report for the administration of justice and/or gives testimony in court.

Reporter training

A coherent and structured arrangement of organised training activities in which the necessary knowledge and experience are acquired to report as a court expert in criminal law proceedings and that is completed by an exam.

Reporter with no own work

A reporter who has not independently completed and signed the number of case reports required for registration.

Supervision

The assessment of another person’s work, the joint consideration of the work and the supervision of a supervisee as part of a training or additional training process. Supervisor and supervisee are thereby in a hierarchical relationship. The supervisor will observe the subject of the investigation (the investigated person) in such a way that they can check the supervisee’s investigation, and can endorse and take responsibility for the conclusions thereof. The supervisor will sign the report in all cases.

User

Someone who uses the register in order to find and potentially engage a registered expert.

Annex C. Revision history

Version

Date

Revisions made

3.0

12.12.2016

Generic adjustments:

– addition: Part I Generic Introduction

– adjusted description of types of applicants: independent/work of his own

– differentiation per types of applicants to provide an immediate overview of respective requirements (Part III) and assessment procedure (Part IV)

– number of case reports adjusted because of extending the registration period;

– Continued Professional Development (CPD) mandatory for all types of applicants

– possibility to submit profiles that were interpreted and reported on under supervision

– possibility to submit profiles that were interpreted and reported on under the supervision of the applicant

– integration of several NRGD policy frameworks in Standards

– selection of case reports by applicants themselves.

2.0

01.03.2015

Generic adjustments:

– Continued professional development;

– Collegial review.

1.0

01.03.2011

First edition

  • ^ [1]

    It is possible to make an exception to this general rule, namely in case of an earlier rejection pursuant to Article 12(2), sub-paragraph a, of the Register of Court Experts in Criminal Cases, the so-called training requirement. Reports written before the date of the Board’s decision rejecting the earlier application may be included in the List of Case Information, provided that they were drawn up within the generally applicable period preceding the time of submission of the new application.